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Melanoma pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217853/use-of-cytological-samples-of-metastatic-melanoma-for-ancillary-studies
#2
H M Ko, M A Saieg, G da Cunha Santos, S Kamel-Reid, S L Boerner, W R Geddie
OBJECTIVE: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is widely used in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma, both at initial presentation and in the setting of recurrent disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of confirmatory immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular analysis of the BRAF mutation in cytological preparations of metastatic melanoma. METHODS: A 2-year retrospective review of pathology reports was performed on cytological samples of metastatic melanoma at the University Health Network (Toronto, Canada) and the Santa Casa Medical School (Sao Paulo, Brazil)...
February 20, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216498/-significance-of-differential-diagnosis-for-sinonasal-mass-by-ct-value
#3
Yan Jiang, Jing Gao, Wenling Su
To explore whether CT value is useful in identifying different disease in tumors of rhinosinus parenchyma.
 Methods: The data of preoperation noncontrast CT in 277 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The final diagnosis and classification were based on the result of surgical histopathological examination. The CT value range for different classification was calculated and was compared. All patients were re-diagnosed according to CT value range combined with pathological results by the same doctor team...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216139/investigation-of-braf-mutation-analysis-with-different-technical-platforms-in-metastatic-melanoma
#4
Ebru Sener, Pinar Yildirim, Ayca Tan, Ozay Gokoz, Gaye Guler Tezel
In metastatic melanoma, the detection of somatic mutations in the BRAF gene is crucial regarding patient selection for targeted therapy. Several screening methods have been developed to identify BRAF gene mutations. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the detection of the BRAF V600 mutations using two molecular methods, real-time polymerase chain (real-time PCR) assay and pyrosequencing, and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and to compare the results of these different technical platforms. This study included 98 patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma at the Hacettepe University, Department of Pathology between 2002 and 2014...
January 21, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207831/the-relationship-between-rassf1a-gene-promoter-methylation-and-the-susceptibility-and-prognosis-of-melanoma-a-meta-analysis-and-bioinformatics
#5
Chihao Shao, Wenzhu Dai, Haili Li, Wenru Tang, Shuting Jia, Xiaoming Wu, Ying Luo
BACKGROUND: The function of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in cancer cells has been detailed in many studies. However, due to the methylation of its promoter, the expression of RASSF1A is missing in most cancers. In the literature, we found that the conclusion regarding the relationship between RASSF1A gene promoter methylation and the susceptibility and prognosis of melanoma was not unified. This study adopts the use of a meta-analysis and bioinformatics to explore the relationship between RASSF1A gene promoter methylation and the susceptibility and prognosis of melanoma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197623/-primary-malignant-melanoma-in-the-brain-of-a-7-month-old-sheep-ovis-aries-f-domestica
#6
Wolfram Breuer, Angela Hafner-Marx
A case of malignant melanoma in a sheep's brain is described for the first time. In a 7-month-old sheep that had been euthanized due to ataxia, post-mortem and histopathologic examinations were performed. Both the brain and the calvarium were heavily infiltrated with neoplastic tissue. Metastases were found in the liver and kidneys. Histomorphology confirmed the gross pathologic impression of malignancy. Congenital melanosis, which is regularly present in the meninx of sheep, could have been the origin of the malignant melanoma in the present case...
February 15, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197351/a-case-of-malignant-melanoma-of-the-uterine-cervix-with-disseminated-metastases-throughout-the-vaginal-wall
#7
Tomoko Noguchi, Nami Ota, Yasushi Mabuchi, Shigetaka Yagi, Sawako Minami, Hisako Okuhira, Yuki Yamamoto, Yasushi Nakamura, Kazuhiko Ino
Malignant melanoma (MM) in the female genital tract accounts for less than 2% of all melanomas, and the vast majority associated occur in the vulva and vagina. Primary MM of the uterine cervix is extremely rare and its prognosis is very poor. We report a case of primary MM of the cervix with dissemination throughout the vaginal wall. A 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a 2 cm polypoid blackish-pigmented tumor on the cervix with multiple small blackish-pigmented lesions throughout the vaginal wall...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187193/comprehensive-measurement-of-uvb-induced-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-burden-in-mice-using-photographic-images-as-a-substitute-for-the-caliper-method
#8
Marc Bazin, Nupur K Purohit, Girish M Shah
The vernier caliper has been used as a gold standard to measure the length, width and height of skin tumors to calculate their total area and volume. It is a simple method for collecting data on a few tumors at a time, but becomes tedious, time-consuming and stressful for the animals and the operator when used for measuring multiple tumors in a large number of animals in protocols such as UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in SKH-1 mice. Here, we show that photographic images of these mice taken within a few minutes under optimized conditions can be subjected to computerized analyses to determine tumor volume and area as accurately and precisely as the caliper method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186096/spitz-nevi-and-spitzoid-melanomas-exome-sequencing-and-comparison-with-conventional-melanocytic-nevi-and-melanomas
#9
Rossitza Lazova, Natapol Pornputtapong, Ruth Halaban, Marcus Bosenberg, Yalai Bai, Hao Chai, Michael Krauthammer
We performed exome sequencing of 77 melanocytic specimens composed of Spitz nevi (n=29), Spitzoid melanomas (n=27), and benign melanocytic nevi (n=21), and compared the results with published melanoma sequencing data. Our study highlights the prominent similarity between Spitzoid and conventional melanomas with similar copy number changes and high and equal numbers of ultraviolet-induced coding mutations affecting similar driver genes. Mutations in MEN1, PRKAR1A, and DNMT3A in Spitzoid melanomas may indicate involvement of the protein kinase A pathway, or a role of DNA methylation in the disease...
