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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218224/coping-with-differences-in-snow-cover-the-impact-on-the-condition-physiology-and-fitness-of-an-arctic-hibernator
#1
Michael J Sheriff, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes
The Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate and, as ecologists, we are challenged with the difficult task of predicting how individuals and populations will respond to climate-induced changes to local and global ecosystems. Although we are beginning to understand some of the responses to changing seasonality, the physiological mechanisms that may drive these responses remain unknown. Using long-term data comparing two nearby populations (<20 km apart) of free-living arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska, we have previously shown that the timing of spring snowmelt greatly influences their phenology of hibernation and reproduction in a population and site-specific manner...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206937/functional-impact-of-microrna-regulation-in-models-of-extreme-stress-adaptation
#2
Kyle K Biggar, Kenneth B Storey
When confronted with severe environmental stress, some animals are able to undergo a substantial reorganization of their cellular environment that enables long-term survival. One molecular mechanism of adaptation that has received considerable attention in recent years has been the action of reversible transcriptome regulation by microRNA. The implementation of new computational and high-throughput experimental approaches have started to uncover the vital contributions of microRNA towards stress adaptation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197040/phenotypic-plasticity-and-climate-change-can-polar-bears-respond-to-longer-arctic-summers-with-an-adaptive-fast
#3
John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
Plasticity in the physiological and behavioural responses of animals to prolonged food shortages may determine the persistence of species under climate warming. This is particularly applicable for species that can "adaptively fast" by conserving protein to protect organ function while catabolizing endogenous tissues. Some Ursids, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), adaptively fast during winter hibernation-and it has been suggested that polar bears also employ this strategy during summer. We captured 57 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) during summer 2008 and 2009 and measured blood variables that indicate feeding, regular fasting, and adaptive fasting...
December 1, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188446/ichrcloud-web-mobile-based-child-health-imprints-for-smart-healthcare
#4
Harpreet Singh, Raghuram Mallaiah, Gautam Yadav, Nitin Verma, Ashu Sawhney, Samir K Brahmachari
Reducing child mortality with quality care is the prime-most concern of all nations. Thus in current IT era, our healthcare industry needs to focus on adapting information technology in healthcare services. Barring few preliminary attempts to digitalize basic hospital administrative and clinical functions, even today in India, child health and vaccination records are still maintained as paper-based records. Also, error in manually plotting the parameters in growth charts results in missed opportunities for early detection of growth disorders in children...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166160/sex-dependent-phenological-plasticity-in-an-arctic-hibernator
#5
Cory T Williams, C Loren Buck, Michael J Sheriff, Melanie M Richter, Jesse S Krause, Brian M Barnes
Hibernation provides a means of escaping the metabolic challenges associated with seasonality, yet the ability of mammals to prolong or reenter seasonal dormancy in response to extreme weather events is unclear. Here, we show that Arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska exhibited sex-dependent plasticity in the physiology and phenology of hibernation in response to a series of late spring snowstorms in 2013 that resulted in the latest snowmelt on record. Females and nonreproductive males responded to the >1-month delay in snowmelt by extending heterothermy or reentering hibernation after several days of euthermy, leading to a >2-week delay in reproduction compared to surrounding years...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155610/seasonal-and-sexual-variation-in-metabolism-thermoregulation-and-hormones-in-the-big-brown-bat-eptesicus-fuscus
#6
Christopher S Richardson, Tim Heeren, Thomas H Kunz
In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T3), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151862/profiling-the-immunome-of-little-brown-myotis-provides-a-yardstick-for-measuring-the-genetic-response-to-white-nose-syndrome
#7
Michael E Donaldson, Christina M Davy, Craig K R Willis, Scott McBurney, Allysia Park, Christopher J Kyle
White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated populations of hibernating bats in eastern North America, leading to emergency conservation listings for several species including the previously ubiquitous little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). However, some bat populations near the epicenter of the WNS panzootic appear to be stabilizing after initial precipitous declines, which could reflect a selective immunogenetic sweep. To investigate the hypothesis that WNS exerts significant selection on the immunome of affected bat populations, we developed a novel, high-throughput sequence capture assay targeting 138 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of putative adaptive significance, as well as their respective regulatory regions (~370 kbp of genomic sequence/individual)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145878/improving-readiness-for-recruitment-through-simulated-trial-activation-the-adjuvant-steroids-in-adults-with-pandemic-influenza-asap-trial
#8
Wei Shen Lim, Garry Meakin, Clare Brittain, Thomas Bewick, Lelia Duley
BACKGROUND: Research in public health emergencies requires trials to be set up in readiness for activation at short notice and in anticipation of limited timelines for patient recruitment. We conducted a simulated activation of a hibernating pandemic influenza clinical trial in order to test trial processes and to determine the value of such simulation in maintaining trial readiness. METHODS: The simulation involved the Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, one participating hospital, one manufacturing unit and the Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) supplier...
