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HIV-1 and alcohol

Nikita Barai, Anne Monroe, Catherine Lesko, Bryan Lau, Heidi Hutton, Cui Yang, Anika Alvanzo, Mary Elizabeth McCaul, Geetanjali Chander
Heavy alcohol use has adverse effects in women with HIV. We examined the association between changes in alcohol use (measured with Timeline Followback) and changes in antiretroviral therapy adherence (medication possession ratio) and viral suppression (HIV RNA), measured over 6-month intervals. Among women who were (1) non-adherent or not virologically suppressed and (2) infrequent binge drinkers or non-heavy drinkers at baseline, increasing drinking was significantly associated with lower odds of subsequently improving adherence or viral suppression (OR of becoming adherent of 0...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
Brian E McCabe, Natasha Schaefer Solle, Nilda Peragallo Montano, Victoria B Mitrani
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV/STI risk, but studies have rarely included Hispanic women, who have over four times greater HIV incidence than white, non-Hispanic women. Understanding the connections among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks may suggest ways to meet specific needs of Hispanic women. This study's objective is to examine the relationships among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and seven HIV/STI risk factors...
October 15, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Yu Liu, Yuhua Ruan, Shiela M Strauss, Lu Yin, Hongjie Liu, K Rivet Amico, Chen Zhang, Yiming Shao, Han-Zhu Qian, Sten H Vermund
BACKGROUND: Few studies have employed standardized alcohol misuse measures to assess relationships with sexual risk and HIV/syphilis infections among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM in Beijing during 2013-2014. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted to collect data on sociodemographics, high-risk behaviors, and alcohol use/misuse patterns (hazardous/binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence) in the past 3 months using Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)...
September 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Adrià Ramírez-Mena, Tracy R Glass, Annja Winter, Namvua Kimera, Alex Ntamatungiro, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Hansjakob Furrer, Gilles Wandeler, Emilio Letang
Background.  We evaluated the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals enrolled in a rural Tanzanian prospective cohort and assessed hepatic fibrosis progression 12-24 months after antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Methods.  All ART-naive HIV-infected adults ≥15-year-old enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort who started ART between 2005 and 2015 were included. Pre-ART factors associated with significant liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index [APRI] >1...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Krishna Vaddiparti, Catherine W Striley, Linda B Cottler
The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence...
September 1, 2016: Violence Gend
Gregory J Patts, Debbie M Cheng, Nneka Emenyonu, Carly Bridden, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine A Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine Ngabirano, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Winnie R Muyindike, Sheri D Weiser, Evgeny M Krupitsky, Judith A Hahn, Jeffrey H Samet
Food insecurity (FI) is a documented problem associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected populations. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol use and FI. We assessed whether heavy alcohol use was associated with FI among HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve cohorts in Uganda and Russia. Inverse probability of treatment weighted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association using cross-sectional baseline data. FI was experienced by half of the Russia cohort (52 %) and by a large majority of the Uganda cohort (84 %)...
October 3, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Kathleen A McGinnis, Janet P Tate, Emily C Williams, Melissa Skanderson, Kendall J Bryant, Adam J Gordon, Kevin L Kraemer, Stephen A Maisto, Steven Crystal, David A Fiellin, Amy C Justice
BACKGROUND: Using electronic medical record (EMR) data for clinical decisions, quality improvement, and research is common. While unhealthy alcohol use is particularly risky among HIV infected individuals (HIV+), the validity of EMR data for identifying unhealthy alcohol use among HIV+ is unclear. Among HIV+ and uninfected, we: (1) assess agreement of EMR and research AUDIT-C at validated cutoffs for unhealthy alcohol use; (2) explore EMR cutoffs that maximize agreement; and (3) assess subpopulation variation in agreement...
