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Organ donation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922907/organ-vouchers-and-barter-markets-saving-lives-reducing-suffering-and-trading-in-human-organs
#1
Mark J Cherry
The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922904/the-body-as-gift-commodity-or-something-in-between-ethical-implications-of-advanced-kidney-donation
#2
Julian J Koplin
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#3
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922902/from-directed-donation-to-kidney-sale-does-the-argument-hold-up
#4
James Stacey Taylor
The UCLA Medical Center has initiated a "voucher program" under which a person who donated a kidney would receive a voucher that she could provide to someone of her choosing who could then use it to move to the top of the renal transplantation waiting list. If the use of such vouchers as incentives for donors is morally permissible, then cash payments for kidneys are also morally permissible. But, that argument faces five objections. First, there are some goods whose nature allows them to be exchanged for similar goods but renders them monetarily inalienable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920695/organic-radicals-outperform-lif-as-efficient-electron-injection-materials-for-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#5
Zhengyang Bin, Ziyang Liu, Lian Duan
One of the key issues for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is to achieve high electro-luminescence efficiency and high power efficiency, which requires extremely efficient electron-injection and thus low driving-voltage. Here, we design a series of precursors for reactive organic radicals according to theoretical calculations and achieve efficient electron-injection by using highly reducing radical on the surface of electron-injection layer to reduce electron-injection barrier through interface charge-transfer process...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920607/tuning-the-electronic-environment-of-zinc-ions-with-a-ligand-for-dendrite-free-zinc-deposition-in-an-ionic-liquid
#6
Zhen Liu, Guozhu Li, Tong Cui, Abhishek Lahiri, Andriy Borodin, Frank Endres
In this work, we report on the influence of an organic ligand on the electrodeposition of Zn from an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte. Zinc oxide was first dissolved in a protic IL. By introducing a 2-methylimidazole (2-MIm) ligand, the electronic environment of zinc ions, Zn(ii) complexes and the structure of the IL are considerably altered, as verified by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Due to the electron donation effect of the ligand, the zinc ions become less positively charged and exhibit a lower binding energy by -0...
September 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919594/fifteen-year-analysis-of-deceased-kidney-donation-a-single-transplant-center-experience-in-a-region-of-northern-italy
#7
Vania Cuna, Giorgia Comai, Maria Cappuccilli, Olga Baraldi, Irene Capelli, Matteo De Liberali, Lorenzo Gasperoni, Diletta Conte, Matteo Ravaioli, Antonio D Pinna, Gaetano La Manna
BACKGROUND The rising number of patients on waiting lists for kidney transplant and the shortage of available organs has intensified efforts to increase the number of potential donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study investigated changes in clinical parameters among potential deceased donors in the 15-year period between 1999 and 2013 and their impact on transplantation procedure and outcomes. A total of 1634 potential deceased donors were examined and divided into 2 groups: 707 of them identified from 1999 to 2005 (Group A), and 927 from 2006 to 2013 (Group B)...
September 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916332/assessing-the-use-of-assisted-reproductive-technology-in-the-united-states-by-non-united-states-residents
#8
Aaron D Levine, Sheree L Boulet, Roberta M Berry, Denise J Jamieson, Hillary B Alberta-Sherer, Dmitry M Kissin
OBJECTIVE: To study cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) by assessing the frequency and nature of assisted reproductive technology (ART) care that non-U.S. residents receive in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective study of ART cycles reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National ART Surveillance System (NASS) from 2006 to 2013. SETTING: Private and academic ART clinics. PATIENT(S): Patients who participated in ART cycles in the United States from 2006 to 2013...
August 31, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915178/expanding-the-donor-pool-organ-donation-after-brain-death-for-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-patients
#9
Derrick A Christopher, Kenneth J Woodside
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913960/psychosocial-barriers-associated-with-organ-donation-in-mexico
#10
Ma Luisa Marván, Asunción Álvarez Del Río, Kristian Jasso, Patricio Santillán-Doherty
INTRODUCTION: There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. METHOD: We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902419/reassessing-the-safety-concerns-of-utilizing-blood-donations-from-patients-with-hemochromatosis
#11
REVIEW
Adam C Winters, Douglas Tremblay, Suzanne Arinsburg, John Mascarenhas, Thomas D Schiano
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron metabolism which may lead to iron overload. Clinical penetrance is low, however those afflicted may develop cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Treatment involves regular phlebotomy to reduce the systemic iron burden. In many countries-including the United States-numerous blood centers do not accept donated blood obtained from HH patients during therapeutic phlebotomy and there are inconsistent positions regarding this globally...
September 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899097/optically-assisted-surface-functionalization-for-protein-arraying-in-aqueous-media
#12
Ricardo Enrique Alvarado, Hoang Thanh Nguyen, Brigitte Pépin-Donat, Christian Lombard, Yoann Roupioz, Loïc Leroy
Protein surface patterning is employed in a broad spectrum of applications ranging from protein micro-array analysis to 2D cell organization. However, limitations arise due to the highly sensitive nature of proteins requiring careful handling to ensure their structural and functional integrity during the grafting process. Here we describe a patterning protocol that keeps proteins in an aqueous environment during their immobilization, avoiding loss of their biological activity. The procedure is based on the UV-mediated removal of Poly-Ethylene Glycol (PEG) Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) in a transparent microfluidic chamber, giving access to micrometric motifs of predefined geometries...