November 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138454/differences-in-mitochondrial-function-and-morphology-during-cooling-and-rewarming-between-hibernator-and-non-hibernator-derived-kidney-epithelial-cells
#9
Koen D W Hendriks, Eleonora Lupi, Maarten C Hardenberg, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Leo E Deelman, Robert H Henning
Hibernators show superior resistance to ischemia and hypothermia, also outside the hibernation season. Therefore, hibernation is a promising strategy to decrease cellular damage in a variety of fields, such as organ transplantation. Here, we explored the role of mitochondria herein, by comparing epithelial cell lines from a hibernator (hamster kidney cells, HaK) and a non-hibernator (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293) during cold preservation at 4 °C and rewarming. Cell survival (Neutral Red), ATP and MDA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial morphology (using fluorescent probes) and metabolism (seahorse XF) were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133227/chilling-effect-on-termination-of-reproductive-diapause-in-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#10
Shaohui Wu, Olga S Kostromytska, Fangsen Xue, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Diapausing adults of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, were collected from their hibernating sites at different times in autumn and winter, and subjected to different conditions to observe diapause termination by dissecting and measuring the reproductive organs. When diapausing weevils were maintained under laboratory cold conditions (10 h light at 6°C:14 h dark at 4°C) from early December to late March, the sizes of reproductive organs of both sexes increased or fluctuated slightly, and very few females had developing oocytes, suggesting that most adults did not resume development during the chilling period...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125496/consciousness-in-hibernation-and-synthetic-torpor
#11
Matteo Cerri
While human hibernation would provide many advantages for medical applications and space exploration, the intrinsic risks of the procedure itself, as well as those involved if the procedure were to be misused, need to be assessed. Moreover, the distinctive brain state that is present during a hibernation-like state raises questions regarding the state of consciousness of the subject. Since, in animal studies, the cortical activity of this state differs from that of sleep, coma, or even general anesthesia, and resembles a sort of "slowed wakefulness", it is uncertain whether residual consciousness may still be present...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113989/cold-hearted-bats-uncoupling-of-heart-rate-and-metabolism-during-torpor-at-subzero-temperatures
#12
Shannon E Currie, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature (Tb) below 10°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature (Tcrit) animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below Tcrit for a small tree dwelling bat (Chalinolobus gouldii, ∼14 g) that is often exposed to subzero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2) we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures (Ta 5-20°C)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077745/the-effects-of-epidermal-fatty-acid-profiles-1-oleoglycerol-and-triacylglycerols-on-the-susceptibility-of-hibernating-bats-to-pseudogymnoascus-destructans
#13
Melissa R Ingala, Rebecca E Ravenelle, Johanna J Monro, Craig L Frank
White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (M. sodalis), northern (M. septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066338/electrocardiographic-changes-after-successful-recanalization-of-a-chronic-total-coronary-occlusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ivo M van Dongen, Joëlle Elias, Veronique M F Meijborg, Jacques M T De Bakker, Jacqueline Limpens, Chantal E Conrath, José P S Henriques
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that in patients with a CTO successful recanalization is associated with better clinical outcome. This could be related to a reduction in the occurrence of arrhythmias, which may result from modifications of the hibernating myocardium in a CTO region. METHODS AND RESULTS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of CTO PCI on electrophysiological parameters, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA guidelines...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056695/myocardial-adiponectin-isoform-shift-in-dogs-with-congestive-heart-failure-a-comparison-to-hibernating-brown-bears-ursus-arctos-horribilis
#15
O Lynne Nelson, Rachael M Wood, Jens Häggström, Clarence Kvart, Charles T Robbins
Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma adipokine, and is well known for its role in energy homeostasis and cardiac protection. In humans with dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial adiponectin protein expression is reduced compared to normal hearts and has been implicated in the pathology of cardiomyopathy. Serum adiponectin levels are often conflicting, with higher levels associated with poor survival in humans with congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluated adiponectin serum concentrations and myocardial protein expression in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease and CHF...
July 20, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046553/pesticide-reduces-bumblebee-colony-initiation-and-increases-probability-of-population-extinction
#16
Gemma L Baron, Vincent A A Jansen, Mark J F Brown, Nigel E Raine
Pollinators are in global decline and agricultural pesticides are a potential driver of this. Recent studies have suggested that pesticides may significantly impact bumblebee colonies-an important and declining group of pollinators. Here, we show that colony-founding queens, a critical yet vulnerable stage of the bumblebee lifecycle, are less likely to initiate a colony after exposure to thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide. Bombus terrestris queens were exposed to field-relevant levels of thiamethoxam and two natural stressors: the parasite Crithidia bombi and varying hibernation durations...
September 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045649/understanding-evolutionary-impacts-of-seasonality-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#17
Caroline M Williams, Gregory J Ragland, Gustavo Betini, Lauren B Buckley, Zachary A Cheviron, Kathleen Donohue, Joe Hereford, Murray M Humphries, Simeon Lisovski, Katie E Marshall, Paul S Schmidt, Kimberly S Sheldon, Øystein Varpe, Marcel E Visser
Seasonality is a critically important aspect of environmental variability, and strongly shapes all aspects of life for organisms living in highly seasonal environments. Seasonality has played a key role in generating biodiversity, and has driven the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations and behaviors such as migration and hibernation. Fluctuating selection pressures on survival and fecundity between summer and winter provide a complex selective landscape, which can be met by a combination of three outcomes of adaptive evolution: genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, and bet-hedging...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045417/effects-of-food-store-quality-on-hibernation-performance-in-common-hamsters
#18
Carina Siutz, Matthias Nemeth, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Thomas Ruf, Eva Millesi
Hibernating animals can adjust torpor expression according to available energy reserves. Besides the quantity, the quality of energy reserves could play an important role for overwintering strategies. Common hamsters are food-storing hibernators and show high individual variation in hibernation performance, which might be related to the quality of food hoards in the hibernacula. In this study, we tested the effects of food stores high in fat content, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on hibernation patterns under laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#19
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038778/ophthalmological-abnormalities-in-wild-european-hedgehogs-erinaceus-europaeus-a-survey-of-300-animals
#20
David Williams, Nina Adeyeye, Erni Visser
In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy in animals where lesions were detected. Tonometry using the Tonovet rebound tonometer was undertaken in selected animals as was assessment of tear production using the Schirmer I tear test...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
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