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Organ donation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531238/education-on-organ-donation-and-transplantation-in-primary-school-teachers-support-and-the-first-results-of-a-teaching-module
#1
Marion J Siebelink, A A Eduard Verhagen, Petrie F Roodbol, Marcel J I J Albers, Harry B M Van de Wiel
Organ and tissue donation can also involve children. Because of its sensitivity, this topic requires careful decision making. Children have the ability to carefully reflect on this subject and enjoy participating in family discussions about it. Therefore, what children need is proper information. When schools are used to educate children about this subject, information about teacher support for this type of lesson along with its effects on the depth of family discussions is important. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all 7,542 primary schools in the Netherlands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527046/on-harm-thresholds-and-living-organ-donation-must-the-living-donor-benefit-on-balance-from-his-donation
#2
Nicola Jane Williams
For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner...
May 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526401/a-prospective-study-of-the-reliability-and-validity-of-the-live-donor-assessment-tool
#3
Brian M Iacoviello, Akhil Shenoy, Julia Hunt, Zorica Filipovic-Jewell, Brandy Haydel, Dianne LaPointe Rudow
BACKGROUND: The psychosocial evaluation is an important part of the live organ donor evaluation process, yet this is not standardized across institutions. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prospectively test the reliability and validity of a semistructured psychosocial evaluation tool that was recently developed and reported in the literature (the Live Donor Assessment Tool [LDAT]). METHODS: A total of 248 live donor candidates who presented for evaluation were invited to participate in a study that involved the LDAT being scored as part of the standard psychosocial evaluation process; 222 provided informed consent...
March 16, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520316/the-living-donor-collective-a-scientific-registry-for-living-donors
#4
B L Kasiske, S K Asrani, M A Dew, M L Henderson, C Henrich, A Humar, A K Israni, K L Lentine, A J Matas, K A Newell, D LaPointe Rudow, A B Massie, J J Snyder, S J Taler, J F Trotter, A D Waterman
In the setting of an overall decline in living organ donation and new questions about long-term safety, a better understanding of outcomes after living donation has become imperative. Adequate information on outcomes important to donors may take many years to ascertain and may only be evident by comparing large numbers of donors with suitable controls. Previous studies have been unable to fully answer critical questions, primarily due to lack of appropriate controls, inadequate sample size, and/or follow-up duration too short to allow detection of important risks attributable to donation...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517241/dopant-free-hole-transport-materials-based-on-methoxytriphenylamine-substituted-indacenodithienothiophene-for-solution-processed-perovskite-solar-cells
#5
Xiaoyuan Liu, Xiaolu Zheng, Yulong Wang, Zhiliang Chen, Fang Yao, Qi Zhang, Guojia Fang, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Wei Huang, ZongXiang Xu
Solution-processed hole transporting materials (HTMs) that are dopant-free show promise for use in low-cost, high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The highest efficiency PSCs use organic HTMs, many of which have low mobilities and so require doping, which lowers the device stability. Additionally, these materials are not easily scaled because they often require complicated synthesis. Two novel HTMs (IDT-TPA and IDTT-TPA) were synthesized, which contained either an extended fused-ring indacenodithiophene (IDT) or indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT) core and strong electron donating methoxytriphenylamine (TPA) groups as the end-capping units...