September 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894905/-knowledge-trust-and-the-decision-to-donate-organs-a-comparison-of-medical-students-and-students-of-other-disciplines-in-germany
#13
T Terbonssen, U Settmacher, O Dirsch, U Dahmen
BACKGROUND: Following the organ transplant scandal in Germany in 2011, the willingness to donate organs postmortem decreased dramatically. This was explained by a loss of confidence in the German organ donation system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in respect to organ donation and the explicit willingness to potentially act as an organ donor by comparing medical students to students of other disciplines...
September 11, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894530/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-brain-death-and-organ-donation-in-bojnurd
#14
Sima Sadat Hejazi, Shima Nikbakht, Leila Jouybari, Mehdi Hares Abadi, Davood Davoodi, Tooba Hoseini Azizi, Sepideh Yahyaei
BACKGROUND: Organ donation in Iran is common. Bojnurd (North Khorasan, Iran) is a multi-ethnic city, and people with different religions and cultures live together and that could be associated with their behavior and attitude towards health-related issues. So far, no study has taken place on brain death and organ donation in the province of North Khorasan. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of citizens of Bojnurd toward brain death and organ donation...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894429/circumventing-the-ick-factor-a-randomized-trial-of-the-effects-of-omitting-affective-attitudes-questions-to-increase-intention-to-become-an-organ-donor
#15
Sally Doherty, Elizabeth Dolan, Jennifer Flynn, Ronan E O'Carroll, Frank Doyle
Objectives: Including or excluding certain questions about organ donation may influence peoples' intention to donate. We investigated the effect of omitting certain affective attitudinal items on potential donors' intention and behavior for donation. Design: A cross-sectional survey with a subgroup nested randomized trial. Methods: A total of 578 members of the public in four shopping centers were surveyed on their attitudes to organ donation. Non-donors (n = 349) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 completed items on affective and cognitive attitudes, anticipated regret, intention, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892718/insight-into-the-effects-of-modifying-chromophores-on-the-performance-of-quinoline-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#16
Mao Mao, Jian-Bo Wang, Xiu-Lin Liu, Guo-Hua Wu, Xia-Qin Fang, Qin-Hua Song
A series of organic dyes based on quinoline as an electron-deficient π-linker, were designed and synthesized for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) application. These push-pull conjugated dyes, sharing same anchoring group with distinctive electron-rich donating groups such as N,N-diethyl (DEA-Q), 3,6-dimethoxy carbazole (CBZ-Q), bis(4-butoxyphenyl)amine (BPA-Q), were synthesized by Riley oxidation of CH3 followed by Knoevenagel condensation of the corresponding aldehyde precursors 2a-c with cyanoacrylic acid...
September 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892350/side-chain-effects-on-energy-level-modulation-and-device-performance-of-organic-semiconductor-acceptors-in-organic-solar-cells
#17
Zhenghui Luo, Yuan Zhao, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Guanghao Li, Kailong Wu, Dongjun Xie, Wei Gao, Yongfang Li, Chuluo Yang
Two new non-fullerene acceptors, IDTC and IDTO, were designed and synthesized for the application in organic solar cells (OSCs). Compared with IDTC, the introduction of electron-donating alkoxy groups of IDTO leads to a higher LUMO level with a slightly blue-shifted absorption. Using the polymer PBDB-T as donor and the two small molecules as acceptors in the conventional device structure, the IDTC-based OSC exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.35% with a open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.917 V, a short circuit current density (JSC) of 16...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890894/risk-of-contamination-of-gametes-and-embryos-during-cryopreservation-and-measures-to-prevent-cross-contamination
#18
REVIEW
Daniel C Joaquim, Eduardo D Borges, Iara G R Viana, Paula A Navarro, Alessandra A Vireque
The introduction and widespread application of vitrification are one of the most important achievements in human assisted reproduction techniques (ART) of the past decade despite controversy and unclarified issues, mostly related to concerns about disease transmission. Guidance documents published by US Food and Drug Administration, which focused on the safety of tissue/organ donations during Zika virus spread in 2016, as well as some reports of virus, bacteria, and fungi survival to cryogenic temperatures, highlighted the need for a review of the way how potentially infectious material is handled and stored in ART-related procedures...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890007/medical-training-and-the-brain-death-exam-a-single-institution-s-experience
#19
Ahmed Kashkoush, Amy Weisgerber, Kiruba Dharaneeswaran, Nitin Agarwal, Lori Shutter
BACKGROUND: Clinicians may have limited opportunities to perform neurological determination of death (NDD; brain death) certification during their training. This study aims to evaluate the level of resident exposure to the brain death exam at a large volume donor hospital. METHODS: In March 2014, we adapted a dual-physician model for NDD certification at our institution to improve resident education regarding NDD. To evaluate the incidence of resident exposure, we collected examiner information from all brain death exams conducted between January 2014 and July 2015...
September 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889098/reversal-of-arterial-stiffness-and-maladaptative-arterial-remodeling-after-kidney-transplantation
#20
Alexandre Karras, Pierre Boutouyrie, Marie Briet, Erwan Bozec, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Christophe Legendre, Lawrence P McMahon, Michel Delahousse
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by stiffening, thinning, dilatation, and increased circumferential wall stress of large arteries, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Kidney transplantation (KT) reverses many pathological features of chronic kidney disease and improves life expectancy; however, longitudinal studies exploring the impact of KT on recipient large arteries are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was designed to appraise arterial changes following KT...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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