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pulmonary biopsy and mechanical ventilation

Kiran Joglekar, Christopher Jackson, Dipen Kadaria, Amik Sodhi
BACKGROUND Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as Marjolin ulcer, is a rare complication of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Metastatic SCC from HS typically involves the axial skeleton or abdominopelvic viscera. Metastatic disease to the lungs is a rare phenomenon with only three reported cases of lung parenchyma. We present a biopsy proven case of metastatic SCC to the pleura from gluteal HS. CASE REPORT A 46-year-old male with a history of recently diagnosed Marjolin ulcer secondary to gluteal HS was transferred to our intensive care unit for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to recurrent pleural effusion...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Zia Ur Rahman, Ghulam Murtaza, Mohsin Pourmorteza, Wael K El Minaoui, Pooja Sethi, Peyman Mamdouhi, Timir Paul
Air embolism is an infrequent but potentially catastrophic complication. It could be a complication of invasive procedures including surgery, central line placement, positive pressure ventilation, trauma, hemodialysis, pacemaker placement, cardiac ablation, and decompression sickness. Usually, it does not cause any hemodynamic complication. In rare cases, it could lodge in the heart and cause cardiac arrest. We present a case of an 82-year-old white female who underwent computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy of right lung pulmonary nodule...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Janko Vlaović, Gorazd Voga
A 72-year-old patient was admitted to the medical intensive care unit due to a right-sided, hospital-acquired pneumonia and septic shock with respiratory failure and deterioration of chronic renal failure. During hospitalization the patient required hemodynamic support with norepinephrine and dobutamine, mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. The patient suffered a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and received dual antiplatelet therapy. After 14 days an acute intrapulmonary infiltrate of unknown origin developed, accompanied by fever and a significant increase of the C‑reactive protein (CRP) level...
December 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Gilda Diaz-Fuentes, Bharat Bajantri, Muhammad Adrish
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy with transbronchial and endobronchial biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration is an important diagnostic tool in the pulmonologist's armamentarium. Safety in patients with pulmonary hypertension is controversial and many bronchoscopists consider this as a contraindication for the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety of bronchoscopy in patients with echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension and to compare with patients without it...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Onkar Kumar Jha, Arjun Khanna, Charul Dabral, Deepak Talwar
Broncholithiasis is an often overlooked condition and has been associated with symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and recurrent respiratory infections. The most common mechanism of a broncholith formation is the enlargement and subsequent erosion of a lymph node into an adjacent airway. Here, we describe this entity in a patient with advanced allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, and with frequent infective exacerbations. These frequent exacerbations were initially attributed to the poor lung function of the patient and the inability to cough out the secretions...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Ryan R Kroll, Sameer Kumar, Ronald F Grossman, Charles Price, John R Srigley
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition characterized by dysfunctional alveolar macrophages, which ineffectively clear surfactant and typically cause mild hypoxemia. Characteristic Computed Tomography findings are septal reticulations superimposed on ground-glass opacities in a crazy paving pattern, with a clear juxtaposition between affected and unaffected parenchyma. While traditionally PAP was diagnosed via biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is usually sufficient; the fluid appears milky, and on microscopic examination there are foamy macrophages with eosinophilic granules and extracellular hyaline material that is Periodic Acid-Schiff positive...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Deborah Dudgeon, Vickie E Baracos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and cachexia are important manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and have been associated with breathlessness, functional limitation and poor prognosis. A number of other life-limiting illnesses, including cancer and chronic heart failure as well as acute conditions seen in ICU such as sepsis, are characteristically associated with cachexia and sarcopenia. These conditions may have respiratory muscle atrophy of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the development of breathlessness and associated functional limitation...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Hirofumi Nakazaki, Hirokazu Tokuyasu, Yu Takemoto, Hiroshi Miura, Masaaki Yanai, Takehito Fukushima, Eiji Shimizu
A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodular shadows with a peripheral ground-glass halo. His clinical condition continued to deteriorate with the development of progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy revealed choriocarcinoma. The patient died within nine days of admission. A histological examination of the right testis during an autopsy revealed a burned-out testicular tumor consisting of a teratoma and a fibrous scar...
2016: Internal Medicine
Anne Hilgendorff, Christian Apitz, Damien Bonnet, Georg Hansmann
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is the most common neonatal form and mostly reversible after a few days with improvement of the underlying pulmonary condition. When pulmonary hypertension (PH) persists despite adequate treatment, the severity of parenchymal lung disease should be assessed by chest CT. Pulmonary vein stenosis may need to be ruled out by cardiac catheterisation and lung biopsy, and genetic workup is necessary when alveolar capillary dysplasia is suspected. In PPHN, optimisation of the cardiopulmonary situation including surfactant therapy should aim for preductal SpO2between 91% and 95% and severe cases without post-tricuspid-unrestrictive shunt may receive prostaglandin E1 to maintain ductal patency in right heart failure...
May 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Srinivas Rajagopala, Sreejith Parameswaran, Jail Singh Ajmera, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Anudeep Katrevula
OBJECTIVES: To describe the spectrum of pulmonary involvement in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: We describe two patients with pulmonary renal syndrome related to IgAN and a systematic review of previously reported cases of IgAN and lung involvement. RESULTS: We identified 23 reports of IgAN-related pulmonary disease, including 19 reports of alveolar hemorrhage and two cases of organizing pneumonia. Dyspnea (84%), hemoptysis (74%), cough (53%) and fever (47%) were common presenting complaints...