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516987/theoretical-investigations-into-the-charge-transfer-properties-of-thiophene-%C3%AE-substituted-naphthodithiophene-diimides-excellent-n-channel-and-ambipolar-organic-semiconductors
#6
Li-Fei Ji, Jian-Xun Fan, Shou-Feng Zhang, Ai-Min Ren
A theoretical study was carried out to investigate the electronic structures and the charge transport properties of a series of naphthodithiophene diimide (NDTI) thiophene α-substituted derivatives NDTI-X using density functional theory and classical Marcus charge transfer theory. This study deeply revealed the structure-property relationships by analyzing the intermolecular interactions in crystal structures of C8-NDTI and C8-NDTI-Cl thoroughly by using the Hirshfeld surface, QTAIM theories and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT)...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516464/the-blood-donation-ambivalence-survey-measuring-conflicting-attitudes-about-giving-blood
#7
K R Fox, L K Himawan, C R France
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop and conduct initial validation testing for a novel measure of ambivalence about donating blood. BACKGROUND: Previous studies of living organ, bone marrow and stem cell donors have identified donation-related ambivalence as a predictor of decisions about donation and post-donation outcomes. Ambivalence about blood donation has not received the same attention. METHODS: In Study 1, a sample of young adults (N = 396) were administered test items of ambivalence, and exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to identify the Blood Donation Ambivalence Survey...
May 18, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514133/-the-influence-of-the-israeli-legislation-on-the-relationship-between-physicians-and-pharmaceutical-companies
#8
Rachel Nissanholtz-Gannot, Ariel Yankellevich, Nurit Nirel
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical-companies raises many dilemmas. There are two types of solutions to these dilemmas: self-regulation and government regulation. Our goal was to review in what way legislative intervention and self-regulation standardize and affect the relationship. In addition, we examined the positions of relevant stakeholders regarding: 1. The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies; 2. Future measures we should take to address the ethical dilemmas inherent in this relationship...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508541/opt-in-or-opt-out-to-increase-organ-donation-in-south-africa-appraising-proposed-strategies-using-an-empirical-ethics-analysis
#9
Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505025/a-rodent-model-of-cardiac-donation-after-circulatory-death-and-novel-biomarkers-of-cardiac-viability-during-ex-vivo-heart-perfusion
#10
Mark J Kearns, Sally Miller, Anson Cheung, Jamil Bashir, Stephanie Wong, Michael A Seidman, John H Boyd
BACKGROUND: Organ donation after circulatory death (DCD) is increasingly being used as a means of addressing the organ supply/demand mismatch in solid organ transplantation. There is reluctance to use DCD hearts, due to an inability to precisely identify hearts that have suffered irreversible injury. We investigated novel biomarkers and clinically relevant endpoints across a spectrum of warm ischemic times (WITs), prior to and during ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP), to identify features associated with a non-viable cardiac phenotype...
May 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503345/awareness-and-attitudes-toward-organ-donation-in-rural-puducherry-india
#11
K L Balajee, N Ramachandran, L Subitha
BACKGROUND: For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. AIM: This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness...
September 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498662/sub-molecular-gates-self-assemble-for-hot-electron-transfer-in-proteins
#12
Neta Filip-Granit, Eran Goldberg, Ilan Samish, Idan Ashur, Milko E van der Boom, Hagai Cohen, Avigdor Scherz
Redox reactions play key roles in fundamental biological processes. The related spatial organization of donors and acceptors is assumed to undergo evolutionary optimization facilitating charge mobilization within the relevant biological context. Experimental information from sub-molecular functional sites is needed to understand the organization strategies and driving forces involved in the self-development of structure-function relationships. Here we exploit chemically resolved electrical measurements (CREM) to probe the atom-specific electrostatic potentials (ESPs) in artificial arrays of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) derivatives that provide model systems for photoexcited (hot) electron donation and withdrawal...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497668/potential-brain-dead-organ-donation-in-neurocritical-care-mortality
#13
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Mortality is a marker of quality in neurocritical care, but it also provides potential for donors after brain death (DBD) following irreversible acute brain damage. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurointensive care unit (NICU) mortality rate and recovery of potential DBD. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective observational cohort computer database analysis of 6138 acute neurological and neurosurgical patients (pts, 58.2% male, mean: age 55...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497523/high-meld-score-does-not-adversely-affect-outcome-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation-experience-in-1000-recipients
#14
S K Yadav, N Saraf, S Sigal, N S Choudhary, S Goja, A Rastogi, P Bhangui, A S Soin
In countries where deceased organ donation is scarce, there is big gap between demand and supply of organs and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) plays an important role in meeting this unmet need. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of pre-transplant MELD score on outcomes following LDLT. Outcome of 1000 patients who underwent LDLT from July 2010 to March 2015 was analysed retrospectively. Patients were grouped into low MELD <25 and high MELD ≥25 score to compare short term outcomes...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495106/israel-health-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Karl Skorecki, Richard Horton
The principle that global human identity and dignity supersede other values is a broadly accepted conviction that guides practice and policies in the realm of human health in most of the world. An assessment of the level of success that Israel has achieved in health, in the face of formidable challenges, including rapid population growth, diverse and often divided ethnic affiliations, and existential security threats, leads us to propose that extension of this principle of global human identity and dignity, together with the objective of a decent society, as overriding values beyond health to other domains of human endeavour within Israel and in its relations with neighbouring peoples, represents an entirely achievable imperative...
