Read by QxMD icon Read

Organ donation

Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mani
Organ transplantation has improved the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients all the world. The total organ donation shortage of the country can be met with if even 5 to 10% of the victims involved in fatal accidents serve as organ donors. The challenges include an interplay of sociocultural factors, beliefs and superstitions, lack of communication and organizational support, and negative views by the media. Several initiatives to encourage deceased organ donation include the Indian Network for Organ Sharing, a subdivision of the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THOA), as well as the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Rules...
March 2018: Neurology India
Corinne Berzon
In 2008, responding to a widening gap between need and availability of transplant organs, Israel's Ministry of Health adopted a program of incentivized cadaveric organ donation. The Organ Transplant Law rewards individuals with prioritized access to organs on the condition that they participate in procurement efforts. Priority is awarded in the form of additional points allocated to the individual's organ recipient profile. Although Israel has experienced moderate gains in the years since the law's implementation, these have not been sufficient to satisfy the demand...
March 16, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Greg Moorlock, Heather Draper
In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation...
March 15, 2018: Bioethics
James M West
Anesthesiologists have clearly established their place in the history of medical ethics. Our involvement goes back to 1966 when Henri Beecher published his landmark paper on research and informed consent. Participation in the ethics of transplantation is no less important than our previous work. Organ transplant has been life saving for many but also has given rise to many misunderstandings not just from the public but also among our own colleagues. These include methods of allocation and donation, the role that affluence may play in receiving an organ, the definition of death and donation after circulatory death...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Ngwobia Peter Agwu, Kehinde Joseph Awosan, Solomon Ifeanyi Ukwuani, Emmanuel Ugbede Oyibo, Muhammad Aliyu Makusidi, Rotimi Abiodun Ajala
Background: Access to renal replacement therapy by the increasing population of patients with end-stage kidney disease across Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, has become a major public health challenge. Although deceased kidney donation constitutes a viable source, its uptake by patients is contingent on its acceptance by health-care workers. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness and attitude to deceased kidney donation among health-care workers in Sokoto, Nigeria...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Janske Reiling, Elizabeth Forrest, Kim R Bridle, Laurence J Britton, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Darrell H G Crawford, Cornelis H C Dejong, Jonathan Fawcett
Background: In recent years, an increasing number of donor livers are being declined for transplantation in Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of donation after cardiac death and other factors associated with organ quality on liver utilization rates in Australia. Methods: Data on organ donors who donated at least 1 organ between 2005 and 2014 were obtained from the Australia and New Zealand organ donation registry. Temporal changes in donor characteristics were assessed and a logistical regression analysis was performed to evaluate their association with liver nonuse...
December 2017: Transplantation Direct
Antoine Haddad, Tarek Bou Assi, Olivier Garraud
Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Konrad Skotnicki, Julio Ramón De la Fuente, Alvaro Cañete, Eduardo Berrios, Krzysztof Bobrowski
The absorption-spectral and kinetic behavior of radical ions and neutral hydrogenated radicals of seven 3-styryl-quinoxalin-2(1 H)-one (3-SQ) derivatives, one without substituents in styryl moiety, four others with electron donating (R = -CH3 , -OCH3 , -N(CH3 )2) or electron withdrawing (R = -OCF3 ) substituents in para-position in benzene ring, and remaining two with double methoxy substituents (-OCH3 ), however, at different position (meta/para and ortho/meta) have been studied by UV-vis spectrophotometric pulse radiolysis in a neat acetonitrile saturated with argon (Ar) and oxygen (O2 ) and in 2-propanol saturated with Ar, at room temperature...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yanhong Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Zackary Hawley, Danyang Li, Kurt Schnier, Nicole Turgeon
Our research utilizes the experimental economics laboratory to investigate the impact that reducing disincentives has on organ donation. The experiment consists of four treatments across different levels of donation related costs, which reflect the disincentives associated with being an organ donor. Our experimental results indicate that sizable increases in the organ donation rate are achievable if we reduce the level of disincentives present. The largest observed donation rates arise when a financial return is offered for being an organ donor, which is prohibited under the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA), but nearly 80% of the gains observed under the positive financial incentives can be achieved if all of the disincentives are eliminated...