February 4, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
John L Vaughn, Jared M Moore, Spero R Cataland
Complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (otherwise known as atypical HUS) is a rare disorder of uncontrolled complement activation that may be associated with heart failure. We report the case of a 49-year-old female with no history of heart disease who presented with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Given her normal ADAMSTS13 activity, evidence of increased complement activation, and renal biopsy showing evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy, she was diagnosed with complement-mediated HUS...
2015: Case Reports in Hematology
Supparerk Disayabutr, Carolyn S Calfee, Harold R Collard, Paul J Wolters
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are disorders of the lung parenchyma. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of ILDs vary depending on the underlying disease. The onset of most ILDs is insidious, but they may also present subacutely or require hospitalization for management. ILDs that may present subacutely include acute interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue disease-associated ILDs, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced ILDs, and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
2015: BMC Medicine
Marc Saad, Magda Daoud, Patricia Nasr, Rafeel Syed, Suzanne El-Sayegh
Over the last decades, post-infectious glomerulonephritis underwent major changes in its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and outcomes. We are reporting a case of IgA-dominant post-infectious glomerulonephritis (IgA-PIGN) presenting as a fatal pulmonary-renal syndrome. An 86-year-old Filipino man presented with worsening dyspnea, hemoptysis, and decreased urine output over 2 weeks. Past medical history is significant for hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage III, and pneumonia 3 weeks prior treated with intravenous cefazolin for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Leland L Fan, Megan K Dishop, Csaba Galambos, Frederic B Askin, Frances V White, Claire Langston, Deborah R Liptzin, Miranda E Kroehl, Gail H Deutsch, Lisa R Young, Geoffrey Kurland, James Hagood, Sharon Dell, Bruce C Trapnell, Robin R Deterding
RATIONALE: Children's Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Disease (chILD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that is challenging to categorize. In previous study, a classification scheme was successfully applied to children 0 to 2 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for chILD. This classification scheme has not been evaluated in children 2 to 18 years of age. OBJECTIVES: This multicenter interdisciplinary study sought to describe the spectrum of biopsy-proven chILD in North America and to apply a previously reported classification scheme in children 2 to 18 years of age...
October 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Srinivas Rajagopala, Baburao Kanthamani Pramod Sagar, Molly Mary Thabah, B H Srinivas, Ramanathan Venkateswaran, Sreejith Parameswaran
BACKGROUND: The etiology of patients presenting with pulmonary-renal syndrome (PRS) to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in India is not previously reported. AIMS: The aim was to describe the prevalence, etiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of PRS in an Indian ICU and identify variables that differentiate immunologic causes of PRS from tropical syndromes presenting with PRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of all patients presenting with PRS over 1-year...
June 2015: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Khalid M Sherani, Hinesh N Upadhyay, Farha K Sherani, Abhay P Vakil, Samir S Sarkar
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is characterized by the presence of hemoptysis, anemia, and the presence of diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on imaging studies. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and is classically known to present in childhood. Adult-onset IPH is extremely rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old female patient who presented with hemoptysis and acute hypoxic respiratory failure, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation...
July 2015: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Alexandra K Wong, Allan J Walkey
RATIONALE: Open lung biopsy may be performed to guide therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with diagnostic uncertainty regarding etiology of pulmonary infiltrates. Current evidence for open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients comes from single-center case series. OBJECTIVES: We performed a metaanalysis of case series to determine diagnoses, complications, and changes in therapy after lung biopsy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation...
August 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Qian Han, Qun Luo, Jia-Xing Xie, Lu-Lu Wu, Li-Yue Liao, Xiao-Xian Zhang, Rong-Chang Chen
OBJECTIVES: Surgical lung biopsy plays an important role in providing pathologic results, thus complementing the diagnostic rationale for suspected interstitial lung diseases. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the diagnostic yield and postoperative mortality rate of surgical lung biopsy in patients with suspected interstitial lung diseases because of the wide variation in previously reported effectiveness and safety concerns. METHODS: We systematically searched for published studies between 2000 and 2014 evaluating surgical lung biopsy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases...
May 2015: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Tuomas Mäkelä, Reijo Takalo, Oiva Arvola, Henri Haapanen, Fredrik Yannopoulos, Roberto Blanco, Lauri Ahvenjärvi, Kai Kiviluoma, Erja Kerkelä, Johanna Nystedt, Tatu Juvonen, Petri Lehenkari
BACKGROUND AIMS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem stromal cells (BM-MSCs) could have therapeutic potential for numerous conditions, including ischemia-related injury. Cells transplanted intravascularly may become entrapped in the lungs, which potentially decreases their therapeutic effect and increases the risk for embolism. METHODS: Twelve pigs were divided into groups of 3 and received (99m)Tc- hydroxymethyl-propylene-amine-oxime-labeled autologous BM-MNCs or allogeneic BM-MSCs by either intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) transplantation...
April 2015: Cytotherapy
Victoria T Trinh, Jason M Davies, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECT: The object of this study was to examine how procedural volume and patient demographics impact complication rates and value of care in those who underwent biopsy or craniotomy for supratentorial primary brain tumors. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) on 62,514 admissions for biopsy or resection of supratentorial primary brain tumors for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main outcome measures were in-hospital mortality, routine discharge proportion, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications...
February 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery
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