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Melanoma pathology

Muhammad Khairi Ahmad, Nur Ainina Abdollah, Nurul Husna Shafie, Narazah Mohd Yusof, Siti Razila Abdul Razak
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the main regulators of cellular proliferation, growth, and survival in physiological or pathological conditions. Aberrant MAPK signaling plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis, which leads to development and progression of human cancer. Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a member of the MAPK phosphatase family, interacts with specifically targeted extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 via negative feedback regulation in the MAPK pathway of mammalian cells...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Ken Sasaki, Yasuto Uchikado, Itaru Omoto, Masahiko Amatatsu, Koichi Megumi, Hiroshi Okumura, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Standard treatment strategies have not yet been established for primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME), and far much less for recurrent disease. There are no reports of anti-programmed death-1 antibody treatment of recurrent PMME. A 60-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a primary malignant melanoma in the lower esophagus. The patient underwent mediastinoscope-assisted subtotal esophagectomy, and two nodal involvements were detected in the lymph nodes (LN)s along the left gastric artery. Paclitaxel and oral fluoropyrimidine were administered for 2 months as adjuvant treatment based on results of a histoculture drug response assay...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Laura Aragoneses-Fenoll, Gloria Ojeda, María Montes-Casado, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Umberto Dianzani, Pilar Portolés, José M Rojo
Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunits p110α and p110δ are targets in cancer therapy expressed at high levels in T lymphocytes. The role of p110δ PI3K in normal or pathological immune responses is well established, yet the importance of p110α subunits in T cell-dependent immune responses is not clear. To address this problem, mice with p110α conditionally deleted in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (p110α-/- ΔT) were used. p110α-/- ΔT mice show normal development of T cell subsets, but slightly reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells in the spleen...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mian Ma, Zhi-Liang Ding, Zhi-Qi Cheng, Gang Wu, Xiao-Yu Tang, Peng Deng, Jian-Dong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics of neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) in adult patients in order to help improve diagnosis and treatment of this disease. METHODS: We present a rare case of an adult patient suffering from neurocutaneous melanosis with malignant melanoma as well as a review Chinese and English literature, and analyze their clinical features. RESULTS: There were thirty adult NCM patients, aged 19 to 65 years old, average 27...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
D J Li, W L Yang, Z Y Wang, W Chen, Q Zhao, Y F Li, R Cui, L Shen, W B Wei
Objective: To compare the significance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the diagnosis of uveal melanoma. Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. Sixty-three cases (63 eyes) of uveal melanoma patients (confirmed by histopathology) who underwent CEUS and DCE-MRI examination at Beijing Tongren Hospital during January 2010 and May 2014 were collected, including 30 males and 33 females, with average age of 47 years (ranged from 27 to 69 years)...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Sijuan Zou, Zhaoting Cheng, Shuang Song, Dong Kuang, Xiaohua Zhu
Multiple hepatic metastases are uncommon as initial presentation of primary anal malignant melanoma. We report FDG PET/CT findings of pathology-proven hepatic metastases from anal malignant melanoma of unknown origin in a 43-year-old woman whose initial presentation was worsening abdominal pain.
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Michael E Egger, Deyi Xiao, Hongying Hao, Charles W Kimbrough, Jianmin Pan, Shesh N Rai, Alexander C Cambon, Sabine J Waigel, Wolfgang Zacharias, Kelly M McMasters
BACKGROUND: Current risk assessment tools to estimate the risk of nonsentinel lymph node metastases after completion lymphadenectomy for a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in cutaneous melanoma are based on clinical and pathologic factors. We identified a novel genetic signature that can predict non-SLN metastases in patients with cutaneous melanoma staged with a SLN biopsy. METHODS: RNA was collected for tumor-positive SLNs in patients staged by SLN biopsy for cutaneous melanoma...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Jasmin Dvorah Korbl, Benjamin Andrew Wood, Nathan Tobias Harvey
Certain diagnoses in dermatopathology have significant implications for patient management and on occasion appropriate clinical care may be facilitated by a phone call from the reporting dermatopathologist to the referring doctor. Whether this is appropriate depends on a number of factors. The concept of 'critical diagnoses' is now well established in surgical pathology, having evolved from critical value policies in clinical pathology and haematology. However, only limited attempts have been made to assess perceptions among different clinical groups...
