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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346397/the-process-and-regulatory-components-of-inflammation-in-brain-oncogenesis
#1
REVIEW
A G M Mostofa, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Mohammad Al-Obaide, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers...
March 27, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344667/m%C3%A3-ller-cells-and-retinal-axons-can-be-primary-targets-in-experimental-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Bleranda Zeka, Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
Recent work from our laboratory, using different models of experimental neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), has led to a number of observations that might be highly relevant for NMOSD patients. For example: (i) in the presence of neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G, astrocyte-destructive lesions can be initiated by CD4+ T cells when these cells recognize aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but also when they recognize other antigens of the central nervous system. The only important prerequisite is that the T cells have to be activated within the central nervous system by "their" specific antigen...
January 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344003/abnormal-neural-progenitor-cells-differentiated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-partially-mimicked-development-of-tsc2-neurological-abnormalities
#3
Yaqin Li, Jiqing Cao, Menglong Chen, Jing Li, Yiming Sun, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhu, Liang Wang, Cheng Zhang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a disease featuring devastating and therapeutically challenging neurological abnormalities. However, there is a lack of specific neural progenitor cell models for TSC. Here, the pathology of TSC was studied using primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) from a patient presenting a c.1444-2A>C mutation in TSC2. We found that TSC2 pNSCs had higher proliferative activity and increased PAX6 expression compared with those of control pNSCs. Neurons differentiated from TSC2 pNSCs showed enlargement of the soma, perturbed neurite outgrowth, and abnormal connections among cells...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343966/astrocytes-regulate-daily-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-behavior
#4
Chak Foon Tso, Tatiana Simon, Alison C Greenlaw, Tanvi Puri, Michihiro Mieda, Erik D Herzog
Astrocytes are active partners in neural information processing [1, 2]. However, the roles of astrocytes in regulating behavior remain unclear [3, 4]. Because astrocytes have persistent circadian clock gene expression and ATP release in vitro [5-8], we hypothesized that they regulate daily rhythms in neurons and behavior. Here, we demonstrated that daily rhythms in astrocytes within the mammalian master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), determine the period of wheel-running activity. Ablating the essential clock gene Bmal1 specifically in SCN astrocytes lengthened the circadian period of clock gene expression in the SCN and in locomotor behavior...
March 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342781/modulation-of-neuroinflammation-the-role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-in-neuro-immune-axis
#5
REVIEW
Wei-Lin Kong, Yuan-Yuan Peng, Bi-Wen Peng
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1), as a ligand-gated non-selective cation channel, has recently been demonstrated to have wide expression in the neuro-immune axis, where its multiple functions occur through regulation of both neuronal and non-neuronal activities. Growing evidence has suggested that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in glial cells, especially in the microglia and astrocytes. Glial cells perform immunological functions in response to pathophysiological challenges through pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in which TRPV1 is involved...
March 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341998/ire1-signaling-exacerbates-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Claudia Duran-Aniotz, Victor Hugo Cornejo, Sandra Espinoza, Álvaro O Ardiles, Danilo B Medinas, Claudia Salazar, Andrew Foley, Ivana Gajardo, Peter Thielen, Takao Iwawaki, Wiep Scheper, Claudio Soto, Adrian G Palacios, Jeroen J M Hoozemans, Claudio Hetz
Altered proteostasis is a salient feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), highlighting the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and abnormal protein aggregation. ER stress triggers the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway that enforces adaptive programs to sustain proteostasis or eliminate terminally damaged cells. IRE1 is an ER-located kinase and endoribonuclease that operates as a major stress transducer, mediating both adaptive and proapoptotic programs under ER stress...
