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HIV-1 and alcohol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930769/acute-alcohol-consumption-directly-increases-hiv-transmission-risk-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#1
Paul A Shuper, Narges Joharchi, Peter M Monti, Mona Loutfy, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has frequently been purported as a driver of condomless sex and HIV transmission, but to date, experimental evidence for the causal risk-taking impact of alcohol among HIV-positive populations is lacking. The present experiment sought to determine whether acute alcohol consumption has a direct causal impact on condomless sex intentions among HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), and to assess whether alcohol's impact differs between MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929125/the-association-of-inflammatory-markers-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-differs-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-serostatus
#2
Jennifer C Price, Ruibin Wang, Eric C Seaberg, Matthew J Budoff, Lawrence A Kingsley, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Wendy S Post, Chloe L Thio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship of circulating adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers with fatty liver among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Noncontrast computed tomography was used to assess fatty liver and measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in 526 participants without history of cardiovascular disease, heavy alcohol use, or viral hepatitis infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations of circulating biomarker levels with fatty liver...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923034/an-implementation-science-protocol-of-the-women-s-health-coop-in-healthcare-settings-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-stepped-wedge-design
#3
Wendee M Wechsberg, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Ilene S Speizer, William A Zule, Winnifred Gumula, Courtney Peasant, Felicia A Browne, Laura Dunlap
BACKGROUND: HIV persists as a public health emergency in South Africa, especially among women of childbearing age. In response to the HIV epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has put forth the 90-90-90 global goals to achieve an AIDS-free generation by 2020. This goal aspires to have 90% of people living with HIV diagnosed; 90% of those who test positive on sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 90% of those on ART be virally suppressed. Ensuring access to ART is an important first step in reducing HIV incidence, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who use substances and bear the burden of HIV in South Africa...
September 18, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#4
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921677/clinical-profile-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-developing-country-india
#5
Ramit Mahajan, Vandana Midha, Omesh Goyal, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Kirandeep Kaur, Arshdeep Singh, Dharmatma Singh, Rishu Bhanot, Ajit Sood
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and clinical profile of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies worldwide and data from developing countries is sparse. AIMS: To study the clinical profile of HCV infection in a developing country in South East Asia (India). METHODS: This observational study assessed patient demographics, viral characteristics, risk factors for virus acquisition and disease characteristics in HCV patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2015...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893749/cross-sectional-comparative-study-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-persons-initiated-and-waiting-to-start-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-rakai-uganda
#6
Lydia Jacenta Nakiganda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Joseph Kagaayi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Nelson Sewankambo, Ronald Gray, Anthony Ndyanabo, Richard Muwanika, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
OBJECTIVES: To compare risky sexual behaviours between HIV-positive persons initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (ART-experienced) and persons waiting to start on ART (ART-naive) and assess predictors of risky sexual behaviours among HIV-infected patients in rural Rakai district, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) database between 2013 and 2014. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887669/association-of-cannabis-stimulant-and-alcohol-use-with-mortality-prognosis-among-hiv-infected-men
#7
Joëlla W Adams, Kendall J Bryant, Jennifer E Edelman, David A Fiellin, Julie R Gaither, Adam J Gordon, Kirsha S Gordon, Kevin L Kraemer, Matthew J Mimiaga, Don Operario, Janet P Tate, Jacob J van den Berg, Amy C Justice, Brandon D L Marshall
Questionnaires over a 9-year study period (2002-2010) were used to characterize cannabis, stimulant, and alcohol use among 3099 HIV-infected men participating in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) to determine whether use of these substances is associated with changes in the VACS Index, a validated prognostic indicator for all-cause mortality. At baseline, 18% of participants reported no substance use in the past year, 24% lower risk alcohol use only, 18% unhealthy alcohol use only, 15% cannabis use (with or without alcohol), and 24% stimulant use (with or without alcohol or cannabis)...