March 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Hideaki Komiyama, Takahiro To, Seiichi Furukawa, Yu Hidaka, Woong Shin, Takahiro Ichikawa, Ryota Arai, Takuma Yasuda
Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) based on narrow-bandgap small molecules hold great promise as next-generation energy-converting devices. In this paper, we focus on a family of A-π-D-π-A-type small molecules, namely, BDT-nT-ID (n = 1-4) oligomers, consisting of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) as the central electron-donating (D) core, 1,3-indandione (ID) as the terminal electron-accepting (A) units, and two regioregular oligo(3-hexylthiophene)s (nT) with different numbers of thiophene rings as the π-bridging units, and elucidate their structure-property-function relationships...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pelin Corman Dincer, Deniz Birtan, Mustafa Kemal Arslantas, Gulbin Tore Altun, Hilmi Omer Ayanoglu
OBJECTIVES: Organ donation is the most important stage for organ transplant. Studies reveal that attitudes of families of brain-dead patients toward donation play a significant role in their decision. We hypothesized that supporting family awareness about the meaning of organ donation, including saving lives while losing a loved one, combined with being informed about brain death and the donation process must be maintained by intensive care unit physicians through standardized interviews and questionnaires to increase the donation rate...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Jia Sun, Xiaoling Ma, Zhuohan Zhang, Jiangsheng Yu, Jie Zhou, Xinxing Yin, Linqiang Yang, Renyong Geng, Rihong Zhu, Fujun Zhang, Weihua Tang
A new electron-rich central building block, 5,5,12,12-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-indacenobis-(dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrol) (INP), and two derivative nonfullerene acceptors (INPIC and INPIC-4F) are designed and synthesized. The two molecules reveal broad (600-900 nm) and strong absorption due to the satisfactory electron-donating ability of INP. Compared with its counterpart INPIC, fluorinated nonfullerene acceptor INPIC-4F exhibits a stronger near-infrared absorption with a narrower optical bandgap of 1.39 eV, an improved crystallinity with higher electron mobility, and down-shifted highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jiangpei Han, Liangsheng Shi, Yakun Wang, Zhuowei Chen, Laosheng Wu
Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe2+ , Fe3+ , and NO3 - -N dynamics and N2 O, CH4 , and CO2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg-1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kamiar Alaei, Mohammad Sarwar, Arash Alaei
Blood transfusions are contributing to a higher rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Pakistan. Half of all blood transfusions in Pakistan are not screened for hepatitis C, hepatitis B or HIV. Family members donate blood that is likely not tested due to social stigma attached to HCV. Paid donations are also quite common in the country, especially by people who inject drugs (PWID), which increases the population's exposure to HCV. Most of the population utilizes the private sector for their health needs; this sector has lax regulation due to the lack of oversight by the government or any other regulatory body...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Yijin Wu, Robert Elliott, Linzi Li, Tongwei Yang, Yusen Bai, Wen Ma
In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Vivek B Kute, Sanjay K Agarwal, Manisha Sahay, Anant Kumar, Manish Rathi, Narayan Prasad, Rajkumar K Sharma, Krishan L Gupta, Sunil Shroff, Sandip K Saxena, Pankaj R Shah, Pranjal R Modi, Vishwanath Billa, Laxmikant K Tripathi, Sreebhushan Raju, Dhamedndra S Bhadauria, Tarun K Jeloka, Dhananjai Agarwal, Amresh Krishna, Rajshekhar Perumalla, Manoj Jain, Sandeep Guleria, Michael A Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Blaine McCarthy, Ryan Pearson, Chern-Hooi Lim, Steven M Sartor, Niels H Damrauer, Garret M Miyake
Through the study of structure-property relationships using a combination of experimental and computational analyses, a number of phenoxazine derivatives have been developed as visible light-absorbing, organic photoredox catalysts (PCs) with excited state reduction potentials rivaling those of highly reducing transition metal PCs. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computational modeling of the photoexcitation of N-aryl and core modified phenoxazines guided the design of PCs with absorption profiles in the visible regime...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"