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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165344/high-throughput-identification-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-amphibious-mudskippers
#1
Yunhai Yi, Xinxin You, Chao Bian, Shixi Chen, Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Qiong Shi
Widespread existence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been reported in various animals with comprehensive biological activities, which is consistent with the important roles of AMPs as the first line of host defense system. However, no big-data-based analysis on AMPs from any fish species is available. In this study, we identified 507 AMP transcripts on the basis of our previously reported genomes and transcriptomes of two representative amphibious mudskippers, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (BP) and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus (PM)...
November 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148557/structural-and-thermodynamical-properties-of-early-human-amylin-oligomers-using-replica-exchange-molecular-dynamics-mutation-effect-of-three-key-residues-f15-h18-and-f23
#2
S Bouzakraoui, N Mousseau
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a 37-residue polypeptide, considered to be the main component of the pancreatic islet amyloid associated with type 2 diabetes and is one of the most amyloidogenic polypeptides known. Although the structure of hIAPP fibrils has already been obtained, structures of early oligomers and the mechanism of β-sheet formation remain poorly understood. Herein, we characterize the atomic structure and the thermodynamics of the 14-37 residue fragment of hIAPP wild-type and mutated dimers and trimers...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147551/development-of-proteolytically-stable-n-methylated-peptide-inhibitors-of-aggregation-of-the-amylin-peptide-implicated-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Idira Obasse, Mark Taylor, Nigel J Fullwood, David Allsop
Islet amyloid polypeptide, also known as amylin, is the main component of the amyloid deposits present in approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this disease, amylin aggregates into multimeric β-pleated sheet structures which cause damage to pancreatic islet β-cells. Inhibitors of early-stage amylin aggregation could therefore provide a disease-modifying treatment for T2DM. In this study, overlapping peptides were designed to target the 'binding' region (RLANFLVHSS, residues 11-20) of human amylin, and their effects on amyloid fibril formation were determined by thioflavin-T assay...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134283/investigation-of-the-relation-between-bone-mass-density-and-serum-preptin-levels-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#4
Saeed Nazari Soltan Aahmad, Sajjad Nourollahi, Faranak Kazerouni, Nahid Kianmehr, Hamed Hajipour, Davoud Sanajou, Vahid Hosseini
Preptin is a peptide hormone co-secreted with insulin and amylin from pancreatic β cells. It has been demonstrated to have osteogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, serum preptin levels were measured in pre- and postmenopausal women with similar body mass indexes (BMIs) to elucidate its link with bone mineral density (BMD). Sixty women (30 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal) with low bone mineral density were studied. The BMD scores, serum preptin levels and serum estradiol levels were measured...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109040/chronic-chlorpyrifos-exposure-elicits-diet-specific-effects-on-metabolism-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats
#5
Bing Fang, Jin Wang Li, Ming Zhang, Fa Zheng Ren, Guo Fang Pang
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly-used pesticide which was reported to interfere with hormone signaling and metabolism, however, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. In this study, adult male rats fed a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet were exposed to 0.3 or 3.0 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle alone for 9 weeks. Effects on bodyweight, serum levels of glucose, lipid, cytokines, and gut microbiome community structure were measured. The effects of chlorpyrifos on metabolism were dose- and diet-dependent, with NF-fed rats administered the low dose showing the largest metabolic changes...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096069/exercise-training-and-weight-loss-not-always-a-happy-marriage-single-blind-exercise-trials-in-females-with-diverse-bmi
#6
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080075/current-therapies-that-modify-glucagon-secretion-what-is-the-therapeutic-effect-of-such-modifications
#7
REVIEW
Magnus F Grøndahl, Damien J Keating, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglucagonemia contributes significantly to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and suppressed glucagon levels may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Here, we give a brief overview of glucagon physiology and the role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon may be involved in the drugs' efficacy and safety profiles...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072444/a-free-energy-barrier-caused-by-the-refolding-of-an-oligomeric-intermediate-controls-the-lag-time-of-amyloid-formation-by-hiapp
#8
Arnaldo L Serrano, Justin P Lomont, Ling-Hsien Tu, Daniel P Raleigh, Martin T Zanni
Transiently populated oligomers formed en route to amyloid fibrils may constitute the most toxic aggregates associated with many amyloid-associated diseases. Most nucleation theories used to describe amyloid aggregation predict low oligomer concentrations and do not take into account free energy costs that may be associated with structural rearrangements between the oligomer and fiber states. We have used isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to spectrally resolve an oligomeric intermediate during the aggregation of the human islet amyloid protein (hIAPP or amylin), the protein associated with type II diabetes...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067318/cyclic-ac253-a-novel-amylin-receptor-antagonist-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas
INTRODUCTION: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity in vitro and abrogates Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation. METHODS: Amyloid precursor protein-overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066284/amylin-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-amylin-induced-sarcolemmal-ca-2-leak-is-independent-of-diabetic-remodeling-of-myocardium
#10
Miao Liu, Amanda Hoskins, Nirmal Verma, Donald M Bers, Sanda Despa, Florin Despa
Amylin is a pancreatic β-cell hormone co-secreted with insulin, plays a role in normal glucose homeostasis, and forms amyloid in the pancreatic islets of individuals with type-2 diabetes. Aggregated amylin is also found in blood and extra-pancreatic tissues, including myocardium. Myocardial amylin accumulation is associated with myocyte Ca(2+) dysregulation in diabetic rats expressing human amylin. Whether deposition of amylin in the heart is a consequence of or a contributor to diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown...