September 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886173/prevalence-of-self-reported-comorbidities-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-over-55-years-the-australian-positive-peers-longevity-evaluation-study-apples
#8
Kathy Petoumenos, Robin Huang, Jennifer Hoy, Mark Bloch, David J Templeton, David Baker, Michelle Giles, Matthew G Law, David A Cooper
In Australia, almost half of HIV-positive people are now aged over 50 and are predominately gay and bisexual men (GBM). Compared to the general HIV-negative population, GBM engage more in behaviours that may increase the risk of age-related comorbidities, including smoking, high alcohol consumption and recreational drug use. The objective of APPLES was to compare comorbidities and risk factors in HIV-positive older GBM with an appropriate control group of HIV-negative GBM. We undertook a prospectively recruited cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBM ≥ 55 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876645/is-hiv-status-relevant-in-acute-pancreatitis
#9
L A Prodehl, M B Brand, M Mauser
BACKGROUND: HIV positivity and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment have been described as significant causes of acute pancreatitis prevalence and predictors of poor outcomes. Most data are from the late 1990s and early 2000s, prior to widespread roll out of ARVs and newer agents. This study assessed if there is still a significant difference between HIV positive (HIV+) and negative(HIV-) patients in acute pancreatitis in the presentation and outcomes of acute pancreatitis. METHOD: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patient admission data...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876564/oesophageal-squamous-cell-cancer-in-a-south-african-tertiary-hospital-a-risk-factor-and-presentation-analysis
#10
E Loots, B Sartorius, T E Madiba, C J J Mulder, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Squamous carcinoma of the oesophagus (SCO) is the most common form of oesophageal cancer in South Africa (SA). Risk factors include male gender, smoking, alcohol consumption and low socio-economic status (SES). This study assessed the risk factors for SCO in KwaZulu-Natal. METHOD: Information on patients managed at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), Durban, South Africa, between 1 October 2013 and 31 December 2014 was retrieved from a prospective database of Oesophageal Cancer (OC)...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875856/identification-of-1-aryl-1h-1-2-3-triazoles-as-potential-new-antiretroviral-agents
#11
Daniel T G Gonzaga, Thiago M L Souza, Viviane M M Andrade, Vitor F Ferreira, Fernando de C da Silva
BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles are endowed with various types of biological activity, such as against cancer, HIV and bacteria. Despite the existence of six different classes of antiretroviral drugs in clinical use, HIV/AIDS continue to be an on growing public health problem. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we synthesized and evaluated thirty 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles against HIV replication. METHOD: The compounds were prepared by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition protocol catalyzed by Cu(I) between aryl azides and propargylic alcohol followed by further esterification and etherification from a nucleophilic substitution with acid chlorides or alkyl bromides in good yields...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870186/knowledge-attitude-and-status-of-nitrite-inhalant-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-tianjin-china
#12
Zheng Zhang, Li Zhang, Feng Zhou, Zhen Li, Jie Yang
BACKGROUND: Nitrite inhalants have become popular as recreational drugs among the homosexual population in some developed countries since the 1980s. These drugs, also called RUSH in China, have become attractive among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the past few years. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to understand the knowledge, attitude, and status of nitrite inhalant use among Chinese MSM. METHODS: The study participants were recruited from Tianjin, China between April and August 2012...
September 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856539/alcohol-types-and-hiv-disease-progression-among-hiv-infected-drinkers-not-yet-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-russia-and-uganda
#13
Stephen B Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Gregory Patts, Michael Winter, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Nneka Emenyonu, Winnie Muyindike, Allen Kekibiina, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Evgeny Kruptisky, Debbie M Cheng, Jeffrey H Samet, Judith A Hahn
In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment...