February 26, 2018: Pathology
Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Hiroki Arai, Masahito Honda, Takashi Matsumoto, Kyotaro Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Metastatic renal cancers are relatively common. Most are metastases to the renal parenchyma via a hematogenous route and are derived from lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancer, malignant melanoma, and hematologic malignant cancer. However, little is known about renal capsule metastasis from other cancers. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 71-year-old woman with breast cancer who was treated with endocrine therapy. She presented with gross hematuria and was diagnosed as having right renal pelvic cancer and renal cell cancer...
March 1, 2018: BMC Urology
Lei Yan, Shenon Sethi, Pincas Bitterman, Vijaya Reddy, Paolo Gattuso
BACKGROUND: Umbilical lesions are rare, and can be benign or malignant. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and histologic characteristics of umbilical masses. METHODS: Cases of umbilical masses from January 1994 to August 2016 were retrieved from our institution's pathology databases, and their clinicopathological features were reviewed. RESULTS: There were a total of 99 cases of umbilical masses, 78 women (78...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Matthew Dinehart, Mallory S Abate, Thomas Jennings, Jennifer R Kaley, Sara C Shalin
Biphasic lesions comprised of melanocytic and epithelial components are rare entities believed to arise either as a collision of two histologically distinct lesions in the same anatomic location or as a singular progenitor tumor differentiating along two differing lineages. Regardless of mechanism of origin, these tumors present unique challenges in pathologic interpretation and in determining appropriate measurements, which assigns subsequent prognosis to the patient. We present 4 tumors of melanoma co-existing with basal cell carcinoma and discuss relevant literature regarding these biphasic entities...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
E Forbat, F R Ali, F Al-Niaimi
Whilst the use of isotretinoin has revolutionized the treatment of acne vulgaris, isotretinoin is increasingly recognized as a useful therapeutic option for many other cutaneous conditions. We review the evidence underlying the use of isotretinoin for a variety of dermatological indications including hidradenitis suppurativa, sebaceous gland pathology, rosacea, scarring alopecia, cosmetic dermatology and non-melanoma skin cancer prophylaxis amongst other uses, and thus consider alternative uses within dermatology practice...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Colin McQuade, Peadar S Waters, Ciara O'Brien, Stephen Crowther, William Torreggiani, Dara O Kavanagh
INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adults is a rare condition, accounting for just 5% of all cases. Approximately 50% of cases of large intestine intussusception occur due to a malignant neoplasm. We present here a novel case report of colo-rectal intussusception arising secondary to a primary rectal melanoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of an 85 year-old patient, who underwent a colonoscopy for investigation of weight loss and altered bowel habit. At colonoscopy, a pigmented polypoid mass was visualised in the upper third of the rectum...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michele Maio, Karl Lewis, Lev Demidov, Mario Mandalà, Igor Bondarenko, Paolo A Ascierto, Christopher Herbert, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Piotr Rutkowski, Alexander Guminski, Grant R Goodman, Brian Simmons, Chenglin Ye, Yibing Yan, Dirk Schadendorf
BACKGROUND: Systemic adjuvant treatment might mitigate the high risk of disease recurrence in patients with resected stage IIC-III melanoma. The BRIM8 study evaluated adjuvant vemurafenib monotherapy in patients with resected, BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma. METHODS: BRIM8 was a phase 3, international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study that enrolled 498 adults (aged ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed stage IIC-IIIA-IIIB (cohort 1) or stage IIIC (cohort 2) BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma that was fully resected...
