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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245184/evaluation-of-the-use-of-novel-biomarkers-to-augment-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-activities
#1
Kayla R Stover, Rachel M Kenney, Travis S King, Alan E Gross
As antimicrobial stewardship increasingly receives worldwide attention for improving patient care by optimizing antimicrobial therapy, programs are evaluating new tools that may augment antimicrobial stewardship activities. Biomarkers are objective, accurate, and reproducible measures that provide information about medical conditions. A systematic literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed to evaluate the use of novel biomarkers as additions to the antimicrobial stewardship armamentarium...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244718/prebiotic-dietary-fiber-and-gut-health-comparing-the-in-vitro-fermentations-of-beta-glucan-inulin-and-xylooligosaccharide
#2
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226760/the-diagnostic-performance-of-the-beta-glucan-assay-in-the-detection-of-intra-amniotic-infection-with-candida-species
#3
Percy Pacora, Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Adi L Tarca, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Sonia S Hassan
INTRODUCTION: A bioassay based on the detection of beta-glucan, a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, has been successfully used to diagnose fungal infections in a variety of biological fluids but not yet in the amniotic fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of a beta-glucan bioassay in the detection of Candida species in the amniotic fluid. METHODS: The study population comprised women who had a singleton pregnancy without congenital or chromosomal abnormalities, who experienced preterm labor or preterm prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes, and who underwent transabdominal amniocentesis for clinical indications...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222034/management-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-candidemia-in-critically-ill-adults-expert-opinion-of-the-european-society-of-anaesthesia-esa-intensive-care-scientific-subcommittee
#4
REVIEW
Ruth-Aoibheann OLeary, Sharon Einav, Marc Leone, Krisztina Madách, Claude Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
OBJECTIVE: The global burden of invasive fungal disease is increasing. Candida albicans remains the leading cause of fungal blood stream infections although non-albicans Candidal infections are emerging. Areas of controversy regarding diagnosis and management are hampering our ability to respond effectively to this evolving threat. The purpose of this narrative review is to address current controversies and provide recommendations to supplement guidelines. DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS: Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis requires a combination of diagnostic tests and patient risk factors...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174675/designing-an-immunocyte-targeting-delivery-system-by-use-of-beta-glucan
#5
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Kazuo Sakurai
A β-1,3-d-glucan called Schizophyllan (SPG) can form a novel complex with homo oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) via the combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Dectin-1 is a major receptor involved in the recognition of β-1,3-d-glucans and expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and a subset of T cells. Therefore, the SPG/ODN complex can be used as APCs cell-specific delivery of functional ODNs including unmethylated CpG sequences (CpG-ODNs)...
November 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165477/barley-beta-glucans-varying-in-molecular-mass-and-oligomer-structure-affect-cecal-fermentation-and-microbial-composition-but-not-blood-lipid-profiles-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#6
Mette S Mikkelsen, Morten G Jensen, Tina S Nielsen
There is an unmet need for appealing and functional barley β-glucan (BG) food matrices that can provide sufficient and active BG doses to consumers. We investigated how molecular mass and oligomer structure important for BG food and health properties affected plasma lipids and gut parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Following 3 weeks on a high-cholestrol diet, rats were given a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either cellulose (control) or purified barley BGs with low (100 or 150 kDa; glucagel or lowBG, respectively) or medium (530 kDa; mediumBG) molecular masses varying in cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl oligomer ratio for 4 weeks...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164827/inhibitors-against-fungal-cell-wall-remodelling-enzymes
#7
Pedro Merino, Ignacio Delso, Jessika Valero-Gonzalez, Fernando Gomollon-Bel, Jorge Castro-Lopez, Wenxia Fang, Iva Navratilova, Daan M F van Aalten, Tomas Tejero, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero
Fungal beta-1,3-glucan glucanosyltransferases are glucan-remodeling enzymes that play important roles in cell wall integrity, and are essential for the viability of pathogenic fungi/yeasts. As such, they are considered possible drug targets, although inhibitors of this class of enzymes have not yet been reported. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach, based on a structure-guided design using a highly conserved transglycosylase from Sacharomyces cerevisiae, that leads to carbohydrate derivatives with high affinity for Aspergillus fumigatus Gel4...
November 22, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157901/inducible-cellulase-production-from-an-organic-solvent-tolerant-bacillus-sp-sv1-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-endoglucanase-in-different-species-of-the-genus-bacillus
#8
Lebin Thomas, Hari Ram, Ved Pal Singh
Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3...
