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Melanoma pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944501/synergistic-effects-of-interferon-beta-and-nivolumab-in-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#1
Takayuki Fusumae, Koji Kamiya, Binluen Chiang, Hirofumi Okada, Naomi Nakano, Takeo Maekawa, Mayumi Komine, Satoru Murata, Mamitaro Ohtsuki
Mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Clinical and pathological characteristics of mucosal melanoma differ from those of cutaneous melanoma and there are no established management guidelines for mucosal melanoma. Complete surgical excision is one of the most effective treatments for localized lesions, while targeted therapies and immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibodies that target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4, and the programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand 1 pathway inhibitors, are treatment options for unresectable or metastatic lesions...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944115/demographics-and-incidence-of-histologically-confirmed-intracranial-tumors-a-five-year-two-center-prospective-study
#2
George S Stoyanov, Deyan L Dzhenkov, Martina Kitanova, Peter Ghenev, Anton B Tonchev
Introduction Intracranial tumors (ICTs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose an immediate threat to patients' lives, no matter their local or metastatic origin, benign or malignant nature. These lesions have severe clinical courses and need to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, with pathological verification being the pivotal moment in the process of determining curative modalities. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of histologically confirmed ICTs in Eastern Bulgaria, based on their type (primary, metastatic, and non-volume occupying lesions (NVOL)), their respective subtypes, and incidence in a descriptive manner...
July 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940724/acral-melanoma-foot-lesions-part-1-epidemiology-aetiology-and-molecular-pathology
#3
REVIEW
A Desai, R Ugorji, A Khachemoune
Acral melanoma (AM) is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) found on acral skin, primarily on the soles of the feet. Although rare, it is the most common subtype of MM found in patients of African or East Asian ethnicity and has a poor prognosis, often because of the more advanced stage of presentation at diagnosis. The pathogenesis of AM is unclear, but genetic alterations, including mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT have been implicated. Early diagnosis of AM is important for a better prognosis, but its identification is often challenging, leading to easy misdiagnosis...
September 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940544/chronic-granulomatous-dermatitis-induced-by-talimogene-laherparepvec-therapy-of-melanoma-metastases
#4
Ashlyn S Everett, Peter G Pavlidakey, Carlo M Contreras, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Ju Y Kim, Svetlana B McKee, Howard L Kaufman, Robert M Conry
Talimogene laherparepvec is the first oncolytic viral immunotherapy approved by the FDA, for advanced melanoma consisting of genetically modified herpes simplex type 1 virus which selectively replicates causing tumor lysis, expressing GM-CSF and activating dendritic cells. Intratumoral injection of TVEC produces objective response in 41% of stage IIB-IV M1a melanoma. However, clinical response assessments can be problematic due to immune-related inflammation at established tumor sites. Herein, we report 5 cases of granulomatous dermatitis developing at sites of TVEC injection associated with pathologic complete response in 4 of 5 patients...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939899/gpnmb-induces-bip-expression-by-enhancing-splicing-of-bip-pre-mrna-during-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response
#5
Yasuhiro Noda, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masafumi Takata, Mitsue Ishisaka, Hirotaka Tanaka, Yusuke Nakano, Yuki Nagahara, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) has a neuroprotective effect against neuronal cell death caused by the accumulation of abnormal mutated proteins. It is known that the accumulation of pathological proteins induces endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress leading to cell damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of GPNMB in the ER stress response. GPNMB was greatly up-regulated by thapsigargin-induced ER stress. Under the ER stress conditions, GPNMB relocated to the nucleus and specifically up-regulated expression of BiP at the mRNA level by promoting the BiP pre-mRNA splicing, not through the pathways initiated by the three major transducers of the unfolded protein response: IRE1, PERK, and ATF6...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929544/computed-tomographic-appearance-of-canine-tonsillar-neoplasia-14-cases
#6
Florence Thierry, Maurizio Longo, Evi Pecceu, Davide D Zani, Tobias Schwarz
The palatine tonsil is an uncommon site of oral canine neoplasia. For affected tonsils, squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent type of neoplasia, followed by melanoma and lymphoma. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used for investigation of canine oropharyngeal pathology; however, limited information is available on the CT appearance of tonsillar neoplasms. Objectives of this retrospective descriptive case series were to characterize the CT features of canine tonsillar neoplasia and determine whether specific CT features differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tonsils...
