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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445518/use-of-human-fat-grafting-in-the-prevention-of-perineural-adherence-experimental-study-in-athymic-mouse
#1
Mario Cherubino, Igor Pellegatta, Alessandro Crosio, Luigi Valdatta, Stefano Geuna, Rosalba Gornati, Pierluigi Tos
Perineural adherences represent a problem after surgery involving peripheral neural system. Fat-grafting with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) with their pro-regenerative characteristics can be important to prevent the neural damage or to facilitate the neural regeneration. Our idea was to use the fat-grafting as an anti-adherence device and test its efficacy on a postsurgical scar animal model and comparing to an antiadhesive gel. 32 athymic mice were operated under magnification, we exposed both sciatic nerves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#2
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432775/application-for-lower-facial-fat-reduction-and-tightening-by-static-type-monopolar-1-mhz-radio-frequency%C3%A2-for-body-contouring
#3
Jun Sugawara, Seiko Kou, Kenichi Kokubo, Aimi Kuroda, Yoshie Hashizume, Shinji Kobayashi, Jirou Maegawa, Toshihiko Satake
INTRODUCTION: Liposuction and mesotherapy are popular treatments for fat reduction of lower face, but because these treatments are invasive, a novel non-invasive treatment with similar or better efficacy has been sought. There are various devices such as CoolSculpt, laser, RF, and HIFU that are used as non-invasive treatments for fat reduction and body contouring, but these applications have not been applied to facial fat reduction. In this study, we selected Monopolar 1-MHz RF for body contouring to be applied for fat reduction and tightening of the lower face...
April 22, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398512/mutant-spastin-proteins-promote-deficits-in-axonal-transport-through-an-isoform-specific-mechanism-involving-casein-kinase-2-activation
#4
Lanfranco Leo, Carina Weissmann, Matthew Burns, Minsu Kang, Yuyu Song, Liang Qiang, Scott T Brady, Peter W Baas, Gerardo Morfini
Mutations of various genes cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a neurological disease involving dying-back degeneration of upper motor neurons. From these, mutations in the SPAST gene encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin account for most HSP cases. Cumulative genetic and experimental evidence suggests that alterations in various intracellular trafficking events, including fast axonal transport (FAT), may contribute to HSP pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms linking SPAST mutations to such deficits remain largely unknown...
April 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388294/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-to-determine-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-a-thermogenic-supplement-in-addition-to-an-energy-restricted-diet-in-apparently-healthy-females
#5
Kristina L Kendall, Parker N Hyde, Ciaran M Fairman, Kaitlyn M Hollaway, Petey W Mumford, Cody T Haun, Brooks Mobley, Wesley C Kephart, Aaron C Tribby, Dylan Kimber, Jordan R Moon, Darren T Beck, Michael D Roberts, Kaelin C Young
The increasing interest in weight loss has seen a concurrent rise in the supplemental use of thermogenics to aid weight loss efforts. To date, the effectiveness and safety of supplemental proprietary blend thermogenics, in conjunction with high-protein energy-restricted diets have not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a low-calorie, high-protein diet with and without the concomitant use of a thermogenic supplement on body weight and body composition in apparently healthy females...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363838/orexin-activation-counteracts-decreases-in-nonexercise-activity-thermogenesis-neat-caused-by-high-fat-diet
#6
P E Bunney, A N Zink, A A Holm, C J Billington, C M Kotz
Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, including expenditure from spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Changes in SPA and resulting changes in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) likely interact with diet to influence risk for obesity. However, previous research on the relationship between diet, physical activity, and energy expenditure has been mixed. The neuropeptide orexin is a driver of SPA, and orexin neuron activity can be manipulated using DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs)...
March 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323929/human-brown-adipose-tissue-temperature-and-fat-fraction-are-related-to-its-metabolic-activity
#7
Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Teemu Saari, Virva Saunavaara, Olli Eskola, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
Background and Aim: The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG)-PET. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men; 25 to 45 years of age) were studied using PET-magnetic resonance imaging during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316560/lysopc-acyl-c16-0-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-men
#8
Mariëtte R Boon, Leontine E H Bakker, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Maarten J Vosselman, Ingrid M Jazet, Lenka M Pereira Arias-Bouda, Wouter D Marken van Lichtenbelt, Ko Willems van Dijk, Patrick C N Rensen, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori
INTRODUCTION: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and associated disorders due to its fat-burning capacity. The current gold standard in assessing BAT activity is [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scan, which has severe limitations including radiation exposure, being expensive, and being labor-intensive. Therefore, indirect markers are needed of human BAT activity and volume. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify metabolites in serum that are associated with BAT volume and activity in men...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284437/detection-and-characterization-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-burned-human-and-animal-remains-in-fire-debris
#9
John D DeHaan, Eimi I Taormina, David J Brien
Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280044/smart-niche-usage-release-its-fat-and-burn-it
#10
Jan Jacob Schuringa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244035/isolation-primary-culture-and-differentiation-of-preadipocytes-from-mouse-brown-adipose-tissue
#11
Wei Gao, Xingxing Kong, Qin Yang
Evolutionally, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is developed for nonshivering thermogenesis to prevent hypothermia. BAT has a high capacity to dissipate chemical energy generated from metabolism of nutrients for heat production. Therefore when BAT is activated, nutrients are "burned' instead of being stored. This feature makes BAT an attractive target for obesity treatment. To investigate BAT function and regulation, brown adipocyte culturing is indispensable. This chapter describes a detailed protocol for isolation, primary culture, and differentiation of preadipocytes from mouse BAT...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161439/lipid-signaling-and-fat-storage-in-the-dark-eyed-junco
#12
Jacqueline M Ho, Christine M Bergeon Burns, Nikki M Rendon, Kimberly A Rosvall, Heather B Bradshaw, Ellen D Ketterson, Gregory E Demas
Seasonal hyperphagia and fattening promote survivorship in migratory and wintering birds, but reduced adiposity may be more advantageous during the breeding season. Factors such as photoperiod, temperature, and food predictability are known environmental determinants of fat storage, but the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are less clear. Endocannabinoids and other lipid signaling molecules regulate multiple aspects of energy balance including appetite and lipid metabolism. However, these functions have been established primarily in mammals; thus the role of lipid signals in avian fat storage remains largely undefined...
