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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#1
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330881/cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-disrupt-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-astrocytes-implications-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-cocaine-user-patients
#2
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Kimberly Ferrero, Leroy Wesley, Matthew Sayre, Dianne Langford
Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#3
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329586/il-33-st2-signaling-contributes-to-radicular-pain-by-modulating-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-inflammatory-mediator-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-in-rat-models-of-noncompressive-lumber-disk-herniation
#4
Si-Jian Huang, Jian-Qin Yan, Hui Luo, Lu-Yao Zhou, Jian-Gang Luo
BACKGROUND: Immune and inflammatory responses occurring in the spinal cord play a pivotal role in the progression of radicular pain caused by intervertebral disk herniation. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) orchestrates inflammatory responses in a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders of the nervous system. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in the dorsal spinal cord and to elucidate whether the inhibition of spinal IL-33 expression significantly attenuates pain-related behaviors in rat models of noncompressive lumbar disc herniation...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327429/in-vivo-migration-of-endogenous-brain-progenitor-cells-guided-by-an-injectable-peptide-amphiphile-biomaterial
#5
Reza Motalleb, Eric J Berns, Piyush Patel, Julie Gold, Samuel I Stupp, H Georg Kuhn
Biomaterials hold great promise in helping the adult brain regenerate and rebuild after trauma. Peptide amphiphiles (PA) are highly versatile biomaterials, gelling and forming macromolecular structures when exposed to physiological levels of electrolytes. We are here reporting on the first ever in vivo use of self-assembling peptide amphiphile carrying a Tenascin-C signal (E2 Ten-C PA) for the re-direction of endogenous neuroblasts in the rodent brain. The PA forms highly aligned nanofibers, displaying the migratory sequence of Tenascin-C glycoprotein as epitope...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326137/expression-changes-in-lactate-and-glucose-metabolism-and-associated-transporters-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-piglets
#6
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes in the basal ganglia of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury piglet model...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323711/hiv-1-increases-extracellular-amyloid-beta-levels-through-neprilysin-regulation-in-primary-cultures-of-human-astrocytes
#7
Marta Martínez-Bonet, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Susana Álvarez
Since the success of combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected individuals are now living much longer. This increased life expectancy is accompanied by a higher prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Rising too is the incidence in these patients of pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease such as increased deposition of amyloid beta protein (Aβ). Although neurons are major sources of Aβ in the brain, astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells, therefore, even a small level of astrocytic Aβ metabolism could make a significant contribution to brain pathology...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323239/specific-phospholipids-regulate-the-acquisition-of-neuronal-and-astroglial-identities-in-post-mitotic-cells
#8
Aneley Montaner, Themis Taynah da Silva Santana, Timm Schroeder, Marcelo Einiker-Lamas, Javier Girardini, Marcos Romualdo Costa, Claudia Banchio
Hitherto, the known mechanisms underpinning cell-fate specification act on neural progenitors, affecting their commitment to generate neuron or glial cells. Here, we show that particular phospholipids supplemented in the culture media modify the commitment of post-mitotic neural cells in vitro. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)-enriched media enhances neuronal differentiation at the expense of astroglial and unspecified cells. Conversely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) enhances astroglial differentiation and accelerates astrocyte maturation...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323215/green-tea-extract-attenuates-lps-induced-retinal-inflammation-in-rats
#9
Jia Lin Ren, Qiu Xiao Yu, Wei Cheng Liang, Pui Ying Leung, Tsz Kin Ng, Wai Kit Chu, Chi Pui Pang, Sun On Chan
Inflammation is in a wide spectrum of retinal diseases, causing irreversible blindness and visual impairment. We have previously demonstrated that Green Tea Extract (GTE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent for anterior uveitis. Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of GTE on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced retinal inflammation in rats and explored the underlying mechanism. Adult rats were injected with LPS and GTE was administered intra-gastrically at 2, 8, 26 and 32 hours post-injection. Staining of whole-mount retina showed that the number of activated microglia cells was significantly increased at 48 hours post-injection, which was suppressed after GTE treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323039/neuronal-injury-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-the-early-period-of-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest-under-normothermia
