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Anal canal cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099957/results-of-surgical-salvage-treatment-for-anal-canal-cancer-a-retrospective-analysis-with-overview-of-the-literature
#1
Benedetta Pesi, Stefano Scaringi, Carmela Di Martino, Giacomo Batignani, Francesco Giudici, Damiano Bisogni, Francesco Tonelli, Paolo Bechi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the gold standard treatment for anal cancer, which permits the maintenance of the anal function. However, about 30-40% of patients develop local disease progression, for which surgery represents a good salvage therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate survival and morbidity rate in patients who undergo salvage surgery in our single institution, with an overview of the literature. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on patients who underwent surgical treatment of anal canal cancer after failure of CRT...
January 19, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091842/squamous-cell-dysplasia-in-the-proximal-rectum-of-three-patients-treated-for-ulcerative-colitis-on-immunomodulators
#2
James G Connolly, Stephen E Goldstone
BACKGROUND: Anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is the precursor to anal cancer. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk and disease is usually within 3 cm from the anal verge. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with an 8-cm anoscope is used to identify and guide cautery treatment of HSIL. PURPOSE: We report three patients with a long-term history of ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with systemic immunomodulators who developed proximally located rectal HSIL...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078133/successful-hepatectomy-for-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anal-canal-a-case-report
#3
Tercia Tarciane Sousa, Bruna do Nascimento Santos, Marcos Belotto, Renata D'Alpino Peixoto
Despite rare, metastatic anal carcinoma confers a poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease while the role of biologics and/or surgical resection of metastatic disease are anecdotal. Compared to isolated liver colorectal or neuroendocrine cancer liver metastases, there is far less experience with resection or nonsurgical local ablative procedures for patients with metastatic anal carcinoma to the liver. We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with metastatic anal carcinoma to the liver who was successfully treated with liver resection and remains free of relapse more than one year later...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068178/cetuximab-plus-chemoradiotherapy-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-anal-carcinoma-a-phase-ii-eastern-cooperative-oncology-group-american-college-of-radiology-imaging-network-cancer-research-group-trial-e3205
#4
Madhur K Garg, Fengmin Zhao, Joseph A Sparano, Joel Palefsky, Richard Whittington, Edith P Mitchell, Mary F Mulcahy, Karin I Armstrong, Nassim H Nabbout, Shalom Kalnicki, Bassel F El-Rayes, Adedayo A Onitilo, Daniel J Moriarty, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Al B Benson
Purpose Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is characterized by high locoregional failure (LRF) rates after sphincter-preserving definitive chemoradiation (CRT) and is typically associated with anogenital human papilloma virus infection. Because cetuximab enhances the effect of radiation therapy in human papilloma virus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, we hypothesized that adding cetuximab to CRT would reduce LRF in SCCAC. Methods Sixty-one patients with stage I to III SCCAC received CRT including cisplatin, fluorouracil, and radiation therapy to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes (45 to 54 Gy) plus eight once-weekly doses of concurrent cetuximab...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976366/proteomic-signatures-reveal-a-dualistic-and-clinically-relevant-classification-of-anal-canal-carcinoma
#5
Michael Herfs, Rémi Longuespée, Charles M Quick, Patrick Roncarati, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Pascale Hubert, Alizée Lebeau, Diane Bruyere, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Nicolas Smargiasso, Dominique Baiwir, Keith Lai, Andrew Dunn, Fabiola Obregon, Eric J Yang, Edwin De Pauw, Christopher P Crum, Philippe Delvenne
Etiologically linked to HPV infection, malignancies of the anal canal have substantially increased in incidence over the last 20 years. Although most anal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) respond well to chemoradiotherapy, about 30% of patients experience a poor outcome, for undetermined reasons. Despite cumulative efforts for discovering independent predictors of overall survival, both nodal status and tumour size are still the only reliable factors predicting patient outcome. Recent efforts have revealed that the biology of HPV-related lesions in the cervix is strongly linked to the originally infected cell population...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923035/biomarkers-in-anal-cancer-from-biological-understanding-to-stratified-treatment
#6
Christopher M Jones, Vicky Goh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert
Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917295/circulating-human-papillomavirus-dna-detected-using-droplet-digital-pcr-in-the-serum-of-patients-diagnosed-with-early-stage-human-papillomavirus-associated-invasive-carcinoma
#7
Emmanuelle Jeannot, Véronique Becette, Maura Campitelli, Marie-Ange Calméjane, Emmanuelle Lappartient, Evelyne Ruff, Stéphanie Saada, Allyson Holmes, Dominique Bellet, Xavier Sastre-Garau
Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889039/epidemiology-of-anal-canal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Valerie M Nelson, Al B Benson
Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, although its incidence has been increasingly in recent decades. This article discusses risk factors for anal cancer and how these risk factors affect the changing demographics of this disease.
