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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#1
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908425/copper-accumulation-in-rodent-brain-astrocytes-a-species-difference
#2
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Yulia Pushkar, John K Young, Kebreten F Manaye
Changes in Cu homeostasis have been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Factors controlling and regulating the distribution of Cu in the brain remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that a sub-set of astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) contain Cu-rich aggregates. Here we expand previous studies with detailed X-ray fluorescent imaging (XRF) analysis of the additional brain areas of hippocampus (HP) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also use conventional DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine) staining which accesses both peroxidase and pseudo-peroxidase activities...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906951/changes-in-neuroglial-activity-in-multiple-spinal-segments-after-caudal-epidural-pulsed-radiofrequency-in-a-rat-model-of-lumbar-disc-herniation
#3
Hee Kyung Cho, Jae Hoon Kang, So-Yeon Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Se Jin Hwang, Yun-Woo Cho, Sang-Ho Ahn
BACKGROUND: Herniated lumbar discs can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. It was recently reported that neuroglial cellular activity after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to a single dorsal root ganglion (DRG) attenuated neuroglial activity at the corresponding spinal dorsal horn. Recently, caudal epidural PRF has been used to manage neuropathic pain, but evidence of molecular changes after the administration of caudal epidural PRF to attenuate neuropathic pain is lacking, and it has not been determined whether caudal epidural PRF affects neuroglial activity at different spinal levels...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905992/variable-sensitivity-to-complement-dependent-cytotoxicity-in-murine-models-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#4
Yiting Liu, Danielle E Harlow, Katherine S Given, Gregory P Owens, Wendy B Macklin, Jeffrey L Bennett
BACKGROUND: Studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), have demonstrated that autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) induce astrocyte damage through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In developing experimental models of NMO using cells, tissues or animals from mice, co-administration of AQP4-IgG and normal human serum, which serves as the source of human complement (HC), is required. The sensitivity of mouse CNS cells to HC and CDC in these models is not known...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904035/reduced-production-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-sulfane-sulfur-due-to-low-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-levels-in-brain-astrocytes-of-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
Sachiko Juman, Yasuo Nara, Naomi Yasui, Hiroko Negishi, Hiroto Okuda, Nichika Takado, Tomohiro Miki
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm; SHRSP) develop severe hypertension and die of cerebral stroke. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying their stroke susceptibility have not been clarified yet. In this study, we used astrocytes from the newborn brain cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm; SHR) and SHRSP to find the difference of genetic characteristics. Astrocytes are known to have functions of vasodilation and nutrient uptake for neurons in the brain. The continuous generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dose-dependently causes cell death in astrocytes, and SHRSP was more vulnerable than SHR...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903933/translocator-positron-emission-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-of-brain-glial-cell-activation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Gourab Datta, Ines R Violante, Gregory Scott, Karl Zimmerman, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [(11)C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903866/nigral-dopaminergic-pak4-prevents-neurodegeneration-in-rat-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
So-Yoon Won, Mee-Hee Park, Soon-Tae You, Seung-Won Choi, Hyong-Kyu Kim, Catriona McLean, Suk-Chul Bae, Sang Ryong Kim, Byung Kwan Jin, Kun Ho Lee, Eun-Young Shin, Eung-Gook Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. No neuroprotective treatments have successfully prevented the progression of this disease. We report that p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is a key survival factor for DA neurons. We observed PAK4 immunoreactivity in rat and human DA neurons in brain tissue, but not in microglia or astrocytes. PAK4 activity was markedly decreased in postmortem brain tissue from PD patients and in rodent models of PD...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903708/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-regulates-beta-catenin-signaling-to-maintain-glioma-stem-like-stemness-and-self-renewal
#8
Bin Hu, Luni Emdad, Timothy P Kegelman, Xue-Ning Shen, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common malignant brain tumor that portends extremely poor patient survival. Recent studies reveal that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are responsible for GBM escape from chemo-radiotherapy and mediators of tumor relapse. Previous studies suggest that AEG-1 (MTDH), an oncogene upregulated in most types of cancers including GBM, plays a focal role linking multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. We now report a crucial role of AEG-1 in glioma stem cell biology...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901023/rhein-and-rhubarb-similarly-protect-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-via-gp91-phox-subunit-of-nadph-oxidase-ros-erk-mmp-9-signaling-pathway
#9
Yang Wang, Xuegong Fan, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Chunhu Zhang, Zebing Huang, Weijun Peng, Pingping Gan, Xingui Xiong, Wei Huang, Xi Huang
Oxidative stress chiefly contributes to the disruption of the BBB following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Chinese herbal medicine rhubarb is a promising antioxidant in treating TBI. Here we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine whether rhubarb and its absorbed bioactive compound protected the BBB after TBI by increasing ZO-1 expression through inhibition of gp91(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK/MMP-9 pathway. Rats were subjected to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, and primary rat cortical astrocytes were exposed to scratch-wound model...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899316/inhibition-or-ablation-of-transglutaminase-2-impairs-astrocyte-migration
