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Dennis Chan, Meredith Shafto, Rogier Kievit, Fiona Matthews, Molly Spink, Michael Valenzuela, Rik N Henson
This study tested the hypothesis that mid-life intellectual, physical, and social activities contribute to cognitive reserve (CR). Two hundred five individuals (196 with magnetic resonance imaging) aged 66-88 years from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience ( were studied, with cognitive ability and structural brain health measured as fluid IQ and total gray matter volume, respectively. Mid-life activities (MAs) were measured using the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression found that MAs made a unique contribution to late-life cognitive ability independent of education, occupation, and late-life activities...
July 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ekaterina Denkova, Emily G Brudner, Kristen Zayan, Joseph Dunn, Amishi P Jha
Mind wandering (MW) has been recently investigated in many studies. It has been suggested that, during MW, processing of perceptual stimuli is attenuated in favor of internal thoughts, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual decoupling. Perceptual decoupling has been investigated in ERP studies, which have used relatively simple perceptual stimuli, yet it remains unclear if MW can impact the perceptual processing of complex stimuli with real-world relevance. Here, we investigated the impact of MW on behavioral and neural responses to faces...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Janet Shibley Hyde, Rebecca S Bigler, Daphna Joel, Charlotte Chucky Tate, Sari M van Anders
The view that humans comprise only two types of beings, women and men, a framework that is sometimes referred to as the "gender binary," played a profound role in shaping the history of psychological science. In recent years, serious challenges to the gender binary have arisen from both academic research and social activism. This review describes 5 sets of empirical findings, spanning multiple disciplines, that fundamentally undermine the gender binary. These sources of evidence include neuroscience findings that refute sexual dimorphism of the human brain; behavioral neuroendocrinology findings that challenge the notion of genetically fixed, nonoverlapping, sexually dimorphic hormonal systems; psychological findings that highlight the similarities between men and women; psychological research on transgender and nonbinary individuals' identities and experiences; and developmental research suggesting that the tendency to view gender/sex as a meaningful, binary category is culturally determined and malleable...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Thomas Dresler, Stephanie Bugden, Camilo Gouet, Marie Lallier, Darlene G Oliveira, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Ana C Pires, Yunqi Wang, Camila Zugarramurdi, Janaina Weissheimer
Neuroimaging has undergone enormous progress during the last two and a half decades. The combination of neuroscientific methods and educational practice has become a focus of interdisciplinary research in order to answer more applied questions. In this realm, conditions that hamper learning success and have deleterious effects in the population - such as learning disorders (LD) - could especially profit from neuroimaging findings. At the moment, however, there is an ongoing debate about how far neuroscientific research can go to inform the practical work in educational settings...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Hyun Geun Shim, Yong-Seok Lee, Sang Jeong Kim
What is memory? How does the brain process the sensory information and modify an organism's behavior? Many neuroscientists have focused on the activity- and experience-dependent modifications of synaptic functions in order to solve these fundamental questions in neuroscience. Recently, the plasticity of intrinsic excitability (called intrinsic plasticity) has emerged as an important element for information processing and storage in the brain. As the cerebellar Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons in the cerebellar cortex and the information is conveyed from a neuron to its relay neurons by forms of action potential firing, the modulation of the intrinsic firing activity may play a critical role in the cerebellar learning...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Daniel J Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Rostislav Staněk, Radek Mareček, Tomáš Urbánek, Jiří Špalek, Lenka Kopečková, Jan Řezáč, Milan Brázdil
Dyadic interactions often involve a dynamic process of mutual reciprocity; to steer a series of exchanges towards a desired outcome, both interactants must adapt their own behaviour according to that of their interaction partner. Understanding the brain processes behind such bidirectional reciprocity is therefore central to social neuroscience, but this requires measurement of both individuals' brains during real-world exchanges. We achieved this by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on pairs of male individuals simultaneously while they interacted in a modified iterated Ultimatum Game (iUG)...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chang Sub Kim
We formulate the computational processes of perception in the framework of the principle of least action by postulating the theoretical action as a time integral of the variational free energy in the neurosciences. The free-energy principle is accordingly rephrased, on autopoetic grounds, as follows: all viable organisms attempt to minimize their sensory uncertainty about an unpredictable environment over a temporal horizon. By taking the variation of informational action, we derive neural recognition dynamics (RD), which by construction reduces to the Bayesian filtering of external states from noisy sensory inputs...
July 18, 2018: Neural Computation
Juhi Sardana, Cristina Organisti, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Deciphering the mechanisms of sensory neural map formation is a central aim in neurosciences. Failure to form a correct map frequently leads to defects in sensory processing and perception. The olfactory map develops in subsequent steps initially forming a rough and later a precise map of glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), mainly consisting of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons and projection neuron (PN) dendrites. The mechanisms underpinning the later stage of class-specific glomerulus formation are not understood...
