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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805670/appetite-and-gut-hormones-response-to-a-putative-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-salacia-chinensis-in-overweight-obese-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Lihong Hao, Yvette Schlussel, Krista Fieselmann, Stephen H Schneider, Sue A Shapses
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768713/a-meta-analysis-and-review-examining-a-possible-role-for-oxidative-stress-and-singlet-oxygen-in-diverse-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Athinoula L Petrou, Athina Terzidaki
From kinetic data (k, T) we calculated the thermodynamic parameters for various processes (nucleation, elongation, fibrillization, etc.) of proteinaceous diseases that are related to the β-amyloid protein (Alzheimer's), to tau protein (Alzheimer's, Pick's), to α-synuclein (Parkinson's), prion, amylin (type II diabetes), and to α-crystallin (cataract). Our calculations led to ΔG(≠) values that vary in the range 92.8-127 kJ mol(-1) at 310 K. A value of ∼10-30 kJ mol(-1) is the activation energy for the diffusion of reactants, depending on the reaction and the medium...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754022/unfolding-novel-mechanisms-of-polyphenol-flavonoids-for-better-glycaemic-control-targeting-pancreatic-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-iapp
#3
REVIEW
Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle modification programs. Accordingly, an increased consumption of fruits and plant-derived foods has been advocated, as their intake is inversely correlated with T2D prevalence; this has been attributed, in part, to their contained polyphenolic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739611/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-benign-pancreatic-lesion-containing-amyloid
#4
David Kim, Terri Crook, Zeeshan Ramzan
We present a unique case of a benign pancreatic lesion which was positive for amyloid in a 55-year-old female patient without systemic amyloidosis. Further testing revealed islet-type amyloid polypeptide (or amylin), a protein found in various diseases such as diabetes, insulinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma-none of which was seen in our patient.
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#5
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696548/brain-microvascular-injury-and-white-matter-disease-provoked-by-diabetes-associated-hyperamylinemia
#6
Han Ly, Nirmal Verma, Fengen Wu, Miao Liu, Kathryn E Saatman, Peter T Nelson, John T Slevin, Larry B Goldstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Florin Despa
OBJECTIVE: The brain blood vessels of patients with type 2 diabetes and dementia have deposition of amylin, an amyloidogenic hormone cosecreted with insulin. It is not known whether vascular amylin deposition is a consequence or a trigger of vascular injury. We tested the hypothesis that the vascular amylin deposits cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular injury and are modulated by amylin transport in the brain via plasma apolipoproteins. METHODS: Rats overexpressing amyloidogenic (human) amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and amylin knockout (AKO) rats intravenously infused with aggregated amylin were used for in vivo phenotyping...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694840/hepatic-adipocyte-enteric-and-pancreatic-hormones-response-to-dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-relationship-with-metabolism
#7
Bridget M Hron, Cara B Ebbeling, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize the effects of dietary macronutrient composition on various hormones implicated in the regulation of insulin sensitivity (IS) and energy expenditure (EE). METHODS: Following 10-15% weight loss, 21 overweight subjects consumed 3 weight-loss maintenance diets [low fat (LF), low glycemic index (LGI) and very low carbohydrate (VLC)] in random order, each for 4 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each treatment period, fasting samples for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein (SFRP-4), total bile acids, ghrelin, gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), peptide-Y, and amylin; hepatic and peripheral IS; and EE were obtained...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694141/amylin-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Wen Fu, Aarti Patel, Ryoichi Kimura, Rania Soudy, Jack H Jhamandas
Alzheimer'sdisease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by senile plaques constituting extracellular deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrils. Since Aβ accumulation in the brain is considered an early event preceding, by decades, cognitive dysfunction, disease-modifying treatments are aimed at facilitating clearance of this protein from the brain or ameliorating its toxic effects. Recent studies have identified the amylin receptor as a capable mediator of the deleterious actions of Aβ and furthermore, administration of amylin receptor-based peptides has been shown to improve spatial memory and learning in transgenic mouse models of AD...
