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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163145/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Maria A Costa-Besada, Carmen M Labandeira, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Ana I Rodríguez-Perez
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) effects on aging and neurodegeneration is still controversial. However, it is widely admitted that IGF-1 is involved in the neuroinflammatory response. In peripheral tissues, several studies showed that IGF-1 inhibited the expression of inflammatory markers, although other studies concluded that IGF-1 has proinflammatory functions. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α impaired IGF-1 signaling. In the brain, there are controversial results on effects of IGF-1 in neuroinflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163059/oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induces-bergmann-glia-membrane-depolarization-and-ca-2-rises-mainly-mediated-by-k-and-atp-increases-in-the-extracellular-space
#2
Romain Helleringer, Oana Chever, Hervé Daniel, Micaela Galante
During brain ischemia, intense energy deficiency induces a complex succession of events including pump failure, acidosis and exacerbated glutamate release. In the cerebellum, glutamate is the principal mediator of Purkinje neuron anoxic depolarization during episodes of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Here, the impact of OGD is studied in Bergmann glia, specialized astrocytes closely associated to Purkinje neurons. Patch clamp experiments reveal that during OGD Bergmann glial cells develop a large depolarizing current that is not mediated by glutamate and purinergic receptors but is mainly due to the accumulation of K(+) in the extracellular space...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163047/biphasic-regulation-of-caveolin-1-gene-expression-by-fluoxetine-in-astrocytes-opposite-effects-of-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-signaling-pathways-on-c-fos
#3
Baoman Li, Shu Jia, Tingting Yue, Li Yang, Chen Huang, Alexej Verkhratsky, Liang Peng
Previously, we reported that fluoxetine acts on 5-HT2B receptor and induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in astrocytes. Recently, we have found that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At low concentrations fluoxetine down-regulates Cav-1 gene expression, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases PI3K activity and increases phosphorylation of GSK-3β and increases its activity; at high concentrations fluoxetine acts on PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β in an inverse fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163045/down-regulation-of-ntpdase2-and-adp-sensitive-p2-purinoceptors-correlate-with-severity-of-symptoms-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Marija Jakovljevic, Irena Lavrnja, Iva Bozic, Danijela Savic, Ivana Bjelobaba, Sanja Pekovic, Jean Sévigny, Nadezda Nedeljkovic, Danijela Laketa
The present study explores tissue and cellular distribution of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and the gene and protein expression in rat spinal cord during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Given that NTPDase2 hydrolyzes ATP with a transient accumulation of ADP, the expression of ADP-sensitive P2 purinoceptors was analyzed as well. The autoimmune disease was actively induced in Dark Agouti female rats and the changes were analyzed 10, 15 and 29 days after the induction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163014/downregulation-of-dmmanf-in-glial-cells-results-in-neurodegeneration-and-affects-sleep-and-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Lucyna Walkowicz, Ewelina Kijak, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak, Vassilis Stratoulias, Olga Woznicka, Elzbieta Chwastek, Tapio I Heino, Elzbieta M Pyza
In Drosophila melanogaster, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (DmMANF) is an evolutionarily conserved ortholog of mammalian MANF and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), which have been shown to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We observed especially high levels of DmMANF in the visual system of Drosophila, particularly in the first optic neuropil (lamina). In the lamina, DmMANF was found in glial cells (surface and epithelial glia), photoreceptors and interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162485/expression-and-regulation-of-cyp17a1-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-in-cells-of-the-nervous-system-potential-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-brain-steroidogenesis
#6
Ida Emanuelsson, Mokhtar Almokhtar, Kjell Wikvall, Alfhild Grönbladh, Erik Nylander, Anne-Lie Svensson, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Maria Norlin
Steroids are reported to have diverse functions in the nervous system. Enzymatic production of steroid hormones has been reported in different cell types, including astrocytes and neurons. However, the information on some of the steroidogenic enzymes involved is insufficient in many respects. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the relative importance of different cell types in the nervous system for expression of CYP17A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). 3β-HSD is important in all basic steroidogenic pathways and CYP17A1 is required to form sex hormones...