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889038/treatment-of-the-primary-tumor-in-anal-canal-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Rob Glynne-Jones, Sheela Rao
Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C (MMC) remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Phase III trials over 2 decades have used combined radiation doses of 50 to 60 Gy with concurrent fluoropyrimidines, MMC, or cisplatin in various doses and schedules. Modern radiotherapy techniques allow the production of highly conformal plans, decreasing radiation doses to the organs at risk and ensuring a shorter overall treatment time without the need for treatment breaks...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889037/pathology-of-anal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Paulo M Hoff, Renata Coudry, Camila Motta Venchiarutti Moniz
Anal canal cancer is rather an uncommon disease but its incidence is increasing. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent primary anal neoplasm and can encompass a variety of morphologies. HPV infection has a key role in precancerous lesions and cancer development by the production of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Anal squamous precancerous lesions are now classified according to the same criteria and terminology as their cervical counterparts. The p16 expression by immunohistochemistry is a surrogate marker for human papilloma virus (HPV)...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889036/diagnosis-and-diagnostic-imaging-of-anal-canal-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Kristen K Ciombor, Randy D Ernst, Gina Brown
Anal canal cancer is an uncommon malignancy but one that is often curable with optimal therapy. Owing to its unique location, histology, risk factors, and usual presentation, a careful diagnostic approach is warranted. This approach includes an excellent history and physical examination, including digital rectal examination, laboratory data, and comprehensive imaging. Anal cancer staging and formulation of a treatment plan depends on accurate imaging data. Modern radiographic techniques have improved staging quality and accuracy, and a thorough knowledge of anal anatomy is paramount to the optimal multidisciplinary treatment of this disease...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889032/metastatic-anal-cancer-and-novel-agents
#12
REVIEW
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) represents an orphan disease. Although prior infection with human papilloma virus is associated with the development of SCCA, knowledge of this relationship has proven ineffective in identifying therapeutic agents that have activity in the management of metastatic SCCA. Combination chemotherapy with traditional cytotoxic agents has demonstrated efficacy in multiple small series. However, immune checkpoint blockade agents have demonstrated efficacy for patients with refractory metastatic SCCA; these agents hold promise in the horizon for patients with metastatic SCCA...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889031/surveillance-of-anal-canal-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Richard Adams
Anal squamous cell cancer is most frequently a locoregional disease that is amenable to curative therapy in a majority of fit patients. Complete response rates after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are good, with up to 75% of patients with no evidence of relapse on surveillance. Relapse is most frequently locoregional and is often amendable to salvage surgery with curative intent. Effective surveillance attempts to improve outcomes by identifying recurrent or persistent disease early, managing both acute and late toxicities, and offering reassurance to patients...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889030/locally-recurrent-disease-related-to-anal-canal-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Tarik Sammour, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, John M Skibber
Surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for patients with persistent disease or local recurrence after definitive chemoradiation therapy. Patients with local recurrence should be re-evaluated for evidence of metastatic disease using positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and the local anatomy should be delineated with MRI. Eligible patients should undergo tailored surgery with the aim of achieving an R0 resection. Management is best undertaken within a specialized multidisciplinary setting. Careful patient selection and shared decision making are paramount for achieving acceptable patient-centered outcomes...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852700/genomic-evolution-after-chemoradiotherapy-in-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Kent W Mouw, James M Cleary, Brendan Reardon, Jonathan Pike, Lior Z Braunstein, Jaegil Kim, Ali Amin-Mansour, Diana Miao, Alexis Damish, Joanna Chin, Patrick A Ott, Charles S Fuchs, Neil E Martin, Gad Getz, Scott Carter, Harvey Mamon, Jason L Hornick, Eliezer Van Allen, Alan D D'Andrea
PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (ASCC) accounts for 2-4% of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies in the US and is increasing in incidence; however, genomic features of ASCC are incompletely characterized. Primary treatment of ASCC involves concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CRT), but the mutational landscape of resistance to CRT is unknown. Here, we aim to compare mutational features of ASCC in the pre- and post-CRT setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We perform whole exome sequencing of primary (n=31) and recurrent (n=31) ASCCs and correlate findings with clinical data...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849650/programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-in-anal-cancer
#16
Rangaswamy Govindarajan, Swetha Gujja, Eric R Siegel, Anu Batra, Anwaar Saeed, Keith Lai, Jennifer D James, Bradley J Fogel, Stephen Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in anal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort analysis, subjects with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were tested for PD-L1 expression, then followed for recurrence and survival. Crude recurrence rates (CRRs), crude mortality rates (CMRs), and crude event rates (CERs) were assessed for PD-L1-dependent differences using Poisson regression. All 3 types of crude rate were expressed as the number that occurred per hundred person-years (hPY) of follow-up...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760964/-a-case-of-early-anal-canal-cancer-with-pagetoid-spread-with-different-antitumor-effects-of-chemotherapy-on-different-metastatic-sites
#17
Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Gakuji Osawa, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Akiko Sakuma, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shinichi Asaka, Takebumi Usui, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 78-year-old man visited our hospital with a prolapsed hemorrhoid. He was referred to the dermatology unit due to the thickness and redness of the perianal skin. He was diagnosed as having extra mammary Paget's disease by skin biopsy. After a biopsy of the anal polyp was performed to investigate the primary site, he was diagnosed with early anal canal cancer with Pagetoid spread and underwent a radical operation. Abdominoperineal resection with skin(D2 prx D3 lymphadenectomy) was performed with perineal reconstruction using a gracilis muscle graft...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755059/clinical-and-economic-evaluation-of-treatment-strategies-for-t1n0-anal-canal-cancer
#18
Ashish A Deshmukh, Hui Zhao, Prajnan Das, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Yi-Qian Nancy You, Luisa Franzini, David R Lairson, Michael D Swartz, Sharon H Giordano, Scott B Cantor
OBJECTIVE: A comparative assessment of treatment alternatives for T1N0 anal canal cancer has never been conducted. We compared the outcomes associated with the treatment alternatives-chemoradiotherapy (CRT), radiotherapy (RT), and surgery or ablation techniques (surgery/ablation)-for T1N0 anal canal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries linked with Medicare longitudinal data (SEER-Medicare database)...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749636/anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#19
Michele Limoges-Gonzalez, Amar Al-Juburi
Anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) is a relatively uncommon cancer in the United States. Anal SCC has long been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity and/or men who have sex with men. The incidence of anal SCC has been increasing in both genders regardless of HIV status. Few clinicians are aware that white women, when not controlling for gender and sexual preference together, have the highest incidence of anal SCC. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), dysplastic cells of the anal canal due to human papilloma virus infection, is believed to be the precursor to anal SCC...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747086/summary-of-emerging-targets-in-anal-cancer-the-case-for-an-immunotherapy-based-approach
#20
REVIEW
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) remains a less common gastrointestinal malignancy despite a continued increase in the annual incidence in the United States and globally. The vast majority of all cases are attributed to persistent infection and integration into host cell DNA by human papillomavirus (HPV). For patients with metastatic anal cancer, there is currently no accepted consensus standard of care. Given the viral etiology associated with the oncogenesis of this tumor, great interest exists for the development of immunotherapy as a novel approach to improving clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with this disease...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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