August 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833276/analysis-of-the-association-of-non-synonymous-polymorphisms-in-adh-genes-with-hazardous-drinking-in-hiv-1-positive-individuals
#14
Jonas Michel Wolf, Daniel Simon, Jorge Umberto Béria, Daniela Cardoso Tietzmann, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking (HD) is a serious health problem in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have been associated with HD in different populations, but there was no data about this in HIV-1 positive individuals. This study investigated the association of four non-synonymous SNPs in ADH genes (Arg48His and Arg370Cys in ADH1B gene; Arg272Gln and Ile350Val in ADH1C gene) with HD in people living with HIV-1...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832283/alcohol-use-and-sexual-risk-behaviour-among-men-and-women-in-inner-city-johannesburg-south-africa
#15
Braimoh Bello, Harry Moultrie, Aleefia Somji, Matthew F Chersich, Charlotte Watts, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is a key factor underlying the remarkable vulnerability to HIV infection among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially within urban settings. Its effects, however, vary by type of drinking, population group and are modified by socio-cultural co-factors. METHODS: We interviewed a random sample of 1465 men living in single-sex hostels and 1008 women in adjacent informal settlements in inner-city, Johannesburg, South Africa. Being drunk in the past week was used as an indicator of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of drinking and number of alcohol units/week used as measures of volume...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829824/a-syndemic-approach-to-assess-the-effect-of-substance-use-and-social-disparities-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-hcv-infections-in-british-columbia
#16
Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Dionne Gesink, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, Jane A Buxton, James C Johnston, Victoria J Cook, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Michelle Murti, Travis S Hottes, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Balshaw, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of social conditions and infections may affect HIV/HCV disease risk and progression. We examined the changes in relationship of these social conditions and infections on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections over time in British Columbia during 1990-2013. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ~1.5 million individuals tested for HIV or HCV, or reported as a case of HCV, HIV, HBV, or tuberculosis linked to administrative healthcare databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826227/the-relationship-between-symptoms-of-common-mental-disorders-and-drug-and-alcohol-misuse-among-persons-seeking-an-hiv-test
#17
Ashraf Kagee, Wylene Saal, Jason Bantjes
We studied 500 South Africans who sought an HIV test in a community outreach setting. On average, both men and women in the sample indicated hazardous and harmful alcohol use, as well as possible alcohol dependence. Men but not women among the sample experienced drug-related problems. Men were 1.64 times more likely than females to report problematic alcohol use and 4.88 times more likely than females to report drug use. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression significantly explained 16.5% of the variance in alcohol misuse...
August 21, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822002/food-insecurity-hiv-disease-progression-and-access-to-care-among-hiv-infected-russians-not-on-art
#18
Bulat Idrisov, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Gregory J Patts, Carly Bridden, Ronald E Kleinman, Sheri D Weiser, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Food insecurity (FI) has been associated with HIV disease progression among people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), presumably a consequence of poor medication adherence. We assessed whether there is a longitudinal association between FI and two primary outcomes reflecting on HIV disease progression (i.e., CD4 count and time to ART initiation) among people not on ART. Analyses used linear mixed effects and Cox models controlling for confounders. In this cohort (n = 310) FI was common (53%). Most (71.3%) reported past month heavy alcohol use and 37...
August 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818082/comparing-chronic-condition-rates-using-icd-9-and-icd-10-in-va-patients-fy2014-2016
#19
Jean Yoon, Adam Chow
BACKGROUND: Management of patients with chronic conditions relies on accurate measurement. It is unknown how transition to the ICD-10 coding system affected reporting of chronic condition rates over time. We measured chronic condition rates 2 years before and 1 year after the transition to ICD-10 to examine changes in prevalence rates and potential measurement issues in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. METHODS: We developed definitions for 34 chronic conditions using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and compared the prevalence rates of these conditions from FY2014 to 2016 in a 20% random sample (1...
August 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815822/hepatitis-c-virus-related-complications-are-increasing-in-women-veterans-a-national-cohort-study
#20
J R Kramer, H B El-Serag, T J Taylor, D L White, S M Asch, S M Frayne, Y Cao, D L Smith, F Kanwal
There are gender-specific variations in the epidemiology and clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, few long-term longitudinal studies have examined trends in the incidence and prevalence of serious liver complications among women compared with men with HCV infection. We used the Veterans Administration Corporate Data Warehouse to identify all veterans with positive HCV viraemia from January 2000 to December 2013. We calculated gender-specific annual incidence and prevalence rates of cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) adjusting for age, diabetes, HIV and alcohol use...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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