November 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161339/astrocyte-specific-deletion-of-sox2-promotes-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Chunhai Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Derek K Smith, Wenjiao Tai, Jianjing Yang, Yuhua Zou, Lei-Lei Wang, Jiahong Sun, Song Qin, Chun-Li Zhang
Injury to the adult brain induces activation of local astrocytes, which serves as a compensatory response that modulates tissue damage and recovery. However, the mechanism governing astrocyte activation during brain injury remains largely unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that SOX2, a transcription factor critical for stem cells and brain development, is also required for injury-induced activation of adult cortical astrocytes. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analysis of mouse cortical tissues reveals that SOX2 binds to regulatory regions of genes associated with signaling pathways that control glial cell activation, such as Nr2e1, Mmd2, Wnt7a, and Akt2...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#8
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158604/antiviral-cd8-t-cells-induce-zika-virus-associated-paralysis-in-mice
#9
Kellie A Jurado, Laura J Yockey, Patrick W Wong, Sarah Lee, Anita J Huttner, Akiko Iwasaki
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne RNA virus. The rapid spread of ZIKV within the Americas has unveiled microcephaly (1) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (2,3) as ZIKV-associated neurological complications. Recent reports have also indicated other neurological manifestations to be associated with ZIKV, including myelitis (4) , meningoencephalitis (5) and fatal encephalitis (6) . Here, we investigate the neuropathogenesis of ZIKV infection in type I interferon receptor IFNAR knockout (Ifnar1 (-/-) ) mice, an infection model that exhibits high viral burden within the central nervous system...
November 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158308/glioblastoma-multiforme-derived-extracellular-vesicles-drive-normal-astrocytes-towards-a-tumour-enhancing-phenotype
#10
Soliman Oushy, Justin E Hellwinkel, Mary Wang, Ger J Nguyen, Dicle Gunaydin, Tessa A Harland, Thomas J Anchordoquy, Michael W Graner
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating tumour with abysmal prognoses. We desperately need novel approaches to understand GBM biology and therapeutic vulnerabilities. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanospheres released locally and systemically by all cells, including tumours, with tremendous potential for intercellular communication. Tumour EVs manipulate their local environments as well as distal targets; EVs may be a mechanism for tumourigenesis in the recurrent GBM setting. We hypothesized that GBM EVs drive molecular changes in normal human astrocytes (NHAs), yielding phenotypically tumour-promoting, or even tumourigenic, entities...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157807/a-comparative-proteomic-study-of-secretomes-in-kaempferitrin-treated-ctx-tna2-astrocytic-cells
#11
Wei-Chi Ku, Yi-Ling Chang, Sheng-Fa Wu, Hui-Nung Shih, Yew-Min Tzeng, Hui-Ru Kuo, Kai-Ming Chang, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal, Bing-Lan Liu, Chin-An Chang, Siendong Huang, Meng-Jen Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kaempferitrin is extracted in significantly high quantities from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum (C.O) and Bauhinia forficata, and are used as an antidiabetic herbal remedy in China and Brazil. Commercial product using dry Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves has been sold locally in Taiwan. Oral administration of kaempferitrin reduced blood sugar in diabetic rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: Though previously demonstrated to activate the classical insulin signaling pathways, a mechanism for kaempferitrin is still not fully understood...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155265/neuroanatomical-distribution-and-function-of-the-vasopressin-v1b-receptor-in-the-rat-brain-deciphered-using-specific-fluorescent-ligands
#12
Maithé Corbani, Rafik Marir, Miguel Trueba, Magda Chafai, Anne Vincent, Amélie M Borie, Michel G Desarménien, Yoichi Ueta, Csaba Tomboly, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Gilles Guillon
It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V1A/V1B receptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective V1B markers. In the present study, we have determined the pharmacological properties of three new potent rat V1B fluorescent ligands and demonstrated that they constitute valuable tools for simultaneous visualization and activation of native V1B receptors in living rat brain tissue...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154837/neuroprotective-effect-of-an-nrf2-are-activator-identified-from-a-chemical-library-on-dopaminergic-neurons
#13
Yasuhiko Izumi, Harue Kataoka, Yuri Inose, Akinori Akaike, Yutaka Koyama, Toshiaki Kume
