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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454142/the-levels-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-hibernating-nanorana-parkeri
#1
Yonggang Niu, Wangjie Cao, Yaofeng Zhao, Haotian Zhai, Yao Zhao, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The effect of hibernation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses was assessed in the frog Nanorana parkeri which inhabits the southern Tibetan Plateau. We compared the indices of oxidative stress (GSSG/GSH), the degree of oxidative damage (content of carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide products) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and GR) in liver, brain, heart and muscle of N. parkeri sampled during summer and winter. Obtained results showed that hibernation induced a significant decrease in the levels of GSH in heart, liver, and muscle, while the ratio of GSSG/GSH markedly increased in all tissues except for muscle...
February 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440989/akt-protein-kinase-mir-200-mir-182-expression-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-proteins-in-hibernating-ground-squirrels
#2
Yang-Ja Lee, Joshua D Bernstock, Dace Klimanis, John M Hallenbeck
Hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels ( Ictidomys tridecemlineatus ; TLGS) rank among the most brain hypoperfusion-tolerant mammals known. Herein we provide some evidence of cycling between an epithelial phenotype and a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype (partial EMT) within the brains of TLGS during each bout of hibernation torpor. During hibernation torpor, expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin (E-CDH) was reduced, while expression of the well-known mesenchymal markers vimentin and Sox2 were increased...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431591/the-role-of-cranial-temperature-in-neuroprotection-by-sodium-hydrogen-sulfide-after-cardiac-arrest-in-mice
#3
Shin Nakayama, Noriko Taguchi, Makoto Tanaka
The hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) is recognized as a neuroprotective agent, which induces a hibernation-like metabolic state and hypothermia. However, it remains unclear whether it is the sulfide itself or the hypothermia induced by the sulfide that mediates treatment outcomes following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We therefore tested whether NaHS improved outcomes following CA/CPR in mice maintained at 35.0°C by active warming during recovery. Adult male mice were subjected to 8 minutes CA/CPR and randomly treated intraperitoneally with either implantation of miniosmotic pump with NaHS (50 μmol/kg/day) for 3 days or vehicle 30 minutes after CPR...
February 12, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429060/electrophysiological-differences-in-cholinergic-signaling-between-the-hearts-of-summer-and-winter-frogs-rana-temporaria
#4
Denis Abramochkin, Vladislav Kuzmin
The striking seasonal difference in sensitivity of frog cardiac muscle to acetylcholine or stimulation of parasympathetic nervous fibers has been noted almost a century ago, although its electrophysiological basis has never been revealed. The present study compares the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine chloride (CCh 10-8-10-5 M) on electrical activity in isolated atrial and ventricular preparations from dormant frogs (Rana temporaria) caught in January (winter-acclimatized, WA) and from active frogs caught in July (summer-acclimatized, SA)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415083/no-maternal-or-direct-effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-egg-hatching-in-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis
#5
Peter Thor, Fanny Vermandele, Marie-Helene Carignan, Sarah Jacque, Piero Calosi
Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean and the Arctic is recognised as the region where this transformation will occur at the fastest rate. Moreover, many Arctic species are considered less capable of tolerating OA due to their lower capacity for acid-base regulation. This inability may put severe restraints on many fundamental functions, such as growth and reproductive investments, which ultimately may result in reduced fitness. However, maternal effects may alleviate severe effects on the offspring rendering them more tolerant to OA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404822/effects-of-temperature-and-melatonin-on-day-night-expression-patterns-of-arginine-vasotocin-and-isotocin-mrna-in-the-diencephalon-of-a-temperate-wrasse-halichoeres-tenuispinis
#6
Selma Bouchekioua, Sung-Pyo Hur, Yuki Takeuchi, Young-Don Lee, Akihiro Takemura
Most wrasses are protogynous species that swim to feed, reproduce during the daytime, and bury themselves under the sandy bottom at night. In temperate and subtropical wrasses, low temperature influences emergence from the sandy bottom in the morning, and induces a hibernation-like state in winter. We cloned and characterized the prohormone complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) in a temperate wrasse (Halichoeres tenuispinis) and examined the effects of day/night and temperature on their expression in the diencephalon, because these neurohypophysial peptides are related to the sex behavior of wrasses...