February 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154004/sub-erythemal-ultraviolet-radiation-reduces-metabolic-dysfunction-in-already-overweight-mice
#13
Naomi Fleury, Martin Feelisch, Prue Hart, Richard Weller, Jordan Smoothy, Vance Bruce Matthews, Shelley Gorman
Exposure to sunlight may limit cardiometabolic risk. In our previous studies, regular exposure to sub-erythemal (non-burning) ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reduced signs of adiposity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. Some of the observed effects were dependent on skin release of nitric oxide following UVR exposure. Here, we examine the effects of sub-erythemal UVR on signs of adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in already overweight mice, comparing the effects of two sunlamps with distinct emitted light spectra...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153504/effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-derived-from-fish-oil-in-major-burn-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#14
Serrana Tihista, Estrella Echavarría
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burn patient is the clearest example of prolonged inflammatory response. Various nutrients, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), have been demonstrated as attenuating the inflammatory response, and reduce infectious complications. In absence of definitive evidence in major burns the study aimed at investigating the effect particularly on infectious complications of enteral nutrition enriched with ω-3 PUFAs. METHOD: Prospectively randomized controlled trial...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145475/diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-and-imaging-to-detect-and-quantify-adipose-tissue-browning
#15
U S Dinish, Chi Lok Wong, Sandhya Sriram, Wee Kiat Ong, Ghayathri Balasundaram, Shigeki Sugii, Malini Olivo
Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to "beige" or "brown-like" adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128928/a-direct-in-vivo-comparison-of-the-melanocortin-monovalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-versus-the-bivalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-pedg20-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-a-bivalent-advantage
#16
Cody J Lensing, Danielle N Adank, Stacey L Wilber, Katie T Freeman, Sathya M Schnell, Robert Charles Speth, Adam T Zarth, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Bivalent ligands targeting putative melanocortin receptor dimers have been developed and characterized in vitro, however studies of their functional in vivo effects have been limited. The current report compares the effects of homobivalent ligand CJL-1-87, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2, to monovalent ligand CJL-1-14, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 on energy homeostasis in mice after central intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Bivalent ligand CJL-1-87 had noteworthy advantages as an anti-obesity probe over CJL-1-14 in a fasting-refeeding in vivo paradigm...
January 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117814/a-model-of-free-tissue-transfer-the-rat-epigastric-free-flap
#17
Diogo Casal, Diogo Pais, Inês Iria, Eduarda Mota-Silva, Maria-Angélica Almeida, Sara Alves, Cláudia Pen, Ana Farinho, Luís Mascarenhas-Lemos, José Ferreira-Silva, Mário Ferraz-Oliveira, Valentina Vassilenko, Paula A Videira, João Gory O'Neill
Free tissue transfer has been increasingly used in clinical practice since the 1970s, allowing reconstruction of complex and otherwise untreatable defects resulting from tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, malformations or burns. Free flaps are particularly useful for reconstructing highly complex anatomical regions, like those of the head and neck, the hand, the foot and the perineum. Moreover, basic and translational research in the area of free tissue transfer is of great clinical potential. Notwithstanding, surgical trainees and researchers are frequently deterred from using microsurgical models of tissue transfer, due to lack of information regarding the technical aspects involved in the operative procedures...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106169/inhibition-of-nucks-facilitates-corneal-recovery-following-alkali-burn
#18
Ming-Wai Poon, Dan Jiang, Peng Qin, Yuelin Zhang, Beiying Qiu, Sumit Chanda, Vinay Tergaonkar, Qing Li, Ian Y Wong, Zhendong Yu, Hung-Fat Tse, David S H Wong, Qizhou Lian
Corneal wound healing involves a complex cascade of cytokine-controlled cellular events, including inflammatory and angiogenesis responses that are regulated by transcriptional chromatin remodeling. Nuclear Ubiquitous Casein and cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate (NUCKS) is a key chromatin modifier and transcriptional regulator of metabolic signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of NUCKS in corneal wound healing by comparing its effects on corneal alkali burn in NUCKS knockout (NKO) and NUCKS wild-type (NWT) mice...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103995/-advances-in-the-research-of-prevention-and-treatment-of-postburn-contractures-of-hand
#19
K A Wang, G S Wu, Y Sun, Z F Xia
Scar contracture deformity, which can lead to dysfunction of hand and low quality of life, is one of the common complication after hand burns. The prevention measures of scar contracture after hand burns include large skin grafting, prevention of infection, insistence on wearing pressure gloves, use of silicone sheets, wearing orthosis, accepting proper physical therapy, and early functional exercise. The primary treatments of postburn contractures of the hand are surgery, drugs, laser treatment, and rehabilitation therapy...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100847/genetic-background-of-aberrant-thermogenin-expression-ucp1-in-obesity-leading-to-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Małgorzata Stosio, Agata Witkowicz, Anna Kowalska, Lidia Karabon
Cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances individually and interdependently lead to chronic pathological conditions observed in cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs). In Europe, the morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease are the highest among all diseases. Therefore, it seems important to search for new and alternative therapies for obesity, which is the main cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CD). Great attention has been paid to the role of brown adipose tissue in fat burning and the possibility of transformation of the white adipose tissue to cells with brown adipose tissue function as a potential form of treatment of obesity...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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