February 21, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Magdalena M Gilg, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Andrea Schlemmer, Andreas Eherer, Christoph Högenauer, Cord Langner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is rarely affected by secondary tumors. Patients often present at advanced stage, and prognosis is dismal. This study aimed to analyze clinical, endoscopic and pathological features of secondary tumors that had been diagnosed endoscopically. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database analysis of 217 patients with secondary tumors of the GIT. Endoscopic findings and histological diagnoses were systematically re-evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Andressa Bazan, Caroline Andrade Rocha, Juliana Souza Nagy, Isadora Tanaka Campos
Melanomas of the female genital tract may occur in the vulva, the vagina, the ovary or the cervix. Pregnancy has been considered an aggravating factor in the evolution and prognosis of melanoma. A 35-year-old female presented with vaginal bleeding 2 months after a term cesarean delivery. An endovaginal ultrasound revealed a lesion in the uterine cervix. The pathological report revealed a small round-cell neoplasm, and the immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. A positron emission tomography revealed an expansive hypermetabolic lesion centered on the cervix, and hypermetabolic lesions in the liver and right kidney...
February 23, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Robyn D Gartrell, Douglas K Marks, Thomas D Hart, Gen Li, Danielle R Davari, Alan Wu, Zoe Blake, Yan Lu, Kayleigh N Askin, Anthea Monod, Camden L Esancy, Edward C Stack, Dan Tong Jia, Paul M Armenta, Yichun Fu, Daisuke Izaki, Bret Taback, Raul Rabadan, Howard L Kaufman, Charles G Drake, Basil A Horst, Yvonne M Saenger
Novel methods to analyze the tumor microenvironment (TME) are urgently needed to stratify melanoma patients for adjuvant immunotherapy. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) analysis, by conventional pathologic methods, is predictive but is insufficiently precise for clinical application. Quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence (qmIF), allows for evaluation of the TME using multiparameter phenotyping, tissue segmentation, and quantitative spatial analysis (qSA). Given that CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) promote antitumor immunity, whereas CD68+ macrophages impair immunity, we hypothesized that quantification and spatial analysis of macrophages and CTLs would correlate with clinical outcome...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Chia-Hsing Liu, Chih-Hung Lin, Min-Jan Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Sheau-Fang Yang, Kun-Bow Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing melanocytic lesions is among the most challenging problems in the practice of pathology. The difficulty of physically masking melanin pigment and the similarity of its color to commonly used chromogens often complicate examination of the cytomorphology and immunohistochemical staining results for tumor cells. Melanin bleach can be very helpful for histopathological diagnosis of heavily pigmented melanocytic lesions. Although various depigmentation methods have been reported, no standardized methods have been developed...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Kenjiro Namikawa, Phyu P Aung, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Denái R Milton, Victor G Prieto
The prognostic significance of the width of the ulceration in primary melanomas remains unclear, and there is a relative paucity of data for lymphovascular invasion (LVI), microscopic satellitosis (MS), perineural invasion (PNI), and mitotic rate when compared with other pathological elements currently required for reporting. To evaluate the prognostic importance of the ulceration width and other important pathologic measurements, a single-institutional retrospective study was conducted using records of cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy at The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2003 and 2008...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Emilie Perron, Daniel Pissaloux, Angela Neub, Daniel Hohl, Marie Dominique Tartar, Laurent Mortier, Laurent Alberti, Arnaud de la Fouchardiere
The current classification of melanocytic tumors includes clinical, pathological, and molecular data. A subset of lesions remains difficult to classify according to these complex multilayer schemes. We report two cases of deeply infiltrating melanomas with a sclerosing background. The first case occurred on the back of a middle-aged man appearing clinically as a dermatofibroma. The architectural and cytological aspects resembled those of a desmoplastic melanoma but the strong expression of both melanA and HMB45, two stainings usually reported as negative in this entity, raised the question of an alternate diagnosis...
February 21, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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