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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#1
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349254/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-and-its-association-with-socio-demographic-and-hiv-risk-factors-in-south-africa-findings-of-the-2012-hiv-prevalence-incidence-and-behaviour-survey
#2
J C Mthembu, M L H Mabaso, G Khan, L C Simbayi
Background: In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. Methods: The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345844/assessing-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance-and-understanding-associated-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Dewi Nur Aisyah, Laura Shallcross, Alice Jane Hully, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
New advances in the treatment of hepatitis C provide high levels of sustained viral response but their expense limits availability in publicly funded health systems. The aim of this review is to estimate the proportion of patients who will spontaneously clear HCV and to identify factors that are associated with clearance, to support better targeting of directly acting antivirals. We searched Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Pubmed from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2015 for studies reporting hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and/or demographic, clinical, and behavioural factors associated with clearance...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338805/risk-factors-for-infectiousness-of-patients-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Y A Melsew, T N Doan, M Gambhir, A C Cheng, E McBryde, J M Trauer
We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies assessing tuberculosis (TB) patient-related risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Meta-analyses were conducted for sputum smear-positivity, lung cavitation and HIV seropositivity of index patients with both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) pooled using random effect models. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review. We found that demographic characteristics such as age and sex were not significant risk factors, while behaviours such as smoking and alcohol intake were associated with infectiousness although inconsistently...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338660/social-ecological-factors-associated-with-selling-sex-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-jamaica-results-from-a-cross-sectional-tablet-based-survey
#5
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Kathleen S Kenny, Kandasi Levermore, Nicolette Jones, Stefan D Baral, Ying Wang, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336596/hiv-related-thought-avoidance-sexual-risk-and-alcohol-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Ashley E Pérez, Tyler B Wray, Mark A Celio, Peter M Monti
HIV-related "cognitive escape" refers to a tendency to avoid thoughts associated with HIV, which may be particularly common among men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often inundated with HIV information, potentially to the point of fatigue. HIV-related cognitive escape is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, such as condomless sex, and heavier alcohol use patterns. Other studies show that some MSM may use alcohol specifically to facilitate sex. These sexual motives for drinking (SMDs) could be one mechanism whereby cognitive escape leads to health risk behaviors...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336591/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-stigma-and-behavioral-risk-factors-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-in-asia
#7
Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Chuenkamol Sethaputra, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Khanh Huu Truong, Lam Van Nguyen, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Moy Siew Fong, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nicolas Durier
We studied behavioral risks among HIV-infected and uninfected adolescents using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. A prospective cohort study was initiated between 2013 and 2014 in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. HIV-infected adolescents were matched to uninfected adolescents (4:1) by sex and age group (12-14 and 15-18 years). We enrolled 250 HIV-infected (48% male; median age 14.5 years; 93% perinatally infected) and 59 uninfected (51% male; median age 14.1 years) adolescents. At enrollment, HIV-infected adolescents were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a median (IQR) of 7...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334885/2016-united-kingdom-national-guideline-on-the-sexual-health-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Dan Clutterbuck, David Asboe, Tristan Barber, Carol Emerson, Nigel Field, Stuart Gibson, Gwenda Hughes, Rachael Jones, Martin Murchie, Achyuta V Nori, Michael Rayment, Ann Sullivan
This guideline is intended for use in UK Genitourinary medicine clinics and sexual health services but is likely to be of relevance in all sexual health settings, including general practice and Contraception and Sexual Health (CASH) services, where men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual health care or where addressing the sexual health needs of MSM may have public health benefits. For the purposes of this document, MSM includes all gay, bisexual and all other males who have sex with other males and both cis and trans men...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327090/alcohol-use-and-unprotected-sex-among-hiv-infected-ugandan-adults-findings-from-an-event-level-study
#9
Sarah E Woolf-King, Robin Fatch, Debbie M Cheng, Winnie Muyindike, Christine Ngabirano, Allen Kekibiina, Nneka Emenyonu, Judith A Hahn
While alcohol is a known risk factor for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), studies designed to investigate the temporal relationship between alcohol use and unprotected sex are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alcohol used at the time of a sexual event is associated with unprotected sex at that same event. Data for this study were collected as part of two longitudinal studies of HIV-infected Ugandan adults. A structured questionnaire was administered at regularly scheduled cohort study visits in order to assess the circumstances (e...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294709/masculine-gender-ideologies-intimate-partner-violence-and-alcohol-use-increase-risk-for-genital-tract-infections-among-men
