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Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 20, 2018: GeroScience
Jeong-Jin Yang, Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Yoon-Kyu Lim
Physiological characteristics, such as blood chemistry values, are valuable for evaluating the health of the animals. To our knowledge, these values have never been reported for the free-ranging Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus; ABB). Thus, 28 blood chemistry values from 50 free-ranging ABBs captured in Jirisan National Park, Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2016 were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish blood chemistry reference values for the free-ranging ABBs during both the hibernating and nonhibernating seasons...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Adele Bordoni, Leonardo Dapporto, Irene Tatini, Martina Celli, Manuel Bercigli, Serena Ressurrección Barrufet, Brunella Perito, Stefano Turillazzi
Trans-generational immunization is defined as the transmission of an enhanced resistance to a pathogen from parents to offspring. By using the host-parasite system of the ant Crematogaster scutellaris and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae , we describe this phenomenon for the first time in ants. We exposed four groups of hibernating queens to different treatments (i) a non-lethal dose of live conidiospores in Triton, (ii) a dose of heat-killed conidiospores in Triton, (iii) a control Triton solution, and (iv) a naive control...
April 2018: Biology Letters
Hana Bandouchova, Tomáš Bartonička, Hana Berkova, Jiri Brichta, Tomasz Kokurewicz, Veronika Kovacova, Petr Linhart, Vladimir Piacek, Jiri Pikula, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal
In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). We sampled three European hibernacula that differ in geomorphology and microclimatic conditions...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yonggang Niu, Jianjun Wang, Shengkang Men, Yaofeng Zhao, Songsong Lu, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The frog Nanorana pleskei (Dicroglossidae) is indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To identify its strategies in coping with the cold climate, we measured the hibernacula microhabitat temperature during winter. We also examined the freezing-induced and seasonal variation of several putative cryoprotectants in the heart, liver, brain, kidney and muscle, as well as ice-nucleating protein in plasma. Our results showed that N. pleskei survived exposure to temperatures as low as - 2.5 ± 0.40 °C during hibernation, which was lower than the body fluid freezing point (- 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
M Mahbubur Rahman, Eunmok Kim, Un Taek Lim
Two unexplained phenomena are found in Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae): the first is that it tends to enter reproductive diapause much earlier in the season and to occur on host plants until late fall before finding hibernation site. The second is that they emerge in early spring when primary food sources such as leguminous plants are unavailable. To understand these phenological trends, the reproductive seasonality of both field-collected and laboratory-reared R. pedestris were compared under conditions of with/without food or access to mates...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Laura Hocum Stone, Christin Wright, Erin Chappuis, Mia Messer, Herbert B Ward, Edward O McFalls, Rosemary F Kelly
Chronic cardiac ischemia that impairs cardiac function, but does not result in infarct, is termed hibernating myocardium (HM). A large clinical subset of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have HM, which in addition to causing impaired function, puts them at higher risk for arrhythmia and future cardiac events. The standard treatment for this condition is revascularization, but this has been shown to be an imperfect therapy. The majority of pre-clinical cardiac research focuses on infarct models of cardiac ischemia, leaving this subset of chronic ischemia patients largely underserved...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sally Padhi, Itamar Dias, Victoria L Korn, Joan W Bennett
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans . The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 °C...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Shannon E Currie
Heterothermic animals regularly undergo profound alterations of cardiac function associated with torpor. These animals have specialised tissues capable of withstanding fluctuations in body temperature > 30 °C without adverse effects. In particular, the hearts of heterotherms are able to resist fibrillation and discontinuity of the cardiac conduction system common in homeotherms during hypothermia. To investigate the patterns of cardiac conduction in small insectivorous bats which enter torpor year round, I simultaneously measured ECG and subcutaneous temperature (Tsub ) of 21 Nyctophilus gouldi (11 g) during torpor at a range of ambient temperatures (Ta 1-28 °C)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Fei Peng, Xianxian Chen, Ting Meng, En Li, Yongkang Zhou, Shengzhou Zhang
The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered freshwater crocodilian species endemic to China. Hematology and serum biochemistry reference range are useful in the assessment and management of animal health condition. In this study, a total of 74 Chinese Alligators (30 males and 44 females) were examined to establish reference range values of hematology and serum biochemistry parameters during the active and hibernating periods. We measured and analyzed 9 hematology and 21 serum biochemistry parameters including 4 serum electrolyte parameters, and described the morphology of different types of blood cells...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
Melissa B Meierhofer, Joseph S Johnson, Kenneth A Field, Shayne S Lumadue, Allen Kurta, Joseph A Kath, DeeAnn M Reeder