September 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Steven A Safren, James P Hughes, Matthew J Mimiaga, Ayana T Moore, Ruth Khalili Friedman, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Mohammed Limbada, Brian D Williamson, Vanessa Elharrar, Vanessa Cummings, Jessica F Magidson, Charlotte A Gaydos, David D Celentano, Kenneth H Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Successful global treatment as prevention (TasP) requires identifying HIV-positive individuals at high risk for transmitting HIV, and having impact via potential infections averted. This study estimated the frequency and predictors of numbers of HIV transmissions and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition among sexually active HIV-positive individuals in care from three representative global settings. METHODS: HIV-positive individuals (n=749), including heterosexual men, heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV care, were recruited from Chiang Mai (Thailand), Rio De Janeiro (Brazil) and Lusaka (Zambia)...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
C E Canan, B Lau, M E McCaul, J Keruly, R D Moore, G Chander
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the association between levels of past and current alcohol consumption and all-cause and liver-related mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 1855 PLWH in Baltimore, MD was carried out from 2000 to 2013. We ascertained alcohol use by (1) self-report (SR) through a computer-assisted self interview, and (2) medical record abstraction of provider-documented (PD) alcohol use...
September 28, 2016: HIV Medicine
Lu Cao, Alexey Glazyrin, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Taylor Wingo, Tanseli Nesil, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking behavior is related to the reward system in the brain and can predict the potential for addiction. Alcohol use is prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients and adversely affects antiretroviral medication. The difference in vulnerability to alcohol addiction between HIV-1-infected and noninfected populations has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to determine whether HIV-1 proteins alter the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on novelty-seeking behavior using the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat as the study model and to examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this behavior...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
V Filingeri, S Francioso, D Sforza, F Santopaolo, F M Oddi, G Tisone
OBJECTIVE: In the last decades, liver biopsy was the reference procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of liver disease. Aim of present retrospective analysis was to assess the prevalence of complications and risk factors after Percutaneous Liver Biopsy (PLB) performed for diagnosis and staging in patients with chronic liver disease and for monitoring the graft in liver transplanted patients PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from a total of 1.011 PLB performed with the Menghini technique between January 2004 and December 2014 at the Hepatology and Transplant Units of the University of Rome Tor Vergata...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Brian T Chan, Amrose Pradeep, Lakshmi Prasad, Vinothini Murugesan, Ezhilarasi Chandrasekaran, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Kenneth H Mayer
Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India...
September 18, 2016: AIDS Care
Racheal Ankunda, Lynn Muhimbuura Atuyambe, Noah Kiwanuka
INTRODUCTION: As young people living with HIV grow their sexual behaviour and it's implication on HIV prevention is of concern. This study describes the sexual risk related-behaviours and factors associated with abstinence among Youth Living with HIV in central Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 338 unmarried youth between 15 and 24 years accessing HIV care in central Uganda. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaires...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Seonaid Nolan, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is associated with a multitude of severe health consequences. While risk behaviors related to illicit drug use are commonly studied among people who inject drugs (PWID), the role of alcohol use has received substantially less attention in this population. We explored whether drug and sexual risk behaviors as well as experiences of violence were associated with hazardous alcohol use in a cohort of PWID. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using observational data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada...
September 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Darcy White, Kate S Wilson, Linnet N Masese, George Wanje, Walter Jaoko, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, Jane M Simoni, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Studies of alcohol use and sexual behavior in African populations have primarily been cross-sectional, used nonvalidated measures of alcohol use, or relied on self-reported sexual risk endpoints. Few have focused on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. METHODS: Longitudinal data were collected from a cohort of HIV-positive Kenyan female sex workers. At enrollment and annual visits, participants were asked about past-year alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
October 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Isadora Clark-Ordóñez, Olga A Callejas-Negrete, Elva T Aréchiga-Carvajal, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez
Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75...
September 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
María Ángeles Jiménez-Fuentes, Teresa Rodrigo, María Neus Altet, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Martí Casals, Antón Penas, Isabel Mir, Segismundo Solano Reina, Juan Antonio Riesco-Miranda, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of smoking and analyze associated factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Spain between 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study using a national database of TB patients, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We analyzed 5,846 cases (62 % men, mean age 39 years, 33 % foreigners)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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