July 7, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692245/insight-into-a-new-binding-site-of-zinc-ions-in-fibrillar-amylin
#9
Vered Wineman-Fisher, Yifat Miller
Amylin peptides are secreted together with insulin and zinc ions from pancreatic β-cells. Under unknown conditions, the amylin peptides aggregate to produce oligomers and fibrils, and in some cases Zn(2+) ions can bind to amylin peptides to form Zn(2+)-aggregate complexes. Consequently, these aggregates lead to the death of the β-cells and a decrease in insulin, which is one of the symptoms of type-2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the binding sites of the Zn(2+) ions in fibrillary amylin...
July 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690913/ghrelin-amylin-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-and-cognition-in-middle-aged-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#10
Samy I McFarlane, Michelle M Mielke, Anthony Uglialoro, Sheila M Keating, Susan Holman, Howard Minkoff, Howard A Crystal, Deborah R Gustafson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the gut-brain axis by examining gut hormone levels and cognitive test scores in women with (HIV+) and without (HIV-) HIV infection. DESIGN/METHODS: Participants included 356 women (248 HIV+, 108 at risk HIV-) in the Brooklyn Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with measured levels of ghrelin, amylin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between gut hormones and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score (WRAT), CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity...
February 2017: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685025/gut-hormones-such-as-amylin-and-glp-1-in-the-control-of-eating-and-energy-expenditure
#11
REVIEW
T A Lutz
The control of meal size is the best studied aspect of the control of energy balance, and manipulation of this system constitutes a promising target to treat obesity. A major part of this control system is based on gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or amylin, which are released in response to a meal and which limit the size of an ongoing meal. Both amylin and GLP-1 have also been shown to increase energy expenditure in experimental rodents, but mechanistically we know much less how this effect may be mediated, which brain sites may be involved, and what the physiological relevance of these findings may be...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674532/changes-in-host-immune-endocrine-relationships-during-tuberculosis-treatment-in-patients-with-cured-and-failed-treatment-outcomes
#12
Léanie Kleynhans, Sheena Ruzive, Lizaan Ehlers, Lani Thiart, Novel N Chegou, Magda Conradie, Magdalena Kriel, Kim Stanley, Gian D van der Spuy, Martin Kidd, Paul D van Helden, Gerhard Walzl, Katharina Ronacher
A bidirectional communication between the immune and endocrine systems exists and facilitates optimum responses in the host during infections. This is in part achieved through changes in secretion patterns of hypothalamic hormones induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to elucidate the immune-endocrine alterations during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with cured and failed TB treatment outcomes. Blood samples were collected from 27 cured and 10 failed patients and hormone as well as cytokine concentrations quantified at baseline, week 4, and month 6 of TB treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672144/zn-ii-pramlintide-stability-binding-sites-and-unexpected-aggregation
#13
D Łoboda, M Rowińska-Żyrek
Pramlintide is an antidiabetic drug which mimics amylin - a small peptide co-secreted from pancreatic β-cells together with insulin, one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. In the course of the disease, amylin misfolds into small oligomers or to an aggregated β-sheet amyloid fiber. The misfolding mechanism is not yet quite understood, but it is clear that zinc ions play an important role in the process. This work sheds new light on the role of zinc and pramlintide in the course of the disease, giving a detailed description of the Zn(II)-pramlintide complex, in which the metal ion binds to the imidazole of His18 and the amine group of Lys1, imposing a bend in the peptide between these residues...