February 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391604/free-living-greylag-geese-adjust-their-heart-rates-and-body-core-temperatures-to-season-and-reproductive-context
#7
Claudia A F Wascher, Kurt Kotrschal, Walter Arnold
Animals adaptively regulate their metabolic rate and hence energy expenditure over the annual cycle to cope with energetic challenges. We studied energy management in greylag geese. In all geese, profound seasonal changes of heart rate (fH) and body temperature (Tb) showed peaks in summer and troughs during winter, and also daily modulation of fH and Tb. Daily mean fH was on average 22% lower at the winter trough than at the summer peak, whereas daily mean Tb at the winter trough was only about 1 °C below the summer peak...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372670/rna-polymerase-i-activation-and-hibernation-unique-mechanisms-for-unique-genes
#8
Carlos Fernández-Tornero
In yeast, transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is regulated by unique mechanisms acting at the level of the enzyme. Under stress situations such as starvation, Pol I hibernates through dimerization. When growth conditions are restored, dimer disassembly and Rrn3 binding drive enzyme activation and subsequent recruitment to rDNA.
January 26, 2018: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361606/an-improved-method-for-detecting-torpor-entrance-and-arousal-in-a-mammalian-hibernator-using-heart-rate-data
#9
Amanda D V MacCannell, Ethan C Jackson, Katherine E Mathers, James F Staples
We used ECG telemeters to measure the heart rate of hibernating Ictidomys tridecemlineatus An increase in heart rate from 2.2 to 5 bpm accurately identified arousal from torpor before any change in body temperature was detected. Variability in raw heart rate data was significantly reduced by a forward-backward Butterworth low-pass filter, allowing for discrete differential analysis. A decrease in filtered heart rate to 70% of maximum values in interbout euthermia (from approximately 312 to 235 bpm) accurately detected entrance into torpor bouts...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361583/oxidation-of-linoleic-and-palmitic-acid-in-pre-hibernating-and-hibernating-common-noctule-bats-revealed-by-13c-breath-testing
#10
Elisabeth Rosner, Christian C Voigt
Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats (Nyctalus noctula). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared to conspecifics fed 13C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on 5 subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356375/molecular-characterization-and-tissue-expression-profiles-of-prepro-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-in-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-the-active-and-hibernating-periods
#11
Sheng-Zhou Zhang, Ting Meng, Xue Zhu, Huan Wang, Yong-Kang Zhou, Xiao-Bing Wu
The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), a freshwater crocodilian endemic to China, is one of the most endangered crocodilian species; up to this date, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of its metabolic activities during different physiological states. In this study, we characterized the structure of the prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide in Chinese alligator (prepro-caVIP) for the first time and examined its expression profiles in various tissues during the active and hibernating periods...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352382/hibernation-of-masses-suspected-to-be-remnant-tumors-after-surgical-resection-of-retroperitoneal-liposarcoma-is-related-to-improved-overall-survival
#12
Jinsoo Rhu, Kyo Won Lee, Jae Berm Park, Sung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Although complete surgical resection is considered the best treatment for retroperitoneal liposarcoma, it is related to a high local recurrence rate. This study analyzed patterns of recurrence of retroperitoneal liposarcoma. METHODS: Records of patients who experienced recurrence after surgery for retroperitoneal liposarcoma from January 2000 to May 2017 were analyzed. Site, number, and characteristics of recurrent mass on computed tomography were serially collected...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351451/guidelines-for-experimental-models-of-myocardial-ischemia-and-infarction
#13
Merry L Lindsey, Roberto Bolli, John M Canty, Xiao-Jun Du, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis, Stefan Frantz, Robert G Gourdie, Jeffrey W Holmes, Steven P Jones, Robert Kloner, David J Lefer, Ronglih Liao, Elizabeth Murphy, Peipei Ping, Karin Przyklenk, Fabio A Recchia, Lisa Schwartz Longacre, Crystal May Ripplinger, Jennifer E Van Eyk, Gerd Heusch