The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, which induces the production of antioxidant enzymes, is a possible therapeutic target for treating diseases related to oxidative stress. Nrf2 activators often exhibit cytotoxicity due to nonspecific electrophilic reactions with thiol groups. We screened a chemical library to explore Nrf2 activators with a wide safety margin. In at least in vitro experiments, TPNA10168, identified from the library, showed a higher efficacy in Nrf2 activation and a lower cytotoxicity than sulforaphane, a well-known Nrf2 activator...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154284/palmitoylethanolamide-blunts-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-induced-astrocyte-activation-and-improves-neuronal-survival-in-primary-mouse-cortical-astrocyte-neuron-co-cultures
#14
Sarah Beggiato, Andrea Celeste Borelli, Luca Ferraro, Sergio Tanganelli, Tiziana Antonelli, Maria Cristina Tomasini
BACKGROUND: Based on the pivotal role of astrocytes in brain homeostasis and the strong metabolic cooperation existing between neurons and astrocytes, it has been suggested that astrocytic dysfunctions might cause and/or contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes. Therapeutic approaches aimed at both neuroprotection and neuroinflammation reduction may prove particularly effective in slowing the progression of these diseases. The endogenous lipid mediator palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) displayed neuroprotective and anti(neuro)inflammatory properties, and demonstrated interesting potential as a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154076/multiple-intracerebroventricular-injections-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-delay-motor-neurons-loss-but-not-disease-progression-of-sod1g93a-mice
#15
Francesca Sironi, Antonio Vallarola, Martina Bruna Violatto, Laura Talamini, Mattia Freschi, Roberta De Gioia, Chiara Capelli, Azzurra Agostini, Davide Moscatelli, Massimo Tortarolo, Paolo Bigini, Martino Introna, Caterina Bendotti
Stem cell therapy is considered a promising approach in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to be the most effective in ALS animal models. The umbilical cord (UC) is a source of highly proliferating fetal MSCs, more easily collectable than other MSCs. Recently we demonstrated that human (h) UC-MSCs, double labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and Hoechst-33258 and transplanted intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SOD1G93A transgenic mice, partially migrated into the spinal cord after a single injection...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153303/goreisan-prevents-brain-edema-after-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-aquaporin-4-upregulation-in-mice
#16
Takafumi Nakano, Chisa Nishigami, Keiichi Irie, Yutaka Shigemori, Kazunori Sano, Yuta Yamashita, Takayuki Myose, Koji Tominaga, Koichi Matsuo, Yoshihiko Nakamura, Hiroyasu Ishikura, Hidetoshi Kamimura, Takashi Egawa, Kenichi Mishima
BACKGROUND: Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water-selective transport protein expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system. AQP4 level increases after cerebral ischemia and results in ischemic brain edema. Brain edema markedly influences mortality and motor function by elevating intracranial pressure that leads to secondary brain damage. Therefore, AQP4 is an important target to improve brain edema after cerebral ischemia. The Japanese herbal Kampo medicine, goreisan, is known to inhibit AQP4 activity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153031/human-co-culture-model-of-neurons-and-astrocytes-to-test-acute-cytotoxicity-of-neurotoxic-compounds
#17
Uliana De Simone, Francesca Caloni, Laura Gribaldo, Teresa Coccini
Alternative methods and their use in planning and conducting toxicology experiments have become essential for modern toxicologists, thus reducing or replacing living animals. Although in vitro human co-culture models allow the establishment of biologically relevant cell-cell interactions that recapitulate the tissue microenvironment and better mimic its physiology, the number of publications is limited specifically addressing this scientific area and utilizing this test method which could provide an additional valuable model in toxicological studies...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#18
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150743/differential-response-of-neural-cells-to-trauma-induced-swelling-in-vitro
#19
A R Jayakumar, M Taherian, K S Panickar, N Shamaladevi, M E Rodriguez, B G Price, M D Norenberg
Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146880/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-improves-outcomes-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#20
Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Meijie Qu, Yifan Lu, Xiaosong He, Jieyu Zheng, Zongjie Fu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Striatal GABAergic neuron is known as a key regulator in adult neurogenesis. However, the specific role of striatal GABAergic neuronal activity in the promotion of neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetic approach to investigate these effects and mechanism. METHODS: Laser stimulation was delivered via an implanted optical fiber to inhibit or activate the striatal GABAergic neurons in Gad2-Arch-GFP or Gad2-ChR2-tdTomato mice (n=80) 1 week after 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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