September 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655134/multiple-mechanisms-linking-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-testosterone-as-a-modifier
#14
Prita R Asih, Michelle L Tegg, Hamid Sohrabi, Malcolm Carruthers, Samuel E Gandy, Farid Saad, Giuseppe Verdile, Lars M Ittner, Ralph N Martins
Evidence in support of links between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased considerably in recent years. AD pathological hallmarks include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain, which are hypothesized to promote inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal loss. T2DM exhibits many AD pathological features, including reduced brain insulin uptake, lipid dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and depression; T2DM has also been shown to increase AD risk, and with increasing age, the prevalence of both conditions increases...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647674/in-pregnancy-increased-maternal-stai-trait-stress-score-shows-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-increased-stress-hormones
#15
Georgios Valsamakis, Dimitrios C Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Chalarakis, Nikolaos Vrachnis, Elpida J Sidiropoulou, Maria Manolikaki, Aimilia Mantzou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, George Mastorakos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic or acute stressors influence maternal and fetal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes (HPA) during pregnancy. In this study, the effect of maternal stress into maternal insulin sensitivity was investigated during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two pregnant women [aged 27.1±2.5 (mean±SD) yrs; BMI=25±2.2kg/m(2)] had at the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters anthropometry, fasting blood samples (cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), active amylin, Interleukin (IL6)), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for glucose and insulin, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) trait and state questionnaires (for stress assessment)...
October 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635419/multimodal-imaging-gd-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-pittsburgh-compound-b-or-a-nanobody-for-amyloid-plaques-targeting
#16
Jonathan Pansieri, Marie Plissonneau, Nathalie Stransky-Heilkron, Mireille Dumoulin, Laurence Heinrich-Balard, Pascaline Rivory, Jean-François Morfin, Eva Toth, Maria Joao Saraiva, Eric Allémann, Olivier Tillement, Vincent Forge, François Lux, Christel Marquette
AIM: Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were functionalized with either the Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody (B10AP) in order to create multimodal tools for an early diagnosis of amyloidoses. MATERIALS & METHODS: The ability of the functionalized nanoparticles to target amyloid fibrils made of β-amyloid peptide, amylin or Val30Met-mutated transthyretin formed in vitro or from pathological tissues was investigated by a range of spectroscopic and biophysics techniques including fluorescence microscopy...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#17
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614667/n-glycosylation-of-asparagine-130-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-the-human-calcitonin-receptor-significantly-increases-peptide-hormone-affinity
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sang-Min Lee, Jason M Booe, Joseph J Gingell, Virginie Sjoelund, Debbie L Hay, Augen A Pioszak
The calcitonin receptor (CTR) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by the peptide hormones calcitonin and amylin. Calcitonin regulates bone remodeling through CTR, whereas amylin regulates blood glucose and food intake by activating CTR in complex with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). These receptors are targeted clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and diabetes. Here, we define the role of CTR N-glycosylation in hormone binding using purified calcitonin and amylin receptor extracellular domain (ECD) glycoforms and fluorescence polarization/anisotropy and isothermal titration calorimetry peptide-binding assays...
July 5, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602190/probing-amylin-fibrillation-at-an-early-stage-via-a-tetracysteine-recognising-fluorophore
#19
Shih-Ting Wang, Yiyang Lin, Chia-Chen Hsu, Nadav Amdursky, Christopher D Spicer, Molly M Stevens
Amyloid fibrillation is a nucleation-dependent process known be involved in the development of more than 20 progressive and chronic diseases. The detection of amyloid formation at the nucleation stage can greatly advance early diagnoses and treatment of diseases. In this work, we developed a new assay for the early detection of amylin fibrillation using the biarsenical dye 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithiarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH), which could recognise tetracysteine motifs and transform from non-fluorescent form into strongly fluorescent complexes...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599848/dynamic-membrane-interactions-of-antibacterial-and-antifungal-biomolecules-and-amyloid-peptides-revealed-by-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
REVIEW
Akira Naito, Nobuaki Matsumori, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
A variety of biomolecules acting on the cell membrane folds into a biologically active structure in the membrane environment. It is, therefore, important to determine the structures and dynamics of such biomolecules in a membrane environment. While several biophysical techniques are used to obtain low-resolution information, solid-state NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful means for determining the structure and dynamics of membrane bound biomolecules such as antibacterial biomolecules and amyloidogenic proteins; unlike X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy, applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy are not limited by non-crystalline, non-soluble nature or molecular size of membrane-associated biomolecules...
June 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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