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Amylin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322009/improvement-of-spatial-learning-and-memory-cortical-gyrification-patterns-and-brain-oxidative-stress-markers-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-ficus-deltoidea-leaf-extract-and-vitexin
#1
S Nurdiana, Y M Goh, A Hafandi, S M Dom, A Nur Syimal'ain, N M Noor Syaffinaz, M Ebrahimi
Despite the fact that Ficus deltoidea and vitexin played important roles in controlling hyperglycemia, an effective mitigation strategy dealing with cognitive deficit observed in diabetes, little is known about its neuroprotective effects. The study is aimed to determine changes in behavioral, gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea and vitexin treatments. Diabetic rats were treated orally with metformin, methanolic extract of F...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315753/localization-of-amylin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-striped-velvet-gecko-pancreas
#2
H Suzuki, T Yamamoto
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactive cells in the pancreas of gecko Homopholis fasciata. Four types of endocrine cells were distinguished: insulin immunoreactive (B cells), pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive (PP cells), glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive (A/PP cells) and somatostatin immunoreactive cells (D cells). Pancreatic islets contained B, A/PP and D cells, whereas extrainsular regions contained B, D and PP cells...
January 8, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250032/involvement-of-amylin-and-leptin-in-the-development-of-projections-from-the-area-postrema-to-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#3
Kathrin Abegg, Andreas Hermann, Christina N Boyle, Sebastien G Bouret, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are important hindbrain centers involved in the control of energy homeostasis. The AP mediates the anorectic action and the inhibitory effect on gastric emptying induced by the pancreatic hormone amylin. Amylin's target cells in the AP project to the NTS, an integrative relay center for enteroceptive signals. Perinatal hormonal and metabolic factors influence brain development. A postnatal surge of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin represents a developmental signal for the maturation of projections between hypothalamic nuclei controlling energy balance...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233636/amylin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathological-peptide-or-potential-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which we currently lack effective treatments or a cure. The pancreatic peptide hormone amylin has recently garnered interest as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of AD. A number of studies have demonstrated that amylin and amylin analogs like the FDA-approved diabetes drug pramlintide can reduce amyloid burden in the brain and improve cognitive symptoms of AD. However, other data suggest that amylin may have pathological effects in AD due to its propensity to misfold and aggregate under certain conditions...
December 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226618/enteroinsular-hormones-in-two-siblings-with-donohue-syndrome-and-complete-leptin-deficiency
#5
M Güemes, S A Rahman, P Shah, K Hussain
The main biochemical hallmark of the rare and lethal condition of Donohue syndrome (DS) is hyperinsulinemia. The roles of the gut and other pancreatic hormones involved in glucose metabolism, satiety and energy expenditure have not been previously reported in DS. Two siblings with genetically confirmed DS and extremely low weight underwent a mixed meal (MM) test where pancreatic hormones insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, active amylin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) as well as gut hormones active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin were analyzed using a Multiplex assay...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221659/cardiovascular-outcomes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#6
M Angelyn Bethel, Rishi A Patel, Peter Merrill, Yuliya Lokhnygina, John B Buse, Robert J Mentz, Neha J Pagidipati, Juliana C Chan, Stephanie M Gustavson, Nayyar Iqbal, Aldo P Maggioni, Peter Öhman, Neil R Poulter, Ambady Ramachandran, Bernard Zinman, Adrian F Hernandez, Rury R Holman
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs. Findings from cardiovascular outcome trials showed cardiovascular safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists, but results for cardiovascular efficacy were varied. We aimed to examine overall cardiovascular efficacy for lixisenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, and extended-release exenatide. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed data from eligible trials that assessed the safety and efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo in adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with type 2 diabetes and had a primary outcome including, but not limited to, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke...