May 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491334/increasing-the-rate-of-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-ontario-donor-and-recipient-identified-barriers-and-solutions
#16
Leah E Getchell, Susan Q McKenzie, Jessica M Sontrop, Jade S Hayward, Megan K McCallum, Amit X Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To hear from living kidney donors and recipients about what they perceive are the barriers to living donor kidney transplantation, and how patients can develop and lead innovative solutions to increase the rate and enhance the experiences of living donor kidney transplantation in Ontario. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A one-day patient-led workshop on March 10th, 2016 in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Participants who were previously engaged in priority-setting exercises were invited to the meeting by patient lead, Sue McKenzie...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490879/methodological-assessment-of-the-reduction-of-the-content-of-impurities-in-nimodipine-emulsion-via-the-use-of-21-amino-acid-protection
#17
Yiqiao Xie, Zhiquan Zhuang, Shu Zhang, Zihua Xia, De Chen, Kaiyan Fan, Jialin Ren, CuiCui Lin, Yanzhong Chen, Fan Yang
PURPOSE: The present study examined the factors affecting the content of impurities of nimodipine (NMP) emulsion and the associated methods of compound protection. METHODS: Destructive testing of NMP emulsion and its active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) were conducted, and ultracentrifugation was used to study the content of impurities in two phases. The impurity of NMP was measured under different potential of hydrogen (pH) conditions, antioxidants and pH-adjusting agents...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489808/mental-health-status-after-living-donor-hepatectomy
#18
Szu-Han Wang, Ping-Yi Lin, Jiun-Yi Wang, Mei-Feng Huang, Hui-Chuan Lin, Chia-En Hsieh, Ya-Lan Hsu, Yao-Li Chen
Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. In addition, the preoperative mental state of a donor is an important factor in determining the psychological impact of donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to explore the mental health status of living liver donors after hepatectomy. We enrolled 60 donors who were scheduled to undergo living donor hepatectomy during the period January 2014 to March 2015 at a single medical center. Mental health status was measured before and 3 months after surgery using 3 self-report questionnaires, namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire to measure quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) to screen for minor psychiatric disorders...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489011/-the-icelandic-organ-donation-law-has-the-time-arrived-for-presumed-consent-editorial
#19
Runolfur Palsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485819/an-open-circuit-voltage-and-power-conversion-efficiency-study-of-fullerene-ternary-organic-solar-cells-based-on-oligomer-oligomer-and-oligomer-polymer
#20
Guichuan Zhang, Cheng Zhou, Chen Sun, Xiaoe Jia, Baomin Xu, Lei Ying, Fei Huang, Yong Cao
Variations in the open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of ternary organic solar cells are systematically investigated. The initial study of these devices consists of two electron-donating oligomers, S2 (two units) and S7 (seven units), and the electron-accepting [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) and reveals that the Voc is continuously tunable due to the changing energy of the charge transfer state (Ect ) of the active layers. Further investigation suggests that Voc is also continuously tunable upon change in Ect in a ternary blend system that consists of S2 and its corresponding polymer (P11):PC71 BM...
May 9, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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