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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786109/engulfment-of-platelets-delays-endothelial-cell-aging-via-girdin-and-its-phosphorylation
#1
Yong Lan, Yongjun Li, Dajun Li, Peng Li, Jiyang Wang, Yongpeng Diao, Guodong Ye, Yangfang Li
Endothelial cells are critical in angiogenesis and maintain the homeostasis of the blood‑brain barrier (BBB). Platelets (PLTs) are essential in vascular biology, including angiogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of PLTs on the aging of endothelial cells. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and human astrocytes were co‑cultured to mimic the BBB. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the engulfment of PLTs. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the co‑localization of PLTs, girders of actin filament (girdin) and phosphorylated (p‑)girdin...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786071/dopamine-d2-receptor-restricts-astrocytic-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-enhancing-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-and-nlrp3
#2
Jialei Zhu, Zhaoli Hu, Xiaojuan Han, Dongshuo Wang, Qingling Jiang, Jianhua Ding, Ming Xiao, Cong Wang, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
Astrocytes are involved in the neuroinflammation of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the numerous inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by astrocytic Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) inflammasome is crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. β-arrestin2-mediated dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) signal transduction has been regarded as a potential anti-inflammatory target. Our previous study revealed that astrocytic Drd2 suppresses neuroinflammation in the central nervous system...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784452/regulation-of-the-oxidative-balance-with-coenzyme-q10-sensitizes-human-glioblastoma-cells-to-radiation-and-temozolomide
#3
Javier Frontiñán-Rubio, Raquel María Santiago-Mora, Consuelo María Nieva-Velasco, Gustavo Ferrín, Alicia Martínez-González, María Victoria Gómez, María Moreno, Julia Ariza, Eva Lozano, Jacinto Arjona-Gutiérrez, Antonio Gil-Agudo, Manuel De la Mata, Milica Pesic, Juan Ramón Peinado, José M Villalba, Luis Pérez-Romasanta, Víctor M Pérez-García, Francisco J Alcaín, Mario Durán-Prado
OBJECTIVES: To investigate how the modulation of the oxidative balance affects cytotoxic therapies in glioblastoma, in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human glioblastoma U251 and T98 cells and normal astrocytes C8D1A were loaded with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ). Mitochondrial superoxide ion (O2 - ) and H2 O2 were measured by fluorescence microscopy. OXPHOS performance was assessed in U251 cells with an oxytherm Clark-type electrode. Radio- and chemotherapy cytotoxicity was assessed by immunostaining of γH2AX (24 h), annexin V and nuclei morphology, at short (72 h) and long (15 d) time...
May 18, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782809/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-regional-accumulation-of-hyaluronan-and-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-the-mouse-brain
#4
May J Reed, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Jasmine L Pathan, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks, Robert B Vernon
The brain changes in volume and composition with normal aging. Cellular components of the brain are supported by an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised largely of hyaluronan (HA) and HA-associated members of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We examined regional differences in microvascular density, neuronal and glial markers, and accumulation of HA and CSPGs in mouse brains during normal aging. The cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum of young (4 months), middle-aged (14 months), and aged (24-26 months) brains were analyzed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782323/role-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Zhiyou Cai, Pei-Feng Qiao, Cheng-Qun Wan, Min Cai, Nan-Kai Zhou, Qin Li
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BBB is a highly selective semipermeable structural and chemical barrier which ensures a stable internal environment of the brain and prevents foreign objects invading the brain tissue. BBB dysfunction induces the failure of Aβ transport from brain to the peripheral circulation across the BBB. Especially, decreased levels of LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and increased levels of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) at the BBB can cause the failure of Aβ transport...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779943/astroglial-cb-1-receptors-determine-synaptic-d-serine-availability-to-enable-recognition-memory
#6
Laurie M Robin, José F Oliveira da Cruz, Valentin C Langlais, Mario Martin-Fernandez, Mathilde Metna-Laurent, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Luigi Bellocchio, Edgar Soria-Gomez, Thomas Papouin, Marjorie Varilh, Mark W Sherwood, Ilaria Belluomo, Georgina Balcells, Isabelle Matias, Barbara Bosier, Filippo Drago, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Francois Georges, Alfonso Araque, Aude Panatier, Stéphane H R Oliet, Giovanni Marsicano
Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1 -KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#7
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778792/valproic-acid-attenuates-manganese-induced-reduction-in-expression-of-glt-1-and-glast-with-concomitant-changes-in-murine-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#8
James Johnson, Edward Pajarillo, Pratap Karki, Judong Kim, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurological disorder with similar characteristics to those of Parkinson's disease (PD). Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic, is known to inhibit histone deacetylases and exert neuroprotective effects in many experimental models of neurological disorders. In the present study, we investigated if VPA attenuated Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in VPA's neuroprotection, focusing on modulation of astrocytic glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter, GLAST and glutamate transporter 1, GLT-1) and histone acetylation in H4 astrocyte culture and mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#9