November 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141231/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#9
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104540/oral-supplementation-with-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-is-associated-with-altered-monocytes-t-cells-and-cytokines-following-a-bout-of-strenuous-exercise
#10
Brian K McFarlin, Adam S Venable, Katie C Carpenter, Andrea L Henning, Stephan Ogenstad
Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Baker's yeast beta glucan (BYBG) has been previously demonstrated to be an effective countermeasure in athletes, but its effectiveness in individuals of average fitness under similar physical stress is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10 days of oral supplementation with BYBG could modify previously observed suppression of monocytes, T cells, circulating and whole blood LPS-stimulated cytokines due to strenuous exercise...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077905/influence-of-different-yeast-cell-wall-preparations-and-their-components-on-performance-and-immune-and-metabolic-pathways-in-clostridium-perfringens-challenged-broiler-chicks
#11
Mohammed M Hashim, Ryan J Arsenault, James A Byrd, Michael H Kogut, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Christopher A Bailey
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 (day old) chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; 8 replicates/treatment). A basal starter diet was divided into 5 batches to create 6 dietary treatments; non-challenge (NCh-C) and challenge (Ch-C) controls, semi-purified YCW containing cytosol contents (SPYCW; 250 mg/kg), purified YCW (PYCW; 250 mg/kg), 50% purified beta-glucan (BG; 130 mg/kg), and 99...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058322/influence-of-different-functional-ingredients-on-physical-properties-rheology-tribology-and-oral-perceptions-of-no-fat-stirred-yoghurt
#12
Sophia Bao Xian Ng, Phuong T M Nguyen, Bhesh Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash
Effects of adding four functional ingredients: inulin, pectin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and beta glucan on physical, rheology, tribology and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt were studied. Three levels of each ingredient were chosen: inulin (7%, 8% and 9%), pectin (0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%), GOS (9.1%, 11.3% and 13.6%), and beta glucan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). Among the investigated ingredients, inulin and GOS appeared to be preferable choices due to their ability to both reduce syneresis and slightly increase sample lubrication while maintaining texture, rheology and sensory characteristics of skim yoghurt...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044182/long-term-intake-of-pasta-containing-barley-1-3-beta-d-glucan-increases-neovascularization-mediated-cardioprotection-through-endothelial-upregulation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-parkin
#13
Valentina Casieri, Marco Matteucci, Claudia Cavallini, Milena Torti, Michele Torelli, Vincenzo Lionetti
Barley (1-3)β-D-Glucan (BBG) enhances angiogenesis. Since pasta is very effective in providing a BBG-enriched diet, we hypothesized that the intake of pasta containing 3% BBG (P-BBG) induces neovascularization-mediated cardioprotection. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice fed P-BBG (n = 15) or wheat pasta (Control, n = 15) for five-weeks showed normal glucose tolerance and cardiac function. With a food intake similar to the Control, P-BBG mice showed a 109% survival rate (P < 0.01 vs. Control) after cardiac ischemia (30 min)/reperfusion (60 min) injury...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036605/survey-of-laboratory-practices-for-diagnosis-of-fungal-infection-in-seven-asian-countries-an-asia-fungal-working-group-afwg-initiative
#14
Ariya Chindamporn, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ruoyu Li, Pei-Lun Sun, Ban-Hock Tan, Mitzi Chua, Retno Wahyuningsih, Atul Patel, Zhengyin Liu, Yee-Chun Chen, Methee Chayakulkeeree
An online survey of mycology laboratories in seven Asian countries was conducted to assess the status, competence, and services available. Country representatives from the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) contacted as many laboratories performing mycology diagnosis as possible in their respective countries, requesting that the laboratory heads complete the online survey. In total, 241 laboratories responded, including 71 in China, 104 in India, 11 in Indonesia, 26 in the Philippines, four in Singapore, 18 in Taiwan, and seven in Thailand...
September 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administered-baker-s-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-obesity-and-diabetes-model-mice
#15
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be an anti-diabetic agent. In the work described herein, further study on the effect of orally administered BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022661/-candida-in-urine-colonization-infection-when-and-how-to-treat
#16
Laurent Christin
Candida is frequently found in urine cultures. Deciding whether this represents simple colonization or true infection is often difficult since Candida is a normal genital and urinary tract commensal. Urinary tract colonization is facilitated by well identified risk factors. The diagnostic of a true infection relies upon the identification of the usual clinical signs which cannot be attributed to another pathogen ; also, plasma level of beta-D-glucan can contribute to confirm the diagnostic. Treatment success depends upon the possibility to correct the risk factors and appropriate anti-fungal therapy according to in vitro susceptibility testing...
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022634/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-is-partly-due-to-its-linoleic-acid-content
#17
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020628/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#18
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
Microbial utilization of complex polysaccharides is a major driving force in shaping the composition of the human gut microbiota. There is a growing appreciation that finely tuned polysaccharide utilization loci enable ubiquitous gut Bacteroidetes to thrive on the plethora of complex polysaccharides that constitute "dietary fiber." Mixed-linkage β(1,3)/β(1,4)-glucans (MLGs) are a key family of plant cell wall polysaccharides with recognized health benefits but whose mechanism of utilization has remained unclear...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964548/beta-glucans-and-cancer-the-influence-of-inflammation-and-gut-peptide
#19
REVIEW
Sara Baldassano, Giulia Accardi, Sonya Vasto
Dietary β-glucans are soluble fibers with potentially health-promoting effects. Gut peptides are important signals in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935121/treatment-of-acute-ocular-chemical-burns
#20
REVIEW
Namrata Sharma, Manpreet Kaur, Tushar Agarwal, Virender S Sangwan, Rasik B Vajpayee
Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy...
September 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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