September 19, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927095/high-expression-of-mage-a9-is-associated-with-unfavorable-survival-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Yu Qi, Ke Xin Cao, Fu Chen Xing, Chun Yang Zhang, Qi Huang, Kai Wu, Feng Biao Wen, Song Zhao, Xin Li
Melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs) are a group of well-characterized members of the cancer/testis antigen family, which are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors. MAGE-A9, a subfamily of MAGE-As, has been studied in a number of types of cancer and have been associated with unfavorable survival outcome. However, the expression of MAGE-A9 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and association of MAGE-A9 with the clinicopathological characteristics of ESCC, particularly prognostic characteristics, remains unknown...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919783/toll-like-receptors-7-and-8-expression-correlates-with-the-expression-of-immune-biomarkers-and-positively-predicts-the-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-melanoma
#8
Moucheng Zhang, Zhilong Yan, Junjiang Wang, Xueqing Yao
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in cancer, yet the clinical relevance of TLR7/8 expression in melanoma remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TLR7/8 mRNA levels in melanoma and their correlation with immune biomarkers relevant to disease progression. METHODS: Normalized gene expression and corresponding clinical data of patients with skin cutaneous melanoma were obtained from two public databases: the Cancer Genome Atlas and GSE19234...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917460/clinical-and-pathologic-factors-associated-with-deep-transection-of-biopsies-of-invasive-melanoma
#10
Jamie L Woodcock, Zachary W Eyre, Gregory J Stoddard, Kristina Callis Duffin, Anneli R Bowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900118/arf6-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-regulates-lymphangiogenesis-by-controlling-directional-cell-migration
#11
Yueh-Chien Lin, Norihiko Ohbayashi, Tsunaki Hongu, Naohiro Katagiri, Yuji Funakoshi, Hsinyu Lee, Yasunori Kanaho
The small GTPase Arf6 plays pivotal roles in a wide variety of cellular events such as endocytosis, exocytosis, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. However, the physiological functions of Arf6 at the whole animal level have not yet been thoroughly understood. Here, we show that Arf6 regulates developmental and tumor lymphangiogenesis in mice. Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-specific Arf6 conditional knockout (LEC-Arf6 cKO) mouse embryos exhibit severe skin edema and impairment in the formation of lymphatic vessel network at the mid-gestation stage...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895292/pathology-and-genomics-of-pediatric-melanoma-a-critical-reexamination-and-new-insights
#12
REVIEW
Armita Bahrami, Raymond L Barnhill
The clinicopathologic features of pediatric melanoma are distinct from those of the adult counterpart. For example, most childhood melanomas exhibit a uniquely favorable biologic behavior, save for those arising in large/giant congenital nevi. Recent studies suggest that the characteristically favorable biologic behavior of childhood melanoma may be related to extreme telomere shortening and dysfunction in the cancer cells. Herein, we review the genomic profiles that have been defined for the different subtypes of pediatric melanoma and particularly emphasize the potential prognostic value of telomerase reverse transcriptase alterations for these tumors...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885538/clinical-relevance-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-lower-limb-imaging-in-patients-with-malignant-cutaneous-melanoma
#13
Nicolas Plouznikoff, Frédéric Arsenault
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of imaging the lower limbs when using 2-(F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for malignant cutaneous melanoma in patients without previously known or suspected primary or metastatic melanoma lesions in the lower limbs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 880 consecutive F-FDG PET/CT scans performed for adult patients in a context of suspected melanoma spanning a period of 5 years...
September 6, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878302/oxygen-mapping-of-melanoma-spheroids-using-small-molecule-platinum-probe-and-phosphorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#14
Ahtasham Raza, Helen E Colley, Elizabeth Baggaley, Igor V Sazanovich, Nicola H Green, Julia A Weinstein, Stanley W Botchway, Sheila MacNeil, John W Haycock
Solid tumours display varied oxygen levels and this characteristic can be exploited to develop new diagnostic tools to determine and exploit these variations. Oxygen is an efficient quencher of emission of many phosphorescent compounds, thus oxygen concentration could in many cases be derived directly from relative emission intensity and lifetime. In this study, we extend our previous work on phosphorescent, low molecular weight platinum(II) complex as an oxygen sensing probe to study the variation in oxygen concentration in a viable multicellular 3D human tumour model...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875289/-diagnostics-of-malignant-melanoma-of-the-skin-recommendations-of-the-current-s3-guidelines-on-histology-and-molecular-pathology
#15
C Rose
The updated S3 guidelines on malignant melanoma were established in August 2016. The principles of diagnostics and classification are based on the histopathological results from the primary tumor and if necessary the sentinel lymph nodes. The most important factor for prognosis is the tumor thickness according to Breslow and the detection of sentinel node micrometastases. The surgical safety margin after excision is dependent on the tumor thickness. Furthermore, ulceration of the primary tumor and presence of mitosis in melanomas less than 1 mm in thickness are also considered in the T‑classification...