July 18, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Kumiko Hayashi
The fluctuation theorem is a representative theorem in non-equilibrium statistical physics actively studied in the 1990s. Relating to entropy production in non-equilibrium states, the theorem has been used to estimate the driving power of motor proteins from fluctuation in their motion. In this review, usage of the fluctuation theorem in experiments on motor proteins is illustrated for biologists, especially those who study mechanobiology, in which force measurement is a central issue. We first introduce the application of the fluctuation theorem in measuring the rotary torque of the rotary motor protein F1 -ATPase...
July 17, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Jianbiao Li, Xiaoli Liu, Xile Yin, Shuaiqi Li, Guangrong Wang, Xiaofei Niu, Chengkang Zhu
Social norms play an essential role in human interactions and the development of the evolution of human history. Extensive studies corroborate that compliance with social norms typically requires a punishment threat as almost always specific individuals have self-interests that tempt them to violate the norm. Neural imaging studies demonstrate that lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) are activated when individuals decide to increase social norm compliance when punishment is possible...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Erika Holzbaur, Juan Burrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Mark A Oldham, Joseph H Flaherty, Jose R Maldonado
The development of delirium indicates neurophysiologic disruption and predicts unfavorable outcomes. This relationship between delirium and its outcomes has inspired a generation of studies aimed at identifying, predicting, and preventing both delirium and its associated sequelae. Despite this, evidence on delirium prevention and management remains limited. No medication is approved for the prevention or treatment of delirium or for its associated psychiatric symptoms. This unmet need for effective delirium treatment calls for a refined approach...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Adam Zeman, Matthew MacKisack, John Onians
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Alan A Beaton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Laterality
Tim M Tierney, Niall Holmes, Sofie S Meyer, Elena Boto, Gillian Roberts, James Leggett, Sarah Buck, Leonardo Duque-Muñoz, Vladimir Litvak, Sven Bestmann, Torsten Baldeweg, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes, Gareth R Barnes
Recent work has demonstrated that Optically Pumped Magnetometers (OPMs) can be utilised to create a wearable Magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that is motion robust. In this study, we use this system to map eloquent cortex using a clinically validated language lateralisation paradigm (covert verb generation: 120 trials, ∼10 min total duration) in healthy adults (n = 3). We show that it is possible to lateralise and localise language function on a case by case basis using this system. Specifically, we show that at a sensor and source level we can reliably detect a lateralising beta band (15-30 Hz) desynchronization in all subjects...
July 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Liliane Mendonça, José M Castro-Lopes
Background and aims The recent economic crisis started in the USA in 2008 but quickly had worldwide impact. Ireland, Greece, and Portugal were in economic distress in 2009 and received rescue monetary packages from the European Union (EU) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the following years. Meanwhile, the economic recovery has begun for those countries, but at different paces. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the economic crisis influenced pain research outcomes, by performing a bibliometric analysis based on the ISI Web of Science to evaluate the evolution of the scientific production and performance in the field of pain research between 1997 and 2017...
July 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Colin T Kyle, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Peter R Rapp, Carol A Barnes
BACKGROUND: Ensemble recording methods are pervasive in basic and clinical neuroscience research. Invasive neural implants are used in patients with drug resistant epilepsy to localize seizure origin, in neuropsychiatric or Parkinson's patients to alleviate symptoms via deep brain stimulation, and with animal models to conduct basic research. Studies addressing the brain's physiological response to chronic electrode implants demonstrate that the mechanical trauma of insertion is followed by an acute inflammatory response as well as a chronic foreign body response...
July 17, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Dongtao Wei, Kaixiang Zhuang, Lei Ai, Qunlin Chen, Wenjing Yang, Wei Liu, Kangcheng Wang, Jiangzhou Sun, Jiang Qiu
Recently, the field of developmental neuroscience has aimed to uncover the developmental trajectory of the human brain and to understand the changes that occur as a function of ageing. Here, we present a dataset of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data covering the adult lifespan that includes structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI. Four hundred ninety-four healthy adults (age range: 19-80 years; Males=187) were recruited and completed two multi-modal MRI scan sessions at the Brain Imaging Center of Southwest University, Chongqing, China...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Data
Karen M Fisher, Alayna Lilak, Joseph Garner, Corinna Darian-Smith
The corticospinal tract (CST) forms the major descending pathway mediating voluntary hand movements in primates, and originates from nine cortical subdivisions in the macaque. While the terminals of spared motor CST axons are known to sprout locally within the cord in response to spinal injury, little is known about the response of the other CST subcomponents. We previously reported, that following a cervical dorsal root lesion (DRL), the primary somatosensory (S1) CST terminal projection retracts to 60% of its original terminal domain, while the primary motor (M1) projection remains robust (Darian-Smith et al...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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