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777753/characterization-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-structure-in-app-ps1-mouse-brains
#10
Kee-Chan Ahn, Cameron R Learman, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Mee-Sook Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques, tauopathy and neuronal cell death in specific area of the brain. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular dysfunction may be an integral part of AD pathogenesis, contributing to the onset and development of AD pathologies such as neuronal death, inflammatory response, and breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, vascular complications caused by age-related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure have high incidence in development of dementia and AD...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777700/transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channels-are-involved-in-spontaneous-peptide-hormone-release-from-astrocytes
#11
Mai Takizawa, Kazuki Harada, Kazuaki Nakamura, Takashi Tsuboi
Astrocytes, a large population of glial cells, detect neurotransmitters and respond by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) and releasing chemical molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently discovered Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels is reported to cause spontaneous [Ca2+ ]i increase in astrocytes. While several physiological functions of TRPA1-mediated spontaneous Ca2+ signal have been revealed, relation with gliotransmitter release, especially peptide hormone exocytosis is largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#12
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775613/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-attenuates-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-nlgn3-deficient-mice
#13
Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775216/neuroimmflammation-and-microglia-in-glaucoma-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#14
REVIEW
Xin Wei, Kin-Sang Cho, Eric F Thee, Martine J Jager, Dong Feng Chen
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#15
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773988/microglia-p2y-13-receptors-prevent-astrocyte-proliferation-mediated-by-p2y-1-receptors
#16
Clara Quintas, Nuno Vale, Jorge Gonçalves, Glória Queiroz
Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772377/impact-of-steroid-hormones-e2-and-p-on-the-nlrp3-asc-casp1-axis-in-primary-mouse-astroglia-and-bv-2-cells-after-in-vitro-hypoxia
#17
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Adib Zendedel, Pardes Habib, Cordian Beyer
Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in different disease models of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemic stroke. Inflammasomes are involved in the interleukin-1 beta (IL1beta) maturation, in particular, NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and the active caspase-1 (Casp1) form. Recently, we showed that administration of E2 or P selectively regulated these components after experimental ischemic stroke in rats...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771310/fingolimod-phosphate-inhibits-astrocyte-inflammatory-activity-in-mucolipidosis-iv
#18
Laura Weinstock, Amanda M Furness, Shawn Herron, Sierra S Smith, Sitara Sankar, Samantha G DeRosa, Dadi Gao, Molly E Mepyans, Anna Scotto Rosato, Diego L Medina, Ayelet Vardi, Natalia S Ferreira, Soo Min Cho, Anthony H Futerman, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Levi B Wood, Yulia Grishchuk
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an orphan neurodevelopmental disease that causes severe neurologic dysfunction and loss of vision. Currently there is no therapy for MLIV. It is caused by loss of function of the lysosomal channel mucolipin-1, also known as TRPML1. Knockout of the Mcoln1 gene in a mouse model mirrors clinical and neuropathological signs in humans. Using this model, we previously observed robust activation of microglia and astrocytes in early symptomatic stages of disease. Here we investigate the consequence of mucolipin-1 loss on astrocyte inflammatory activation in vivo and in vitro and apply a pharmacological approach to restore Mcoln1-/- astrocyte homeostasis using a clinically approved immunomodulator, fingolimod...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770329/aeg-1-contributes-to-metastasis-in-hypoxia-related-ovarian-cancer-by-modulating-the-hif-1alpha-nf-kappab-vegf-pathway
#19
Xiaoyu Yu, Yan Wang, Huilei Qiu, Hongtao Song, Di Feng, Yang Jiang, Shuzhe Deng, Hongxue Meng, Jingshu Geng
Objective: Ovarian carcinoma represents one of the deadliest malignancies among female cancer patients. Astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) participates in the ontogenesis of multiple human malignant diseases. Here we evaluated AEG-1, hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1 α , nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κ B), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) amounts in hypoxia induced ovarian carcinoma cells. This study aimed to explore the mechanism by which AEG-1 regulates metastasis in hypoxia induced ovarian carcinoma...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770147/koumine-attenuates-neuroglia-activation-and-inflammatory-response-to-neuropathic-pain
#20
Gui-Lin Jin, Sai-Di He, Shao-Mei Lin, Li-Mian Hong, Wan-Qing Chen, Ying Xu, Jian Yang, Su-Ping Li, Chang-Xi Yu
Despite decades of studies, the currently available drugs largely fail to control neuropathic pain. Koumine-an alkaloidal constituent derived from the medicinal plant Gelsemium elegans Benth.-has been shown to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of koumine. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine were explored by using chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) neuropathic pain model in vivo and LPS-induced injury in microglia BV2 cells in vitro ...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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