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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#1
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
October 12, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031544/effects-of-augmented-corticosterone-in-painted-turtle-eggs-on-offspring-development-and-behavior
#2
Rebecca L Polich, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Clare I M Adams, Fredric J Janzen
Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta...
October 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017960/upper-respiratory-tract-nociceptor-stimulation-and-stress-response-following-acute-and-repeated-cyfluthrin-inhalation-in-normal-and-pregnant-rats-physiological-rat-specific-adaptions-can-easily-be-misunderstood-as-adversities
#3
Juergen Pauluhn
This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans...
October 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016625/state-dependent-metabolic-partitioning-and-energy-conservation-a-theoretical-framework-for-understanding-the-function-of-sleep
#4
Markus H Schmidt, Theodore W Swang, Ian M Hamilton, Janet A Best
Metabolic rate reduction has been considered the mechanism by which sleep conserves energy, similar to torpor or hibernation. This mechanism of energy savings is in conflict with the known upregulation (compared to wake) of diverse functions during sleep and neglects a potential role in energy conservation for partitioning of biological operations by behavioral state. Indeed, energy savings as derived from state-dependent resource allocations have yet to be examined. A mathematical model is presented based on relative rates of energy deployment for biological processes upregulated during either wake or sleep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985332/trade-offs-influencing-the-physiological-ecology-of-hibernation-in-temperate-zone-bats
#5
Craig K R Willis
Seasonality of temperature and food availability can lead to trade-offs between the benefits of immediate reproduction and costs associated with mortality risk from starvation, inclement weather, or predation. Hibernating mammals exhibit an enormous seasonal shift in physiology and behavior and provide a useful system to examine the effect of this trade-off on key events in the annual cycle. Most of what we understand about the ecological energetics and phenology of hibernation comes from studies of rodent hibernators such as ground squirrels, chipmunks, and dormice...
July 26, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980143/nmr-assignments-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-staphylococcus-aureus-hibernation-promoting-factor-sahpf
#6
Konstantin S Usachev, Rustam Kh Ayupov, Shamil Z Validov, Iskander Sh Khusainov, Marat M Yusupov
Staphylococcus aureus: hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) is a 22.2 kDa stationary-phase protein that binds to the ribosome and turns it to the inactive form favoring survival under stress. Sequence analysis has shown that this protein is combination of two homolog proteins obtained in Escherichia coli-ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) (11,000 Da) and ribosome modulation factor RMF (6500 Da). Binding site of E. coli HPF on the ribosome have been shown by X-ray study of Thermus thermophilus ribosome complex...
October 4, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979209/evolution-of-ucp1-transcriptional-regulatory-elements-across-the-mammalian-phylogeny
#7
Michael J Gaudry, Kevin L Campbell
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) permits non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) when highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria. Exclusive to placental mammals, BAT has commonly been regarded to be advantageous for thermoregulation in hibernators, small-bodied species, and the neonates of larger species. While numerous regulatory control motifs associated with UCP1 transcription have been proposed for murid rodents, it remains unclear whether these are conserved across the eutherian mammal phylogeny and hence essential for UCP1 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974933/gaseous-mediators-and-mitochondrial-function-the-future-of-pharmacologically-induced-suspended-animation
#8
REVIEW
Clair Hartmann, Benedikt Nussbaum, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
The role of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as poisonous gases is well-established. However, they are not only endogenously produced but also, at low concentrations, exert beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammation, and cytoprotection. This knowledge initiated the ongoing debate, as to whether these molecules, also referred to as "gaseous mediators" or "gasotransmitters," could serve as novel therapeutic agents. In this context, it is noteworthy, that all gasotransmitters specifically target the mitochondria, and that this interaction may modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics, thereby subsequently affecting metabolic function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969685/west-nile-virus-in-overwintering-mosquitoes-central-europe
#9
Ivo Rudolf, Lenka Betášová, Hana Blažejová, Kristýna Venclíková, Petra Straková, Oldřich Šebesta, Jan Mendel, Tamás Bakonyi, Francis Schaffner, Norbert Nowotny, Zdeněk Hubálek
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the most important mosquito-borne pathogen spreading in Europe. Data on overwintering of WNV in mosquitoes are crucial for understanding WNV circulation in Europe; nonetheless, such data were not available so far. RESULTS: A total of 28,287 hibernating mosquitoes [27,872 Culex pipiens, 73 Anopheles maculipennis (sensu lato), and 342 Culiseta annulata], caught in February or March between 2011 and 2017 in a WNV-endemic region of South Moravia, Czech Republic, were screened for the presence of WNV RNA...
October 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966019/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-levels-are-related-to-the-extent-of-hibernating-myocardium-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-failure
#10
Jason G E Zelt, Peter P Liu, Fernanda Erthal, Robert A deKemp, George Wells, Eileen O'Meara, Linda Garrard, Rob S B Beanlands, Lisa M Mielniczuk
BACKGROUND: Increased N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) can identify patients with heart failure (HF) who are at increased risk of cardiac events. The relationship of these biomarkers to the extent of hibernating myocardium and scar has not been previously characterized in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and HF. METHODS: Patients with ischemic HF meeting recruitment criteria and undergoing perfusion and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to define myocardial hibernation and scar were included in the study...
