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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645916/structures-and-dynamics-of-hibernating-ribosomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-mediated-by-intermolecular-interactions-of-hpf
#1
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Rustam Ayupov, Konstantin Usachev, Alexander Myasnikov, Angelita Simonetti, Shamil Validov, Bruno Kieffer, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
In bacteria, ribosomal hibernation shuts down translation as a response to stress, through reversible binding of stress-induced proteins to ribosomes. This process typically involves the formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Here, we present the structures of hibernating ribosomes from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus containing a long variant of the hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy. Our reconstructions reveal that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SaHPF binds to the 30S subunit as observed for shorter variants of HPF in other species...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#2
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#3
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632782/microbial-inhibitors-of-the-fungus-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-the-causal-agent-of-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats
#4
Emma W Micalizzi, Jonathan N Mack, George P White, Tyler J Avis, Myron L Smith
Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we screened 301 microbes from diverse environmental samples for their ability to inhibit the growth of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617823/resource-capture-and-competitive-ability-of-non-pathogenic-pseudogymnoascus-spp-and-p-destructans-the-cause-of-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats
#5
Michael B Wilson, Benjamin W Held, Amanda H Freiborg, Robert A Blanchette, Christine E Salomon
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may provide insight into the natural history of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614673/pseudogymnoascus-destructans-transcriptome-changes-during-white-nose-syndrome-infections
#6
Sophia M Reeder, Jonathan M Palmer, Jenni M Prokkola, Thomas M Lilley, DeeAnn M Reeder, Kenneth A Field
White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are involved in infection of living tissue, we examined fungal gene expression using RNA-Seq. We compared P. destructans gene expression when grown in culture to that during infection of a North American bat species, Myotis lucifugus, that shows high WNS mortality...
June 14, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611685/entosis-acts-as-a-novel-way-within-sertoli-cells-to-eliminate-spermatozoa-in-seminiferous-tubule
#7
Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang, Yufei Huang, Hong Chen, Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Fazul Nabi, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that in vivo entosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (ST) during hibernation of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of LAMP1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. Immunohistochemistry reaction showed that LAMP1-positive substance was distributed within the Sertoli cells of the testis. Further examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), many degraded spermatozoa being enwrapped within large entotic vacuoles in Sertoli cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607919/the-mammary-stem-cell-field-wakes-up-to-hibernating-cells
#8
EDITORIAL
Ewa M Michalak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600682/chironomidae-traits-and-life-history-strategies-as-indicators-of-anthropogenic-disturbance
#9
Sónia R Q Serra, Manuel A S Graça, Sylvain Dolédec, Maria João Feio
In freshwater ecosystems, Chironomidae are currently considered indicators of poor water quality because the family is often abundant in degraded sites. However, it incorporates taxa with a large ecological and physiological diversity and different sensitivity to impairment. Yet, the usual identification of Chironomidae at coarse taxonomic levels (family or subfamily) masks genus and species sensitivities. In this study, we investigate the potential of taxonomic and functional (traits) composition of Chironomidae to detect anthropogenic disturbance...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597237/energy-conserving-thermoregulatory-patterns-and-lower-disease-severity-in-a-bat-resistant-to-the-impacts-of-white-nose-syndrome
#10
Marianne S Moore, Kenneth A Field, Melissa J Behr, Gregory G Turner, Morgan E Furze, Daniel W F Stern, Paul R Allegra, Sarah A Bouboulis, Chelsey D Musante, Megan E Vodzak, Matthew E Biron, Melissa B Meierhofer, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S Johnson, Thomas M Lilley, Benjamin W Barrett, DeeAnn M Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS in the wild and suggests that survival is related to different host physiological responses...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587209/variability-in-the-content-of-trans-resveratrol-trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-and-r2-viniferin-in-grape-cane-of-seven-vitis-vinifera-l-varieties-during-a-three-year-study
#11
Jan Tříska, Naděžda Vrchotová, Josef Balík, Ivo Soural, Radek Sotolář
Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014-2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L...
June 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577280/the-role-of-myocardial-viability-in-contemporary-cardiac-practice
#12
REVIEW
Abdelrahman Jamiel, Mohamad Ebid, Amjad M Ahmed, Dalia Ahmed, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains the single most common cause of death worldwide. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a major sequel of coronary artery disease. The economic health burden of IHD is substantial. In patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI), the extent of viable myocardium (VM) directly affects the short- and long-term outcome. There is a considerable collection of observational data showing substantial improvement in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction when the need for revascularization is guided by preoperative assessment of viability and hibernation...