December 5, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210642/antidiabetics-structural-diversity-of-molecules-with-a-common-aim
#7
Jelena B Popovic-Dordevic, Ivana I Jevtic, Tatjana P Stanojkovic
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is an endocrine disease of global proportions which is currently affecting 1 in 12 adults in the world, with still increasing prevalence. World Health Organization (WHO) declared this worldwide health problem, as an epidemic disease, to be the only non-infectious disease with such categorization. People with DMT2 are at increased risk of various complications and have shorter life expectancy. The main classes of oral antidiabetic drugs accessible today for DMT2 vary in their chemical composition, modes of action, safety profiles and tolerability...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210123/differential-modulating-effect-of-mos2-on-the-assemblies-of-amyloid-peptides
#8
Jie Wang, Lei Liu, Hongxing Zhang, Yibang Zhang, Yonghai Feng, Menglin Chen, Mingdong Dong, Daohan Ge
The abnormal fibrillogenesis of amyloid peptides such as amyloid fibril and senior amyloid plaques, is associated with the pathogenesis of many amyloid diseases. Hence, how to modulate amyloid assemblies is considered as an important field related to possible pathogenesis of some diseases. Some two-dimentional nanomaterials, i.e. grapheme oxide, tungsten disulphide, exhibit strong modulation effect on the amyloid fibrillogenesis. Herein, we investigated the modulation effect of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2, a kind of 2D nanomaterials) on two amyloid peptide assemblies based on the label-free techniques, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), AFM and CD...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203236/amylin-its-role-in-the-homeostatic-and-hedonic-control-of-eating-and-recent-developments-of-amylin-analogs-to-treat-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Christina Neuner Boyle, Thomas Alexander Lutz, Christelle Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Amylin is a pancreatic β-cell hormone that produces effects in several different organ systems. One of its best-characterized effects is the reduction in eating and body weight seen in preclinical and clinical studies. Amylin activates specific receptors, a portion of which it shares with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Amylin's role in the control of energy metabolism relates to its satiating effect, but recent data indicate that amylin may also affect hedonic aspects in the control of eating, including a reduction of the rewarding value of food...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201871/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-neuroendocrine-communication-between-the-pancreas-gut-and-brain-in-regulation-of-blood-glucose
#10
Sayali A Pendharkar, Monika Walia, Marie Drury, Maxim S Petrov
Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a ubiquitous neuropeptide, plays a diverse and intricate role in chronic low-grade inflammation, including conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes of the exocrine pancreas. Diabetes of exocrine pancreas is characterised by chronic hyperglycemia and is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of certain pancreatic and gut hormones. While CGRP may regulate glucose homeostasis and the secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones, its role in chronic hyperglycemia after acute pancreatitis (CHAP) is not known...
November 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191090/alterations-in-circadian-and-meal-induced-gut-peptide-levels-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#11
Alexander A Moghadam, Timothy H Moran, Megan J Dailey
Alterations in gut hormone signaling are a likely contributing factor to the metabolic disturbances associated with overweight/obesity as they coordinate the timing of feeding behavior, absorption, and utilization of nutrients. These hormones are released in response to food intake, or follow a circadian or anticipatory pattern of secretion that is independent of nutrient stimulation. The aim of this study was to identify the degree to which high-fat diet-induced obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptide plasma levels (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], insulin or amylin [AMY]) or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle...
December 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171274/spontaneous-lipid-nanodiscs-fomation-by-amphiphilic-polymethacrylate-copolymers
#12
Kazuma Yasuhara, Jin Arakida, Thirupathi Ravula, Sudheer Kumar Ramadugu, Bikash Sahoo, Jun-Ichi Kikuchi, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
There is a growing interest in the use of lipid bilayer nanodiscs for various biochemical and biomedical applications. Among the different types of nanodiscs, the unique features of synthetic polymer-based nanodiscs have attracted additional interest. A styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer demonstrated to form lipid nanodiscs have been used for structural biology related studies on membrane proteins. However, the application of SMA polymer based lipid nanodiscs is limited because of the strong absorption of the aromatic group interfering with various experimental measurements...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170989/modeling-energy-intake-and-body-weight-effects-of-a-long-acting-amylin-analogue
#13
Annika Brings, Jens Markus Borghardt, Jolanta Skarbaliene, Tamara Baader-Pagler, Maria A Deryabina, Wolfgang Rist, Stefan Scheuerer
The inhibitory effect of anti-obesity drugs on energy intake (EI) is counter-acted by feedback regulation of the appetite control circuit leading to drug tolerance. This complicates the design and interpretation of EI studies in rodents that are used for anti-obesity drug development. Here, we investigated a synthetic long-acting analogue of the appetite-suppressing peptide hormone amylin (LAMY) in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. EI and body weight (BW) were measured daily and LAMY concentrations in plasma were assessed using defined time points following subcutaneous administration of the LAMY at different dosing regimens...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165344/high-throughput-identification-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-amphibious-mudskippers
#14
Yunhai Yi, Xinxin You, Chao Bian, Shixi Chen, Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Qiong Shi
Widespread existence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been reported in various animals with comprehensive biological activities, which is consistent with the important roles of AMPs as the first line of host defense system. However, no big-data-based analysis on AMPs from any fish species is available. In this study, we identified 507 AMP transcripts on the basis of our previously reported genomes and transcriptomes of two representative amphibious mudskippers, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (BP) and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus (PM)...