#10
Hyun-Jin Tae, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Yoon Sung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Jong-Dai Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, In-Shik Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Yang Hee Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Young Joo Lee
Low survival rate occurs in patients who initially experience a spontaneous return of circulation after cardiac arrest (CA). In this study, we induced asphyxial CA in adult male Sprague-Daley rats, maintained their body temperature at 37 ± 0.5°C, and then observed the survival rate during the post-resuscitation phase. We examined neuronal damage in the hippocampus using cresyl violet (CV) and Fluore-Jade B (F-J B) staining, and pro-inflammatory response using ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus after asphyxial CA in rats under normothermia...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321391/-prothymosin%C3%AE-as-a-neuroprotective-damps-alarmins-molecule
#11
Hiroshi Ueda, Shiori Maeda
Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) has been identified as an anti-necrotic factor from the conditioned medium of primary cultured of rat cortical neurons under the serum-free starving condition. ProTα is released in a non-vesicular manner from neurons or astrocytes by the help of cargo protein S100A13. Thus released ProTα is found to have robustness roles in the brain under the condition of neuronal necrosis or apoptosis. ProTα inhibits necrosis by plasma membrane-translocation of glucose transporters endocytosed by ischemia/starving stress, through an activation of unidentified G protein-coupled receptor and protein kinase Cβ...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321137/novel-function-of-ceramide-for-regulation-of-mitochondrial-atp-release-in-astrocytes
#12
Ji-Na Kong, Zhihui Zhu, Yutaka Itokazu, Guanghu Wang, Michael B Dinkins, Liansheng Zhong, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Silvia Leanhart, Xue Jiang, Haiyan Qin, Wenbo Zhi, Stefka D Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich
We reported that amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42) activated neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) thereby increasing the concentration of the sphingolipid ceramide in astrocytes. Here, we show that Abeta42 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in wild type astrocytes, but not in nSMase2-deficient cells or astrocytes treated with Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthases. Unexpectedly, ceramide depletion was concurrent with rapid movements of mitochondria, indicating an unknown function of ceramide for mitochondria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316776/phagocytic-roles-of-glial-cells-in-healthy-and-diseased-brains
#13
REVIEW
Yeon-Joo Jung, Won-Suk Chung
Glial cells are receiving much attention since they have been recognized as important regulators of many aspects of brain function and disease. Recent evidence has revealed that two different glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, control synapse elimination under normal and pathological conditions via phagocytosis. Astrocytes use the MEGF10 and MERTK phagocytic pathways, and microglia use the classical complement pathway to recognize and eliminate unwanted synapses. Notably, glial phagocytosis also contributes to the clearance of disease-specific protein aggregates, such as β-amyloid, huntingtin, and α-synuclein...
January 10, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315585/ndrg2-deficiency-ameliorates-neurodegeneration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Thuong Manh Le, Mika Takarada-Iemata, Hieu Minh Ta, Jureepon Roboon, Hiroshi Ishii, Takashi Tamatani, Yasuko Kitao, Tsuyoshi Hattori, Osamu Hori
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a differentiation- and stress-associated molecule that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression and role of NDRG2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of NDRG2 was observed in astrocytes of spinal cord, and was enhanced after EAE induction. A comparative analysis of wild-type (WT) and Ndrg2-/- mice revealed that deletion of Ndrg2 ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313799/astrocytic-modulation-of-excitatory-synaptic-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#15
Benjamin Rakela, Paul Brehm, Gail Mandel
Studies linking mutations in Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) to physiological defects in the neurological disease, Rett syndrome, have focused largely upon neuronal dysfunction despite MeCP2 ubiquitous expression. Here we explore roles for astrocytes in neuronal network function using cortical slice recordings. We find that astrocyte stimulation in wild-type mice increases excitatory synaptic activity that is absent in male mice lacking MeCP2 globally. To determine the cellular basis of the defect, we exploit a female mouse model for Rett syndrome that expresses wild-type MeCP2-GFP in a mosaic distribution throughout the brain, allowing us to test all combinations of wild-type and mutant cells...
