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Clavulanic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101016/cellulitis-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-disseminated-cryptococcal-disease
#1
Marcos Davi Gomes de Sousa, Fred Bernardes Filho, Luís Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Cássia Regina Guedes Leal, Cristiane Rocha Magalhães, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da Silva, Halime Silva Barcaui
A 50-year-old male underwent liver transplantation due to cryptogenic cirrhosis and was admitted with severe pain in the left leg as well as phlogosis. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was prescribed, assuming bullous erysipelas. Among the tests performed, the latex agglutination test for the Cryptococcus sp. antigen was positive, and in both the blood culture and blister culture Cryptococcus sp. was isolated. Daily fluconazole was started. Even though liposomal amphotericin B has been started on the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient progressed to death...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#2
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078872/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-salmonella-serovars-isolated-in-the-apulia-region-of-italy
#3
R Mirgaldi, A Ballini, A M Dionisi, I Luzzi, G Dipalma, F Inchingolo, D De Vito
During the period January 2013-December 2015, 175 cases of human salmonellosis were reported in the Apulia Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to characterize salmonella strains from the standpoints of serovars prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal origin. The serological typing was performed by agglutination against antisera followed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR). The obtained results were analyzed following the Kauffmann-White scheme. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested using the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar plates...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049171/group-5-drugs-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#4
Greg J Fox, Andrea Benedetti, Helen Cox, Won-Jung Koh, Piret Viiklepp, Shama Ahuja, Geoffrey Pasvol, Dick Menzies
The role of so-called "group 5" second-line drugs as a part of antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is widely debated. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of several group 5 drugs including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, thioacetazone, the macrolide antibiotics, linezolid, clofazimine and terizidone for treatment of patients with MDR-TB.Detailed individual patient data were obtained from 31 published cohort studies of MDR-TB therapy. Pooled treatment outcomes for each group 5 drug were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005295/antibiotics-in-endodontics-a-review
#5
REVIEW
J J Segura-Egea, K Gould, B Hakan Şen, P Jonasson, E Cotti, A Mazzoni, H Sunay, L Tjäderhane, P M H Dummer
The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical...
December 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003596/a-case-of-rat-bite-fever-caused-by-streptobacillus-moniliformis
#6
Yasue Hayakawa, Jun Suzuki, Masahiro Suzuki, Wataru Sugiura, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
We report a case of rat bite fever (RBF) diagnosed by detection of Streptobacillus moniliformis from blood culture and synovial fluid. The patient was a 45-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. He was bitten on his third finger by a rat, which was caught in a mousetrap installed in his house. After the bite, fever, rash and arthralgia developed over a period of about two weeks. The patient was admitted to our hospital and treated with combination of Ampicillin- Sulbactam (SAM), Vancomycin (VAN) and Minocycline (MIN)...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997706/exploring-the-potential-of-boronic-acids-as-inhibitors-of-oxa-24-40-%C3%AE-lactamase
#7
Josephine P Werner, Joshua M Mitchell, Magdalena A Taracila, Robert A Bonomo, Rachel A Powers
β-lactam antibiotics are crucial to the management of bacterial infections in the medical community. Due to overuse and misuse, clinically significant bacteria are now resistant to many commercially available antibiotics. The most widespread resistance mechanism to β-lactams is the expression of β-lactamase enzymes. To overcome β-lactamase mediated resistance, inhibitors were designed to inactivate these enzymes. However, current inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, and sulbactam) for β-lactamases also contain the characteristic β-lactam ring, making them susceptible to resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria...
December 20, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992527/first-report-of-group-ctx-m-9-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-mexico
#8
Jocelin Merida-Vieyra, Agustin De Colsa, Yair Calderon Castañeda, Patricia Arzate Barbosa, Alejandra Aquino Andrade
The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988390/low-antibiotic-resistance-among-anaerobic-gram-negative-bacteria-in-periodontitis-5-years-following-metronidazole-therapy
#9
G Dahlen, H R Preus
The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination...
December 14, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987397/prophylactic-versus-clinically-driven-antibiotics-in-comatose-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-randomized-pilot-study
#10
Suada Filekovic Ribaric, Matjaz Turel, Rihard Knafelj, Vojka Gorjup, Rade Stanic, Primoz Gradisek, Ognjen Cerovic, Tomislav Mirkovic, Marko Noc
AIM: To investigate benefits of prophylactic antibiotics in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: Patients without evidence of tracheobronchial aspiration on admission bronchoscopy were randomized to prophylactic Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid 1.2g every 8h (P) or clinically-driven antibiotics (C) administered if signs of infection developed during initial 7days of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. RESULTS: Among 83 patients enrolled between September 2013 and February 2015, tracheobronchial aspiration was documented in 23 (28%)...