#10
Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Balaiah Donta, Anindita Dasgupta, Paul J Fleming, Mohan Ghule, Battala Madhusudana, Saritha Nair, Jay G Silverman, Niranjan Saggurti, Anita Raj
Masculine gender ideologies are thought to underlie alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and sexual risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We extend on studies in the Indian context by examining the roles of masculine gender ideologies, alcohol use, and IPV on three outcomes of HIV risk (condom use, genital tract infection [GTI] symptoms, and GTI diagnosis). We applied logistic regression models to cross-sectional data of men and their wives in rural Maharashtra, India ( n = 1,080 couples)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283273/hiv-risk-behaviors-of-men-who-perpetrate-intimate-partner-violence-in-rakai-uganda
#11
Margo Mullinax, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu S Song, Jennifer Wagman, Sanyukta Mathur, Fred Nalugoda, Tom Lutalo, John Santelli
Little is known about men who perpetrate IPV in communities also at risk for HIV infection. Using data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), five survey rounds were used (n = 21,157, observation from n = 10,618 men) to examine HIV risk and prevention behaviors among men who reported acts of violence against their wife/primary partner in the past 12 months. Overall, 10.4% men reported perpetrating physical violence and 17.3% perpetrating verbal violence, 3.1% reported sexual violence, 3.1% used violence to have sex with their wife/partner, and 1...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282802/impact-of-cellular-restriction-gene-trim5%C3%AE-bst-2-polymorphisms-on-the-acquisition-of-hiv-1-and-disease-progression
#12
HariOm Singh, Dharmesh Samani, Manisha V Ghate, R R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: TRIM5α and BST-2 are cellular restriction factors, affecting the HIV-1 infection and its progression. Genetic variability in these genes alters the expression pattern. Hence, we aimed to examine the impact of TRIM5α (rs10838525, rs7127617, and rs904375) and BST2 (rs3217318 and rs71694748) polymorphisms on the acquisition of HIV-1 and its progression. METHOD: Genotyping of TRIM5α and BST-2 polymorphisms performed in a total of 153 HIV-infected patients and 158 unrelated healthy individuals by PCR-RFLP method...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281681/depression-and-alcohol-use-disorder-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-led-to-disengagement-from-care-in-south-africa
#13
Cody Cichowitz, Noriah Maraba, Robin Hamilton, Salome Charalambous, Christopher J Hoffmann
We sought to assess mental health at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and subsequent retention in care over a six-month follow-up period. A total of 136 people living with HIV in South Africa were administered surveys measuring demographic information and mental health indicators at the time of ART initiation. Follow-up was completed via chart abstraction to assess for six-month outcomes of retention in care and viral suppression. At enrollment, 45/136 (33%), 67/136 (49%), and 45/136 (33%) participants screened positive for depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279854/victimization-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-risk-among-transgender-women-in-india-a-latent-profile-analysis
#14
Tiara C Willie, Venkatesan Chakrapani, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Trace S Kershaw
Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience multiple forms of victimization such as violence and discrimination that can place them at risk for poor sexual health. To date, research overlooks the heterogeneity in experiences of victimization among TGW. Furthermore, few studies have examined the association between victimization and sexual risk among TGW in India, despite the high burden of HIV and victimization in this community. Latent profile analysis was performed to identify patterns of victimization in a convenience sample of 299 TGW recruited from nongovernmental organizations across four states in India...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Gender
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#15
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220120/efavirenz-is-related-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-among-adults-but-not-among-adolescents-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#17
Marion Sumari-de Boer, Arnt Schellekens, Ashanti Duinmaijer, Julieth M Lalashowi, Happiness J Swai, Quirijn de Mast, Andre van der Ven, Grace Kinabo
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between Efavirenz (EFV) and neuropsychiatric symptoms among adults and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults (age 18-65) and adolescents (age 12-17) on antiretroviral treatment attending Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
December 8, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214410/a-cross-sectional-study-of-depressive-symptoms-and-risky-alcohol-use-behaviors-among-hiv-primary-care-patients-in-new-york-city
#18
Yasemin Algur, Jennifer C Elliott, Efrat Aharonovich, Deborah S Hasin
An association between problem drinking and depression among HIV-infected individuals has been previously demonstrated; however, which specific risky drinking behaviors are associated with higher levels of depression has not yet been investigated. Using an adult sample of HIV-infected primary care patients (78% male, 94% Black or Hispanic), we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with various risky drinking behaviors. Participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV to evaluate alcohol involvement...
December 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199597/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possible-chemical-and-biological-causes-a-review
#19
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198185/role-of-substance-use-in-hiv-care-cascade-outcomes-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-russia
#20
Bulat Idrisov, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Emily Quinn, Carly Bridden, Alexander Y Walley, Kendall J Bryant, Dmitry Lioznov, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
BACKGROUND: Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes...
December 4, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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