March 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341892/aquaporin-4-forms-a-macromolecular-complex-with-glutamate-transporter-1-and-mu-opioid-receptor-in-astrocytes-and-participates-in-morphine-dependence
#7
Hui Wang, Shiqi Wang, Kang Zhang, Hua Wang, Liting Lan, Xiaoyun Ma, Xiaoyan Liu, Shuzhuo Zhang, Jianquan Zheng, Xiaoli Wei, Haitao Yan
The water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed in astrocytes and provides a mechanism by which water permeability of the plasma membrane can be regulated. Evidence suggests that AQP4 is associated with glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) for glutamate clearance and contributes to morphine dependence. Previous studies show that AQP4 deficiency changed the mu opioid receptor expression and opioid receptors' characteristics as well. In this study, we focused on whether AQP4 could form macromolecular complex with GLT-1 and mu opioid receptor (MOR) and participates in morphine dependence...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341478/importance-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-i-mhc-i-expression-for-astroglial-reactivity-and-stability-of-neural-circuits-in-vitro
#8
André Luis Bombeiro, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues Hell, Gustavo Ferreira Simões, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
MHC-I molecules are involved in the antigenic presentation of cytosol-derived peptides to CD8T lymphocytes. In the nervous system, MHC-I expression is low to absent, occurring only during certain phases of development and aging or after injuries. The involvement of MHC-I in synaptic plasticity has been reported and, following lesion, astrocytes become reactive, limiting tissue damage. Such cells also attempt to restore homeostasis by secreting cytokines and neurotrophic factors. Moreover, astrocytes modulate synapse function, by taking up and releasing neurotransmitters and by limiting the synaptic cleft...
March 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340598/myelin-specific-multiple-sclerosis-antibodies-cause-complement-dependent-oligodendrocyte-loss-and-demyelination
#9
Yiting Liu, Katherine S Given, Danielle E Harlow, Adeline M Matschulat, Wendy B Macklin, Jeffrey L Bennett, Gregory P Owens
Intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands and lesional IgG deposition are seminal features of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathology. Both the specific targets and pathogenic effects of MS antibodies remain poorly characterized. We produced IgG1 monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) from clonally-expanded plasmablasts recovered from MS patient CSF. Among these were a subset of myelin-specific MS rAbs. We examined their immunoreactivity to mouse organotypic cerebellar slices by live binding and evaluated tissue injury in the presence and absence of human complement...
March 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#10
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339077/paeoniflorin-attenuates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#11
Jianyu Zhou, Jingxia Wang, Wei Li, Chenglong Wang, Li Wu, Jianjun Zhang
Neuropathic pain remains the most frequent cause of suffering and disability worldwide. Paeoniflorin (PF), a water‑soluble monoterpene glycoside extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions. Although the neuroprotective effect of PF has been reported in animal models of neuropathology, no systematic investigation has reported on the analgesic properties of PF in neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PF can alleviate neuropathic pain and to examine its possible mechanism...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338241/neuroprotective-effects-of-loganin-on-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mice-neurochemistry-glial-reaction-and-autophagy-studies
#12
Yi-Da Xu, Chun Cui, Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Min Chu, Yun-Wei Shi, Stanley Li Lin, Xu-Sheng Yang, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, involving resting tremor and bradykinesia, for which no recognized therapies or drugs are available to halt or slow progression. In recent years, natural botanic products have been considered relatively safe, with limited side effects, and are expected to become an important source for clinical mediation of PD in the future. Our study focuses on the ability of loganin, a compound derived from fruits of cornus, to mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of PD...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336928/expression-of-canine-distemper-virus-receptor-nectin-4-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-dogs
#13
Watanyoo Pratakpiriya, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Araya Radtanakatikanon, Nopadon Pirarat, Nguyen Thi Lan, Makoto Takeda, Somporn Techangamsuwan, Ryoji Yamaguchi
Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits lymphotropic, epitheliotropic, and neurotropic nature, and causes a severe systemic infection in susceptible animals. Initially, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) expressed on immune cells has been identified as a crucial cellular receptor for CDV. Currently, nectin-4 expressed in epithelia has been shown to be another receptor for CDV. Our previous study demonstrated that neurons express nectin-4 and are infected with CDV. In this study, we investigated the distribution pattern of nectin-4 in various cell types in the canine central nervous system and showed its relation to CDV infection to further clarify the pathology of disease...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336440/astroglial-ca-2-signaling-is-generated-by-the-coordination-of-ip3r-and-store-operated-ca-2-channels
#14
Shigeo Sakuragi, Fumihiro Niwa, Yoichi Oda, Hiroko Bannai, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Astrocytes play key roles in the central nervous system and regulate local blood flow and synaptic transmission via intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Astrocytic Ca(2+) signals are generated by multiple pathways: Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and Ca(2+) influx through various Ca(2+) channels on the plasma membrane. However, the Ca(2+) channels involved in astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis or signaling have not been fully characterized...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#15
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334149/higher-striatal-iron-concentration-is-linked-to-frontostriatal-underactivation-and-poorer-memory-in-normal-aging
#16
Grégoria Kalpouzos, Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Carmel Heiland, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson, Lars Bäckman
In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328168/intrastriatal-transplantation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-restores-the-impaired-subventricular-zone-in-parkinsonian-mice
#17
Fuxing Zuo, Feng Xiong, Xia Wang, Xueyuan Li, Renzhi Wang, Wei Ge, Xinjie Bao
Cell replacement therapy using neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation has recently emerged as a promising method of Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain new insights into the mechanisms of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesioning and therapeutic efficacy of human NSCs (hNSCs) transplantation, the striatum (ST) of intrastriatal 6-OHDA-injected parkinsonian mice were unilaterally engrafted with undifferentiated hNSCs. A high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to characterize the proteome profiles of PD-related brain regions such as the SN, ST, olfactory bulb (OB), and subventricular zone (SVZ) in these mice...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326927/glial-activation-in-the-collagenase-model-of-nociception-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#18
Sara Adães, Lígia Almeida, Catarina S Potes, Ana Rita Ferreira, José M Castro-Lopes, Joana Ferreira-Gomes, Fani L Neto
Background Experimental osteoarthritis entails neuropathic-like changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Since glial activation has emerged as a key player in nociception, being reported in numerous models of neuropathic pain, we aimed at evaluating if glial cell activation may also occur in the DRG and spinal cord of rats with osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by two injections, separated by three days, of 500 U of type II collagenase into the knee joint of rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323865/the-microrna-302b-inhibited-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-signaling-pathway-induces-glioma-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-nuclear-factor-ia
#19
Chin-Cheng Lee, Peng-Hsu Chen, Kuo-Hao Ho, Chwen-Ming Shih, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Cheng-Wei Lin, Kur-Ta Cheng, Ann-Jeng Liu, Ku-Chung Chen
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally control the expression of genes involved in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. Although miR-302b functions as a tumor suppressor, its role in GBM is still unclear. Therefore, this study comprehensively explored the roles of miR-302b-mediated gene networks in GBM cell death. We found that miR-302b levels were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in GBM cell lines. miR-302b overexpression dose dependently reduced U87-MG cell viability and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase degradation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323246/the-role-of-spinal-gabab-receptors-in-cancelr-induced-bone-pain-in-rats
#20
Ya-Qun Zhou, Shu-Ping Chen, Dai-Qiang Liu, Anne Manyande, Wen Zhang, Shao-Bing Yang, Bing-Rui Xiong, Qiao-Chu Fu, Zhen-Peng Song, Heike Rittner, Da-Wei Ye, Yu-Ke Tian
Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) remains a major challenge in advanced cancer patients due to our lack of understanding of its mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated the vital role of GABAB receptors (GABABRs) in regulating nociception and various neuropathic pain models have shown diminished activity of GABABRs. However, the role of spinal GABABRs in CIBP remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the specific cellular mechanisms of GABABRs in the development and maintenance of CIBP in rats...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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