February 10, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174492/boron-neutron-capture-therapy-for-malignant-melanoma-first-clinical-case-report-in-china
#10
Zhong Yong, Zewen Song, Yongmao Zhou, Tong Liu, Zizhu Zhang, Yanzhong Zhao, Yang Chen, Congjun Jin, Xiang Chen, Jianyun Lu, Rui Han, Pengzhou Li, Xulong Sun, Guohui Wang, Guangqing Shi, Shaihong Zhu
A phase I/II clinical trial for treating malignant melanoma by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was designed to evaluate whether the world's first in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) was qualified for BNCT. In this clinical trial planning to enroll 30 patients, the first case was treated on August 19, 2014. We present the protocol of this clinical trial, the treating procedure, and the clinical outcome of this first case. Only grade 2 acute radiation injury was observed during the first four weeks after BNCT and the injury healed after treatment...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166201/downregulation-of-pck2-remodels-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-in-tumor-repopulating-cells-of-melanoma
#11
S Luo, Y Li, R Ma, J Liu, P Xu, H Zhang, K Tang, J Ma, N Liu, Y Zhang, Y Sun, T Ji, X Liang, X Yin, Y Liu, W Tong, Y Niu, N Wang, X Wang, B Huang
For cancer cells to proliferate, a balance must be built between biomass-forming, glucose-metabolized intermediates and ATP production. How intrinsic glucose carbon flow regulates this balance remains unclear. Here we show that mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), the hub molecule linking tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by conversion of mitochondrial oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate, regulates glucose carbon flow direction in stem-like cells that repopulate tumors (tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs))...
February 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166075/clinico-histopathological-survey-of-head-and-neck-cancer-at-tertiary-health-care-centre-dhulikhel-hospital
#12
S Dixit, C Upadhyaya, M Humagain, R Srii, V Marla
Background Head and neck is one of the most prevalent site for cancers along with lungs, cervix, breast and stomach. Hospital based cancer registries required for effective evaluation of diagnosis and management of cancer is inadequate in Nepal. Cancer registry system established by WHO is acquired by seven major hospitals in our country. However, data from tertiary health care centres like ours remain undocumented. Objective The objective of this study is to perform retrospective analysis of clinicohistopathological types of head and neck lesions which were eventually diagnosed as cancer in Dhulikel Hospital, a tertiary health care centre of Central East Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162227/angiogenesis-in-dermatology-insights-of-molecular-mechanisms-and-latest-developments
#13
N A Richarz, A Boada, J M Carrascosa
Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. It is a biological process essential in physiological wound healing or pathological inflammation and tumor growth, which underlies a complex interplay of stimulating and inhibiting signals. Extracellular matrix, cells of innate and adaptive immunity and endothelial cells itself are a major source of angiogenic factors that activate or inhibit specific receptors and consequently influence intracellular signaling pathways. Most inflammatory and neoplastic diseases in dermatology are characterized by excessive angiogenesis, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, as well as melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, but also benign vascular neoplasia...
February 2, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154916/-diagnostics-of-malignant-melanoma-of-the-skin-recommendations-of-the-current-s3-guidelines-on-histology-and-molecular-pathology
#14
C Rose
The updated S3 guidelines on malignant melanoma were established in August 2016. The principles of diagnostics and classification are based on the histopathological results from the primary tumor and if necessary the sentinel lymph nodes. The most important factor for prognosis is the tumor thickness according to Breslow and the detection of sentinel node micrometastases. The surgical safety margin after excision is dependent on the tumor thickness. Furthermore, ulceration of the primary tumor and presence of mitosis in melanomas less than 1 mm in thickness are also considered in the T‑classification...