October 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061224/glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-activity-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Abdulhalim Senyigit, Omur Tabak, Timur Orhanoglu, Aytac Karadag, Serdal Ugurlu, Hafize Uzun, Dildar Konukoglu
PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia is the major risk factor for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This randomized controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate T2DM patients with microvascular complications with regard to possible relations among serum clusterin (CLU), amylin, secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (SFRP-4), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activities. METHODS: Subject groups were defined as follows: T2DM without complications (n=25, F/M=9/16, age 53...
October 19, 2017: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059473/update-on-the-pharmacology-of-calcitonin-cgrp-family-of-peptides-iuphar-review-x
#12
REVIEW
Debbie L Hay, Michael L Garelja, David R Poyner, Christopher S Walker
The calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of peptides includes calcitonin, α and β CGRP, amylin, adrenomedullin (AM) and adrenomedullin 2/intermedin (AM2/IMD). Their receptors consist of one of two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the calcitonin receptor (CTR) or the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). Further diversity arises from heterodimerisation of these GPCRs with one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This gives the CGRP receptor (CLR/RAMP1), the AM1 and AM2 receptors (CLR/RAMP2 or RAMP3) and the AMY1, AMY2 and AMY3 receptors (CTR/RAMPs1-3 complexes, respectively)...
October 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043504/the-molecular-physiopathogenesis-of-islet-amyloidosis
#13
Diti Chatterjee Bhowmick, Sanghamitra Singh, Saurabh Trikha, Aleksandar M Jeremic
Human islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin (hA) is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone produced and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells. Under physiological conditions, hA regulates a broad range of biological processes including insulin release and slowing of gastric emptying, thereby maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, under the pathological conditions associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hA undergoes a conformational transition from soluble random coil monomers to alpha-helical oligomers and insoluble β-sheet amyloid fibrils or amyloid plaques...
October 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023509/effects-of-forcefield-and-sampling-method-in-all-atom-simulations-of-inherently-disordered-proteins-application-to-conformational-preferences-of-human-amylin
#14
Enxi Peng, Nevena Todorova, Irene Yarovsky
Although several computational modelling studies have investigated the conformational behaviour of inherently disordered protein (IDP) amylin, discrepancies in identifying its preferred solution conformations still exist between various forcefields and sampling methods used. Human islet amyloid polypeptide has long been a subject of research, both experimentally and theoretically, as the aggregation of this protein is believed to be the lead cause of type-II diabetes. In this work, we present a systematic forcefield assessment using one of the most advanced non-biased sampling techniques, Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering (REST2), by comparing the secondary structure preferences of monomeric amylin in solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987311/advances-in-diabetes-pharmacotherapy-an-update-for-the-emergency-provider
#15
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Ali Pourmand
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of Americans, and its prevalence is only anticipated to increase in coming years. It is estimated that diabetes-related visits account for 1% of all emergency department (ED) encounters. In recent years, there have been several new categories of medications approved for the treatment of diabetes, including new insulins, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, an amylin analogue, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985759/role-of-microglial-amylin-receptors-in-mediating-beta-amyloid-a%C3%AE-induced-inflammation
#16
Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983871/human-amylin-induces-cd4-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-protection-from-autoimmune-diabetes
#17
Xiao-Xi Zhang, Yong-Chao Qiao, Wan Li, Xia Zou, Yin-Ling Chen, Jian Shen, Qin-Yuan Liao, Qiu-Jin Zhang, Lan He, Hai-Lu Zhao
Autoimmune diabetes is a disorder of immune homeostasis that leads to targeted insulin-secreting islet β cell destruction characterized by insulitis. Human amylin (hA) is an important neuroendocrine hormone co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β cells. Here, we report hA immune-modulatory action through inducing regulatory T cells. We ex vivo-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) with hA for 24 h and counted CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) using flow cytometry. Diabetic status was monitored and splenic Treg were measured in non-obese diabetic (NOD) male mice...
October 5, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934819/the-role-of-gut-hormones-in-diet-induced-weight-change-a-systematic-review
#18
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Xiaokun Gang, You Lv, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Guixia Wang
Gut hormones are known to play an important role in long-term weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. However, the interplay between gut hormones and diet-induced weight changes remains unclear. Our aims were to evaluate the alterations of gut hormones in diet-induced weight loss, weight maintenance, and weight regain periods. Available studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science from inception to October 2016. After selection, 16 studies with 656 participants were included...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920428/inhibition-of-human-amylin-amyloidogenesis-by-human-amylin-fragment-peptides-exploring-the-effects-of-serine-residues-and-oligomerization-upon-inhibitory-potency
#19
Kalkena Sivanesam, Niels H Andersen
To date, fragments from within the amyloidogenic-patch region of human amylin (hAM) have been shown to aggregate independently of the full-length peptide. In this study, we show that under certain conditions, both oligomers of NFGAILSS and the monomeric form are capable of inhibiting the aggregation of the full-length hAM sequence. The inhibition, rather than aggregate seeding, observed with the soluble portion of aged NFGAILSS solutions was particularly striking occurring at far substoichiometric levels. Apparently, the oligomer form of this fragment is responsible for inhibiting the transition from random coil to β-sheet or serves as a disaggregator of hAM β-oligomers...
October 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912908/gastrin-releasing-peptide-and-glucose-metabolism-following-pancreatitis
#20
Sayali A Pendharkar, Marie Drury, Monika Walia, Murray Korc, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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