September 5, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871933/prognostic-predictors-of-thin-melanoma-in-clinico-pathological-practice
#16
Luca Roncati, Teresa Pusiol, Francesco Piscioli
The latest reviews on thin melanoma (TM) continue to consider it a melanoma within 1 mm in thickness, but no consensus exists as to which patients with TM are at risk for lymph node metastases (1). Numerous studies have evaluated the impact of various predictors (Breslow thickness, Clark level, ulceration, regression, vascular invasion, mitotic activity, location, sex) for nodal disease in melanoma, but the conclusions have not been homogenous (2,3). For this reason, we read the paper by Homolak et al. with great interest, where the authors examine the sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNB) of 184 patients affected by melanoma of thickness less than 1...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871925/mast-cell-disorders-melanoma-and-pancreatic-carcinoma-from-a-clinical-observation-to-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#17
Giovanni Paolino, Maria Belmonte, Stefania Trasarti, Michelina Santopietro, Luisa Bizzoni, Mara Riminucci, Luisa Cardarelli, Emilia Iannella, Marcello Albanesi, Elisa Moliterni, Dario Didona, Stefano Calvieri, Robin Foà, Fiorina Giona
Mastocytosis can be associated with other clonal or non-clonal hematologic diseases as well as a variety of non-hematologic malignancies. A 75-year-old Caucasian male patient was referred to us with a 5-month history of neutrophilic leukocytosis and mild splenomegaly. He had developed a cutaneous melanoma sixteen years ago. According to the clinical and pathological features, a final diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established. The patient started treatment with interferon-α at a dose of 3 MIU/day, combined with low doses of prednisone...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858936/pathologists-use-of-second-opinions-in-interpretation-of-melanocytic-cutaneous-lesions-policies-practices-and-perceptions
#18
Berta M Geller, Paul D Frederick, Stevan R Knezevich, Jason P Lott, Heidi D Nelson, Linda J Titus, Patricia A Carney, Anna N A Tosteson, Tracy L Onega, Raymond L Barnhill, Martin A Weinstock, David E Elder, Michael W Piepkorn, Joann G Elmore
BACKGROUND: Research examining the role of second opinions in pathology for diagnosis of melanocytic lesions is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess current laboratory policies, clinical use of second opinions, and pathologists' perceptions of second opinions for melanocytic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected from 207 pathologists in 10 US states who diagnose melanocytic lesions. The web-based survey ascertained pathologists' professional information, laboratory second opinion policy, use of second opinions, and perceptions of second opinion value for melanocytic lesions...
August 29, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846171/dermoscopy-and-the-diagnosis-of-primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphoma
#19
S Geller, A A Marghoob, A Scope, R P Braun, P L Myskowski
BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCLs) are frequently misdiagnosed, and a biopsy is needed to attain the correct diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the dermoscopic features of PCBCL. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analysed the pathology reports of 172 newly diagnosed PCBCL for the initial clinical differential diagnosis. The dermoscopic images of 58 PCBCL were evaluated for dermoscopic features. Two dermoscopy experts, who were blinded to the diagnosis and the study objective, evaluated images from 17 cases for a dermoscopic differential diagnosis...
August 28, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845329/evaluation-of-iris-melanoma-with-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#20
Mehtap Arslantürk Eren, Ahmet Kaan Gündüz, Özlenen Ömür Gündüz
Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is a relatively new imaging modality that allows assessment of anterior segment structures. AS-OCT enables the differentiation of benign and malignant tumors through the evaluation of lesion size, internal structure, degree of vascularity, and anterior and posterior surfaces. Herein, we discuss the AS-OCT findings of a patient with spindle type iridociliary melanoma diagnosed in pathologic examination.
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
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