Myocardial infarction is a prevalent major cardiovascular event that arises from myocardial ischemia with or without reperfusion, and basic and translational research is needed to better understand its underlying mechanisms and consequences for cardiac structure and function. Ischemia underlies a broad range of clinical scenarios ranging from angina to hibernation to permanent occlusion, and while reperfusion is mandatory for salvage from ischemic injury, reperfusion also inflicts injury on its own. In this consensus statement, we present recommendations for animal models of myocardial ischemia and infarction...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349635/the-diving-reflex-and-asphyxia-working-across-species-in-physiological-ecology
#14
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341829/climatic-modulation-of-neurotransmitter-release-in-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions-role-of-dynorphin-a
#15
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions become relatively more silent during the dry-winter season in Australia. Endogenous opioid peptides play an important role in the regulation of the physiological functions of active and dormant vertebrates. Previous findings suggest that dynorphin-A is more potent than other opiates in decreasing evoked neurotransmission in amphibian neuromuscular junctions. Dynorphin-A has been shown not to alter the amplitude or the frequency of spontaneous quantal neurotransmitter release...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332935/novel-treatment-strategies-for-chronic-kidney-disease-insights-from-the-animal-kingdom
#16
REVIEW
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319912/transcriptomics-in-the-wild-hibernation-physiology-in-free-ranging-dwarf-lemurs
#17
Sheena L Faherty, José Luis Villanueva-Cañas, Marina B Blanco, M Mar Albà, Anne D Yoder
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy some mammals use to survive highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. We present the first investigation on the transcriptomics of hibernation in a natural population of primate hibernators: Crossley's dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus crossleyi). Using capture-mark-recapture techniques to track the same animals over a period of 7 months in Madagascar, we used RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue (WAT) during three distinct physiological states...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313598/expressions-of-il-6-tnf-%C3%AE-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-skin-of-chinese-brown-frog-rana-dybowskii
#18
Liqin Xi, Chen Wang, Pengyu Chen, Qi Yang, Ruiqi Hu, Haolin Zhang, Qiang Weng, Meiyu Xu
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediates a wide range of inflammatory and immune responses. Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) has a myriad of pro-inflammatory effects on the skin. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates a battery of genes that are critical to immune system. In this study, we investigated the localizations and expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB in the skin of Rana dybowskii during the breeding period and pre-hibernation. Histologically, the skin of Rana dybowskii consisted of epidermis and dermis...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301701/thermoregulatory-challenges-in-the-habitat-of-the-world-s-smallest-tortoise-chersobius-signatus
#19
Victor J T Loehr
Ectotherms have various means of dealing with low environmental temperatures, but relatively few species have been rigorously investigated. Consequently, we have little information to predict how ectotherm populations might respond to global temperature changes. Tortoises from temperate and subtropical regions often overcome periodically cool conditions by hibernation, but speckled dwarf tortoises (Chersobius signatus) need to remain active to exploit ephemeral resources in their arid winter-rainfall habitat...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299670/flexibility-is-the-key-metabolic-and-thermoregulatory-behaviour-in-a-small-endotherm
#20
Franz Langer, Nadine Havenstein, Joanna Fietz
Hibernation is the most effective way to reduce thermoregulatory costs during periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In preparation to hibernation, fat-storing hibernators accumulate large quantities of body fat, which increases their locomotor costs and also the risk of predation. As a consequence, there should be a strong selective pressure to restrict pre-hibernation fattening to a short-time period before the onset of hibernation. The edible dormouse (Glis glis) is characterized by having adapted its whole life history to the irregularly occurring mast-seeding pattern of the European beech (Fagus sylvaticus)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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