November 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148557/structural-and-thermodynamical-properties-of-early-human-amylin-oligomers-using-replica-exchange-molecular-dynamics-mutation-effect-of-three-key-residues-f15-h18-and-f23
#15
S Bouzakraoui, N Mousseau
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a 37-residue polypeptide, considered to be the main component of the pancreatic islet amyloid associated with type 2 diabetes and is one of the most amyloidogenic polypeptides known. Although the structure of hIAPP fibrils has already been obtained, structures of early oligomers and the mechanism of β-sheet formation remain poorly understood. Herein, we characterize the atomic structure and the thermodynamics of the 14-37 residue fragment of hIAPP wild-type and mutated dimers and trimers...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147551/development-of-proteolytically-stable-n-methylated-peptide-inhibitors-of-aggregation-of-the-amylin-peptide-implicated-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
Idira Obasse, Mark Taylor, Nigel J Fullwood, David Allsop
Islet amyloid polypeptide, also known as amylin, is the main component of the amyloid deposits present in approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this disease, amylin aggregates into multimeric β-pleated sheet structures which cause damage to pancreatic islet β-cells. Inhibitors of early-stage amylin aggregation could therefore provide a disease-modifying treatment for T2DM. In this study, overlapping peptides were designed to target the 'binding' region (RLANFLVHSS, residues 11-20) of human amylin, and their effects on amyloid fibril formation were determined by thioflavin-T assay...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134283/investigation-of-the-relation-between-bone-mass-density-and-serum-preptin-levels-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#17
Saeed Nazari Soltan Aahmad, Sajjad Nourollahi, Faranak Kazerouni, Nahid Kianmehr, Hamed Hajipour, Davoud Sanajou, Vahid Hosseini
Preptin is a peptide hormone co-secreted with insulin and amylin from pancreatic β cells. It has been demonstrated to have osteogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, serum preptin levels were measured in pre- and postmenopausal women with similar body mass indexes (BMIs) to elucidate its link with bone mineral density (BMD). Sixty women (30 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal) with low bone mineral density were studied. The BMD scores, serum preptin levels and serum estradiol levels were measured...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109040/chronic-chlorpyrifos-exposure-elicits-diet-specific-effects-on-metabolism-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats
#18
Bing Fang, Jin Wang Li, Ming Zhang, Fa Zheng Ren, Guo Fang Pang
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly-used pesticide which was reported to interfere with hormone signaling and metabolism, however, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. In this study, adult male rats fed a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet were exposed to 0.3 or 3.0 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle alone for 9 weeks. Effects on bodyweight, serum levels of glucose, lipid, cytokines, and gut microbiome community structure were measured. The effects of chlorpyrifos on metabolism were dose- and diet-dependent, with NF-fed rats administered the low dose showing the largest metabolic changes...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096069/exercise-training-and-weight-loss-not-always-a-happy-marriage-single-blind-exercise-trials-in-females-with-diverse-bmi
#19
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080075/current-therapies-that-modify-glucagon-secretion-what-is-the-therapeutic-effect-of-such-modifications
#20
REVIEW
Magnus F Grøndahl, Damien J Keating, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglucagonemia contributes significantly to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and suppressed glucagon levels may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Here, we give a brief overview of glucagon physiology and the role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon may be involved in the drugs' efficacy and safety profiles...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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