February 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973988/characterisation-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-new-zealand
#11
A Karkaba, A Grinberg, J Benschop, E Pleydell
AIMS: To assess the occurrence of, and characterise, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-β-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated by veterinary diagnostic laboratories from infection sites in companion animals in New Zealand. METHODS: Selected Enterobacteriaceae isolates were submitted by seven New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories. They were isolated from infection sites in companion animals between June 2012 and June 2013, and were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, fluoroquinolones, or any combination of two or more antimicrobials...
December 14, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972913/drug-utilization-evaluation-of-amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-in-csom-patients-in-a-south-indian-hospital-a-retrospective-analysis
#12
L Jayachandran, A Kumar, S Kumar, B R, S A
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956787/occurrence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-spp-in-retail-raw-table-eggs-sold-for-human-consumption-in-enugu-state-nigeria
#13
O Josephine Okorie-Kanu, E Vivienne Ezenduka, C Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, L Chinweokwu Ugwu, U John Nnamani
AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014)...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956216/distribution-of-ctx-m-group-i-and-group-iii-%C3%AE-lactamases-produced-by-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-lahore-pakistan
#14
Samyyia Abrar, Ayesha Vajeeha, Noor Ul-Ain, Saba Riaz
Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015...
December 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941254/rapid-and-simultaneous-quantitation-of-amoxicillin-and-clavulanic-acid-in-human-plasma-and-urine-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#15
Yaxin Fan, Xiaojie Wu, Miao Zhao, Beining Guo, Guoying Cao, Jicheng Yu, Yuancheng Chen, Jing Zhang
Rapid, accurate and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma and urine samples. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in both plasma and urine were extracted using a solid-phase extraction method. The compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm). Ampicillin was used as the internal standard (IS) in plasma, while amoxicillin-d4 and sulbactam were used as ISs in urine...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939093/susceptibility-to-cephalosporin-combinations-and-aztreonam-avibactam-among-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-on-hospital-admission
#16
Alexander Mischnik, Philipp Baumert, Axel Hamprecht, Anna Rohde, Silke Peter, Susanne Feihl, Johannes Knobloch, Hanna Gölz, Axel Kola, Birgit Obermann, Christiane Querbach, Matthias Willmann, Friedemann Gebhardt, Evelina Tacconelli, Petra Gastmeier, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern
As part of the multicentre Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study (ATHOS), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for cephalosporins alone and in combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam, clavulanic acid and avibactam against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. isolates collected in German hospitals. MIC50/90 values were 0.25-4 mg/L for cefepime/tazobactam, 0.25-2 mg/L for ceftazidime/avibactam, 0.125-0.5 mg/L for ceftaroline/avibactam, 0...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895902/effect-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-on-in-vitro-activity-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-against-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-species
#17
Annelien Everaert, Tom Coenye
BACKGROUND: Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, alterations in penicillin-binding proteins or the expression of β-lactamases. β-lactamase inhibitors are able to restore the in vitro activity of β-lactam molecules against a variety of Gram-negative species, but the effect of these inhibitors on the activity of β-lactam treatment against Bcc species is still poorly investigated...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888519/antibiotics-in-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis-rethinking-maximal-antimicrobial-medical-therapy
#18
Ceren Günel, Benjamin S Bleier, Ibrahim Meteoglu
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (eCRS) has recently been recognized as a CRS subtype characterized by inflammation rather than chronic infection. Consequently, the role of antibiotics as a component of maximal medical therapy for eCRS has been called into question. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of antibiotics, which lack any secondary anti-inflammatory properties, are useful in the treatment of eCRS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective individual cohort study...
November 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888478/examining-the-quality-of-medicines-at-kenyan-healthcare-facilities-a-validation-of-an-alternative-post-market-surveillance-model-that-uses-standardized-patients
#19
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886038/surveillance-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-private-sector-in-namibia-using-sales-and-claims-data
#20
Dawn Dineo Pereko, Martie S Lubbe, Sabiha Y Essack
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are among the most commonly used therapeutic agents for humans globally, and their use has been associated with the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to identify sources for quantifying antibiotic usage patterns and to assess such use in ambulatory patients in the private health sector of Namibia. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of prescription claims data and sales data for the period 2008 to 2011 was conducted...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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