January 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313231/relationship-between-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-and-drug-resistance-of-poorly-differentiated-gliomas
#16
S A Cherepanov, N F Grinenko, O M Antonova, P B Kurapov, I I Shepeleva, V P Chekhonin
The effects of Hedgehog signaling inhibitor (cyclopamine) and activator (Shh) on drug resistance of U251-MG human glioma cells and human astrocyte culture to cisplatin, temozolomide, and doxorubicin were studied. Cyclopamine and Shh modified the drug resistance of U251-MG cells but not of human astrocytes. Experiments with cyclopamine, Shh, and chemical drugs can contribute to detection of the mechanisms of signaling effects on the drug resistance processes, while the experimental data can serve as one of the criteria for choosing individual chemotherapy for patients...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313202/monitoring-the-transcriptional-activity-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family-using-pna-strand-invasion-into-double-stranded-dna
#17
Grzegorz Machnik, Estera Skudrzyk, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Witold Szkróbka, Marcin Basiak, Aleksandra Bołdys, Helena Sławska, Bogusław Okopień
In the presented assay, we elaborated a method for distinguishing sequences that are genetically closely related to each other. This is particularly important in a situation where a fine balance of the allele abundance is a point of research interest. We developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion technique for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) and ERVWE1 sequences, both molecularly similar, belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. We have found that this method may support the PCR technique in screening for minor alleles which, in certain conditions, may be undetected by the standard PCR technique...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311654/bidirectional-modulation-between-infiltrating-cd3-t-lymphocytes-and-astrocytes-in-the-spinal-cord-drives-the-development-of-allodynia-in-monoarthritic-rats
#18
Ya-Lan Zhou, Shu-Zhuan Zhou, Hao-Ling Li, Man-Li Hu, Hui Li, Qing-Huan Guo, Xiao-Ming Deng, Yu-Qiu Zhang, Hua Xu
Increasing evidence suggests that T cells and glia participate in the process of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of T cells or the interaction between glia and T cells at the molecular level. Here we investigated the phenotype of T cell infiltration into the spinal cord in inflammatory pain and explored potential crosstalk between glia and T cells. The establishment of monoarthritis produced T cell infiltration and astrocyte activation, exhibiting similar kinetics in the spinal cord...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311610/interneuron-specific-signaling-evokes-distinctive-somatostatin-mediated-responses-in-adult-cortical-astrocytes
#19
Letizia Mariotti, Gabriele Losi, Annamaria Lia, Marcello Melone, Angela Chiavegato, Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Michele Sessolo, Serena Bovetti, Angelo Forli, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Iacopo Marcon, Arianna Pugliese, Cécile Viollet, Bernhard Bettler, Tommaso Fellin, Fiorenzo Conti, Giorgio Carmignoto
The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311134/loss-of-kallikrein-related-peptidase-7-exacerbates-amyloid-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice
#20
Kiwami Kidana, Takuya Tatebe, Kaori Ito, Norikazu Hara, Akiyoshi Kakita, Takashi Saito, Sho Takatori, Yasuyoshi Ouchi, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Mitsuhiro Makino, Takaomi C Saido, Masahiro Akishita, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Yukiko Hori, Taisuke Tomita
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In addition, glial activation has been found in AD brains, although the precise pathological role of astrocytes remains unclear. Here, we identified kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) as an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme. Expression of KLK7 mRNA was significantly decreased in the brains of AD patients. Ablation of Klk7 exacerbated the thioflavin S-positive Aβ pathology in AD model mice...
January 8, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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