February 2, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154879/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-detection-of-asymptomatic-malignant-melanoma-recurrence
#15
Ismaheel Lawal, Thabo Lengana, Kehinde Ololade, Tebatso Boshomane, Florette Reyneke, Moshe Modiselle, Mariza Vorster, Mike Sathekge
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT in the detection of asymptomatic recurrence in patients with malignant melanoma who have had resection of their primary lesion. We also aimed to determine the pattern and factors predisposing to disease recurrence. METHODS: Patients with malignant melanoma who have had surgical resection of their disease and without any clinical evidence of disease recurrence were followed-up with FDG PET/CT. The diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT, pattern of recurrence and factors predictive of disease recurrence were determined...
February 3, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144210/intestinal-intussusception-etiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Priscilla Marsicovetere, S Joga Ivatury, Brent White, Stefan D Holubar
Intussusception is defined as the invagination of one segment of the bowel into an immediately adjacent segment of the bowel. Idiopathic ileocolic intussusception is the most common form in children and is typically managed with nonoperative reduction via pneumatic and/or hydrostatic enemas. In the adult population, intussusception is uncommon and occurs more often in the small intestine than in the colon. It is associated with lead point pathology in most symptomatic cases presenting as bowel obstruction. When lead point pathology is present in adult small bowel intussusception, it is usually benign, though when malignant it is most frequently due to diffuse metastatic disease, for example, melanoma...
February 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139264/clinical-and-pathologic-factors-associated-with-subclinical-spread-of-invasive-melanoma
#17
Thuzar M Shin, Waqas R Shaikh, Jeremy R Etzkorn, Joseph F Sobanko, David J Margolis, Joel M Gelfand, Emily Y Chu, Rosalie Elenitsas, Christopher J Miller
BACKGROUND: Indications to treat invasive melanoma with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) or analogous techniques with exhaustive microscopic margin assessment have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical and histologic factors associated with subclinical spread of invasive melanoma. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 216 invasive melanomas treated with MMS and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining...
January 28, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135150/phase-iii-randomized-study-of-4-weeks-of-high-dose-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-in-stage-t2bno-t3a-bno-t4a-bno-and-t1-4n1a-2a-microscopic-melanoma-a-trial-of-the-eastern-cooperative-oncology-group-american-college-of-radiology-imaging-network-cancer-research-group-e1697
#18
Sanjiv S Agarwala, Sandra J Lee, Waiki Yip, Uma N Rao, Ahmad A Tarhini, Gary I Cohen, Douglas S Reintgen, Terry L Evans, Joanna M Brell, Mark R Albertini, Michael B Atkins, Shaker R Dakhil, Robert M Conry, Jeffrey A Sosman, Lawrence E Flaherty, Vernon K Sondak, William E Carson, Michael G Smylie, Alberto S Pappo, Richard F Kefford, John M Kirkwood
Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m(2)/d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134728/marker-protein-expression-combined-with-expression-heterogeneity-is-a-powerful-indicator-of-malignancy-in-acral-lentiginous-melanomas
#19
Fernando Cintra Lopes Carapeto, Andréia Neves Comodo, Andressa Germano, Daiane Pereira Guimarães, Denise Barcelos, Mariana Fernandes, Gilles Landman
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples of acral lentiginous melanomas (ALMs) were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Escola Paulista de Medicina-Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic, clinical, and follow-up data were obtained from the charts of Hospital São Paulo. From 2 tissue microarrays containing 60 nevi and quadruplicate samples of ≥1.0-mm of 49 ALM, sections were stained to evaluate SCF, KIT, BRAF, CYCLIND1, MYC, and PTEN immunohistochemical protein expression...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133071/-primary-malignant-melanoma-of-the-gallbladder
#20
Daisuke Ujiie, Kotaro Miyamoto, Hisashi Onozawa, Nobuhiro Hoshi, Koichi Nakayama, Kojiro Urazumi, Seiichi Takenoshita, Takashi Kusakabe
Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is a rare disease, and 37 cases have been reported in the literature.The current patient was a 78-year-old man who was admitted with a pelvic tumor and left leg edema due to compression of the external iliac vein by the pelvic tumor.The edema improved following resection of the tumor, which was diagnosed at pathology as a malignant melanoma.After surgery, the patient became anorexic and complained of discomfort in the upper right abdomen.A whole body FDG-PET scan demonstrated significant uptake in the gallbladder and in the lymph nodes of the lower abdomen...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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