June 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959045/a-general-mechanism-of-ribosome-dimerization-revealed-by-single-particle-cryo-electron-microscopy
#11
Linda E Franken, Gert T Oostergetel, Tjaard Pijning, Pranav Puri, Valentina Arkhipova, Egbert J Boekema, Bert Poolman, Albert Guskov
Bacteria downregulate their ribosomal activity through dimerization of 70S ribosomes, yielding inactive 100S complexes. In Escherichia coli, dimerization is mediated by the hibernation promotion factor (HPF) and ribosome modulation factor. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy study on 100S ribosomes from Lactococcus lactis and a dimerization mechanism involving a single protein: HPF(long). The N-terminal domain of HPF(long) binds at the same site as HPF in Escherichia coli 100S ribosomes. Contrary to ribosome modulation factor, the C-terminal domain of HPF(long) binds exactly at the dimer interface...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959035/the-cryo-em-structure-of-hibernating-100s-ribosome-dimer-from-pathogenic-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Donna Matzov, Shintaro Aibara, Arnab Basu, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Mee-Ngan F Yap, Alexey Amunts, Ada E Yonath
Formation of 100S ribosome dimer is generally associated with translation suppression in bacteria. Trans-acting factors ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernating promoting factor (HPF) were shown to directly mediate this process in E. coli. Gram-positive S. aureus lacks an RMF homolog and the structural basis for its 100S formation was not known. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the native 100S ribosome from S. aureus, revealing the molecular mechanism of its formation. The structure is distinct from previously reported analogs and relies on the HPF C-terminal extension forming the binding platform for the interactions between both of the small ribosomal subunits...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944007/the-other-white-nose-syndrome-transcriptome-tolerant-and-susceptible-hosts-respond-differently-to-the-pathogen-pseudogymnoascus-destructans
#13
Christina M Davy, Michael E Donaldson, Craig K R Willis, Barry J Saville, Liam P McGuire, Heather Mayberry, Alana Wilcox, Gudrun Wibbelt, Vikram Misra, Trent Bollinger, Christopher J Kyle
Mitigation of emerging infectious diseases that threaten global biodiversity requires an understanding of critical host and pathogen responses to infection. For multihost pathogens where pathogen virulence or host susceptibility is variable, host-pathogen interactions in tolerant species may identify potential avenues for adaptive evolution in recently exposed, susceptible hosts. For example, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and is responsible for catastrophic declines in some species in North America, where it was recently introduced...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#14
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#15
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925157/-studies-on-hibernation-pivotal-temperature-of-whitmania-pigra
#16
Shi-Meng Yan, Hong-Zhuan Shi, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Jia Wang, Bin Wu, Guo-Wei Shi, Meng-Meng Li, Dao-Xin Dai, Man-Jun Wu
The biological characteristics, oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption rate, and activities of amylase, lipase and protease of Whitmania pigra at different temperature were studied by using direct observational method, the still water method and 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry, right-nitrophenyl palmitate ester(ρ-NPP)colorimetry and folin-phenol method.The results revealed that with decreasing water temperature, the daily activity and the daily feeding ration were decreased. As the temperature was lowered to 4 ℃, the head and tail of Wh...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918505/purification-and-characterization-of-skeletal-muscle-pyruvate-kinase-from-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-richardsonii-potential-regulation-by-posttranslational-modification-during-torpor
#17
Ryan A V Bell, Kenneth B Storey
Ground squirrel torpor during winter hibernation is characterized by numerous physiological and biochemical changes, including alterations to fuel metabolism. During torpor, many tissues switch from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism, often by regulating key enzymes within glycolytic and lipolytic pathways. This study investigates the potential regulation of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key member of the glycolytic pathway, within the skeletal muscle of hibernating ground squirrels. PK was purified from the skeletal muscle of control and torpid Richardson's ground squirrels, and PK kinetics, structural stability, and posttranslational modifications were subsequently assessed...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914739/hypothermic-neuroprotections-in-the-brain-of-an-echolocation-bat-hipposideros-terasensis
#18
Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Philip H-S Jen, Chung-Hsin Wu
The present study aimed to investigate how bats protect their brain in a hypothermic situation. Formosan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros terasensis) were used in this study and treated under three conditions: room temperature (25±1°C), low temperature (4±1°C), and hibernation. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the blood and apoptosis-related proteins in the brain tissue were assessed and then compared among those bats under three conditions. Our results showed that the blood ROS levels of bats treated under conditions of low temperature and hibernation were significantly reduced compared with bats treated under the condition of room temperature...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912046/seasonal-expression-of-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-receptor-in-testes-of-the-wild-ground-squirrels-citellus-dauricus-brandt
#19
Junjie Wang, Ying Wang, Manyu Zhu, Fengwei Zhang, Xia Sheng, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and their receptors luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) play roles in the seasonal spermatogenesis of the wild ground squirrels. To that end, we characterized the testicular immunolocalization of LHR and FSHR, their expression on both mRNA and protein levels, as well as serum concentrations of LH and FSH in male wild ground squirrels throughout the annual reproductive cycle...
September 11, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903476/adenoviral-intramyocardial-vegf-d%C3%AE-n%C3%AE-c-gene-transfer-increases-myocardial-perfusion-reserve-in-refractory-angina-patients-a-phase-i-iia-study-with-1-year-follow-up
#20
Juha Hartikainen, Iiro Hassinen, Antti Hedman, Antti Kivelä, Antti Saraste, Juhani Knuuti, Minna Husso, Hanna Mussalo, Marja Hedman, Tuomas T Rissanen, Pyry Toivanen, Tommi Heikura, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Aims: We evaluated for the first time the effects of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic AdVEGF-DΔNΔC gene therapy in patients with refractory angina. Methods and results: Thirty patients were randomized to AdVEGF-DΔNΔC (AdVEGF-D) or placebo (control) groups. Electromechanical NOGA mapping and radiowater PET were used to identify hibernating viable myocardium where treatment was targeted. Safety, severity of symptoms, quality of life, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and routine clinical chemistry were measured...
September 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
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