June 3, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576823/heart-rate-dynamics-in-a-marsupial-hibernator
#13
Steven J Swoap, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
The eastern pygmy-possum (Cercartetus nanus) is a small marsupial that can express spontaneous short bouts of torpor, as well as multi-day bouts of deep hibernation. To examine heart rate (HR) control at various stages of torpor in a marsupial hibernator, and to see whether HR variability differs from deep placental hibernators, we used radiotelemetry to measure ECG and Tb while measuring the rate of O2 consumption and ventilation. The HR and rate of O2 consumption during euthermia was at its minimum (321±34 bpm, 0...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574587/stress-responsive-micrornas-are-involved-in-re-programming-of-metabolic-functions-in-hibernators
#14
REVIEW
Yasir Arfat, Chang Hui, Gao Yunfang
Mammalian hibernation includes re-programming of metabolic capacities, partially, encouraged by microRNAs (miRNAs). Albeit much is known about the functions of miRNAs, we need learning on low temperature miRNAs target determination. As hibernators can withstand low body temperatures (TB) for a long time without anguish tissue damage, understanding the means and mechanisms that empower them to do as such are of restorative intrigue. Nonetheless, these mechanisms by which miRNAs and the hibernators react to stressful conditions are not much clear...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566305/tissue-specific-seasonal-changes-in-mitochondrial-function-of-a-mammalian-hibernator
#15
Ashley B Heim, Dillon J Chung, Gregory L Florant, Adam J Chicco
Mammalian hibernators, such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis; GMGS), cease to feed while reducing metabolic rate and body temperature during winter months, surviving exclusively on endogenous fuels stored prior to hibernation. We hypothesized that mitochondria, the cellular sites of oxidative metabolism, undergo tissue-specific seasonal adjustments in carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization to facilitate or compliment this remarkable phenotype. To address this, we performed high-resolution respirometry of mitochondria isolated from GMGS liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) sampled during summer (active), fall (prehibernation), and winter (hibernation) seasons using multi-substrate titration protocols...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554970/the-philae-lander-mission-and-science-overview
#16
REVIEW
Hermann Boehnhardt, Jean-Pierre Bibring, Istvan Apathy, Hans Ulrich Auster, Amalia Ercoli Finzi, Fred Goesmann, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Martin Knapmeyer, Wlodek Kofman, Harald Krüger, Stefano Mottola, Walter Schmidt, Klaus Seidensticker, Tilman Spohn, Ian Wright
The Philae lander accomplished the first soft landing and the first scientific experiments of a human-made spacecraft on the surface of a comet. Planned, expected and unexpected activities and events happened during the descent, the touch-downs, the hopping across and the stay and operations on the surface. The key results were obtained during 12-14 November 2014, at 3 AU from the Sun, during the 63 h long period of the descent and of the first science sequence on the surface. Thereafter, Philae went into hibernation, waking up again in late April 2015 with subsequent communication periods with Earth (via the orbiter), too short to enable new scientific activities...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#17
Yosef Hyams, Guy Paz, Claudette Rabinowitz, Baruch Rinkevich
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542925/a-new-insight-into-the-ability-to-resist-ischemic-brain-injury-does-hibernation-matter-an-editorial-comment-for-arctic-ground-squirrel-hippocampus-tolerates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-independent-of-hibernation-season-even-when-not-hibernating-and-after-atp
#18
EDITORIAL
Thomas I Nathaniel, Bianca Stewart, Jessica Williams, Michael Hood, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel
Read the commented article 'Arctic ground squirrel hippocampus tolerates oxygen glucose deprivation independent of hibernation season even when not hibernating and after ATP depletion, acidosis and glutamate efflux' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13996.
July 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#19
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539682/the-human-body-as-an-energetic-hybrid-new-perspectives-for-chronic-disease-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Michał Gajewski, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Sławomir Maśliński
Inflammatory response is accompanied by changes in cellular energy metabolism. Proinflammatory mediators like plasma C-reactive protein, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF-α or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released in the site of inflammation activates immune cells and increase energy consumption. Increased demand for energy creates local hypoxia and lead in consequence to mitochondrial dysfunction. Metabolism of cells is switched to anaerobic glycolysis. Mitochondria continuously generate free radicals that what result in imbalance that causes oxidative stress, which results in oxidative damage...
2017: Reumatologia
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