#10
Alina Monteagudo, Changyi Ji, Abdullah Akbar, Jeffrey W Keillor, Gail V W Johnson
Astrocytes play numerous complex roles that support and facilitate the function of neurons. Further, when there is an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) they can both facilitate or ameliorate functional recovery depending on the location and severity of the injury. When a CNS injury is relatively severe a glial scar is formed, which is primarily composed of astrocytes. The glial scar can be both beneficial, by limiting inflammation, and detrimental, by preventing neuronal projections, to functional recovery...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#11
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896809/a2a-d2-receptor-receptor-interaction-modulates-gliotransmitter-release-from-striatal-astrocyte-processes
#12
Chiara Cervetto, Arianna Venturini, Mario Passalacqua, Diego Guidolin, Susanna Genedani, Kjell Fuxe, Dasiel O Borroto-Esquela, Pietro Cortelli, Amina Woods, Guido Maura, Manuela Marcoli, Luigi F Agnati
Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895121/neuronal-mtorc1-is-required-for-maintaining-the-nonreactive-state-of-astrocytes
#13
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kang-Yan Liang, Kai Li, Zhi-Peng Zou, Cui-Lan Yang, Kang Tan, Xiong Cao, Yu Jiang, Tian-Ming Gao, Xiao-Chun Bai
Astrocytes respond to central nervous system (CNS) insults through reactive astrogliosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we show that inactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) signaling in postnatal neurons induces reactive astrogliosis in mice. Ablation of Raptor (an mTORC1-specific component) in postmitotic neurons abolished mTORC1 activity and produced neurons with smaller soma and fewer dendrites, resulting in microcephaly and aberrant behavior in adult mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#14
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jaiswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#15
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891688/possible-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-trigeminal-modulation-of-glomerular-microcircuits-of-the-rodent-olfactory-bulb
#16
Federica Genovese, Hanke Gwendolyn Bauersachs, Ines Gräßer, Janina Kupke, Laila Magin, Philipp Daiber, Julika Nakajima, Frank Möhrlen, Karl Messlinger, Stephan Frings
Chemosensation in the mammalian nose comprises detection of odorants, irritants and pheromones. While the traditional view assigned one distinct sub-system to each stimulus type, recent research has produced a more complex picture. Odorants are not only detected by olfactory sensory neurons but also by the trigeminal system. Irritants, in turn, may have a distinct odor, and some pheromones are detected by the olfactory epithelium. Moreover, it is well established that irritants change odor perception and vice versa...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889915/constitutive-regulation-of-the-glutamate-aspartate-transporter-eaat1-by-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii
#17
Aarti R Chawla, Derrick E Johnson, Agnes S Zybura, Benjamin P Leeds, Ross M Nelson, Andy Hudmon
Glutamate clearance by astrocytes is an essential part of normal excitatory neurotransmission. Failure to adapt or maintain low levels of glutamate in the central nervous system is associated with multiple acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The primary excitatory amino acid transporters in human astrocytes are EAAT1 and EAAT2 (GLAST and GLT-1 respectively in rodents). While the inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII), a ubiquitously-expressed serine/threonine protein kinase, results in diminished glutamate uptake in cultured primary rodent astrocytes (Ashpole et al...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889895/inflammatory-response-in-the-cns-friend-or-foe
#18
REVIEW
Marta Sochocka, Breno Satler Diniz, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammatory reactions could be both beneficial and detrimental to the brain, depending on strengths of their activation in various stages of neurodegeneration. Mild activation of microglia and astrocytes usually reveals neuroprotective effects and ameliorates early symptoms of neurodegeneration; for instance, released cytokines help maintain synaptic plasticity and modulate neuronal excitability, and stimulated toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth. However, strong activation of glial cells gives rise to cytokine overexpression/dysregulation, which accelerates neurodegeneration...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889409/bioactive-compound-screen-for-pharmacological-enhancers-of-apolipoprotein-e-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#19
Gina M Finan, Ronald Realubit, Sungkwon Chung, Dieter Lütjohann, Nan Wang, John R Cirrito, Charles Karan, Tae-Wan Kim
Pharmacological screening in physiologically relevant brain cells is crucial for identifying neuroactive compounds that better translate into in vivo biology and efficacious therapeutics. Pharmacological enhancement of apolipoprotein E (apoE), a cholesterol-transporting apolipoprotein, has been proposed as a promising therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease. Several nuclear receptor agonists were initially shown to increase brain apoE levels together with ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), but their underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 18, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888476/histological-detection-of-dynamic-glial-responses-in-the-dysmyelinating-tabby-jimpy-mutant-brain
#20
Masanao Ikeda, M Ibrahim Hossain, Li Zhou, Masao Horie, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Arata Horii, Hirohide Takebayashi
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths surrounding the axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Jimpy (jp) mutant mice are dysmyelinating disease models that show developmental abnormalities in myelinated OLs in the CNS. The causative gene in jp mice is the proteolipid protein (PLP) located on the X chromosome. Mutations in the jp allele result in exon 5 skipping and expression of abnormal PLP containing a C-terminal frame shift. Many lines of evidence suggest that abnormal PLP in OLs results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death...
November 25, 2016: Anatomical Science International
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