  Host responses to infection with novel pathogens are costly and require trade-offs among physiologic systems. One such pathogen is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) and has led to mass mortality of hibernating bats in eastern North America. Although infection with Pd does not always result in death, we hypothesized that bats that survive infection suffer significant consequences that negatively impact the ability of females to reproduce. To understand the physiologic consequences of surviving infection with Pd, we assessed differences in wing damage, mass-specific resting metabolic rate, and reproductive rate between little brown myotis ( Myotis lucifugus) that survived a winter in captivity after inoculation with Pd (WNS survivors) and comparable, uninfected bats...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Stéphanie Chanon, Blandine Chazarin, Benoit Toubhans, Christine Durand, Isabelle Chery, Maud Robert, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Jon E Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser, Alina L Evans, Sven Brunberg, Jon M Arnemo, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Kenneth B Storey, Chantal Simon, Stéphane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile, Etienne Lefai
Muscle atrophy is one of the main characteristics of human ageing and physical inactivity, with resulting adverse health outcomes. To date, there are still no efficient therapeutic strategies for its prevention and/or treatment. However, during hibernation, bears exhibit a unique ability for preserving muscle in conditions where muscle atrophy would be expected in humans. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether there are components of bear serum which can control protein balance in human muscles. In this study, we exposed cultured human differentiated muscle cells to bear serum collected during winter and summer periods, and measured the impact on cell protein content and turnover...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michelle L Verant, Elizabeth A Bohuski, Katherine L D Richgels, Kevin J Olival, Jonathan H Epstein, David S Blehert
1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Annemarie Perez Boerema, Shintaro Aibara, Bijoya Paul, Victor Tobiasson, Dari Kimanius, Björn O Forsberg, Karin Wallden, Erik Lindahl, A Amunts
Oxygenic photosynthesis produces oxygen and builds a variety of organic compounds, changing the chemistry of the air, the sea and fuelling the food chain on our planet. The photochemical reactions underpinning this process in plants take place in the chloroplast. Chloroplasts evolved ~1.2 billion years ago from an engulfed primordial diazotrophic cyanobacterium, and chlororibosomes are responsible for synthesis of the core proteins driving photochemical reactions. Chlororibosomal activity is spatiotemporally coupled to the synthesis and incorporation of functionally essential co-factors, implying the presence of chloroplast-specific regulatory mechanisms and structural adaptation of the chlororibosome1,2 ...
April 2, 2018: Nature Plants
Liang Ma, Bao-Jun Sun, Peng Cao, Xing-Han Li, Wei-Guo Du
Temperature variability is predicted to increase in the coming century due to climate change. However, the biological impact of increased temperature variability on animals remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally exposed gravid viviparous lizards (Eremias multiocellata) to two thermal environments [constant daily maximum (CDM) versus variable daily maximum (VDM) treatment with the same average temperature] to address maternal and offspring responses to increased variability in ambient temperature...
March 28, 2018: Oecologia
Xuan Jiang, Tianxiang Gu, Yu Liu, Chun Wang, Enyi Shi, Guangwei Zhang, Zongyi Xiu
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that special protein exists in hibernating chipmunk albumin and whether this protein has a neuroprotective effect in Sprague-Dawley rats during deep hypothermia circulatory arrest. METHODS: Forty chipmunks were allocated into a hibernation group and an active group (20 chipmunks in each group). Special protein was detected and isolated from hibernating chipmunk albumin. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, deep hypothermia circulatory arrest group, special protein group, and naloxone group (10 rats in each group)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jingxing Ou, John M Ball, Yizhao Luan, Tantai Zhao, Kiyoharu J Miyagishima, Yufeng Xu, Huizhi Zhou, Jinguo Chen, Dana K Merriman, Zhi Xie, Barbara S Mallon, Wei Li
Hibernating mammals survive hypothermia (<10°C) without injury, a remarkable feat of cellular preservation that bears significance for potential medical applications. However, mechanisms imparting cold resistance, such as cytoskeleton stability, remain elusive. Using the first iPSC line from a hibernating mammal (13-lined ground squirrel), we uncovered cellular pathways critical for cold tolerance. Comparison between human and ground squirrel iPSC-derived neurons revealed differential mitochondrial and protein quality control responses to cold...
March 20, 2018: Cell
P J Davison, J Field
Abstract: Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Janin Lautenschläger, Eugene V Mosharov, Ellen Kanter, David Sulzer, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle
Postnatally derived cultures of ventral mesencephalic neurons offer several crucial advantages over embryonic ventral mesencephalic cultures, including a higher content of TH-positive cells and the ability to derive cells from the substantia nigra, which contains the neurons most vulnerable to Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, these cultures are more challenging to produce consistently. Here, we provide an easy-to-implement protocol for culturing postnatal ventral mesencephalic cells from the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area using commercially available media, dishes, and general lab equipment, avoiding extensive material and equipment purchases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Feifei Zhang, Wei Yang, Yuetao Wang, Haipeng Tang, Jianfeng Wang, Xiaoliang Shao, Ziyi Wang, Xiaoying Zhang, Ling Yang, Xiaosong Wang, Weihua Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is an important factor in the prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors of LVMD in MI patients by radionuclide myocardial imaging. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study consisted of 91 patients who had a history of definite prior MI and underwent both technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99m Tc-MIBI) gated single photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial metabolic imaging...
March 20, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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