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Very low birthweight

Amanda Veile, Karen L Kramer
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiologic link between cesarean birth and childhood obesity is unresolved, partly because most studies come from industrialized settings where many post-birth factors affect the risk for obesity. We take advantage of an unusual ethnographic situation where hospital and cesarean birth modes have recently been introduced among Yucatec Maya subsistence farmers, but young children have had minimal exposure to the nutritional transition. While we expect to find very low rates of childhood obesity, we predict that cesarean-born children will be larger and heavier than vaginally born children...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Francesco M Risso, Elio Castagnola, Roberto Bandettini, Diego Minghetti, Laura Pagani, Luca A Ramenghi
PURPOSE: The incidence of late-onset neonatal infection (LONS) group B streptococcus (GBS) in very low birthweight (VLBW) is still matter of debate. In the present 10-years retrospective study we investigated the epidemiology of GBS LONS in VLBW neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to July 2015 we conducted a retrospective study in all preterm infants admitted at our third level referral center for neonatal intensive care (NICU). From our database we were able to retrieve all cases of bloodstream infections/meningitis GBS positive...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nor Rosidah Ibrahim, Tan Hooi Kheng, Ariffin Nasir, Noraida Ramli, Jimmy Lee Kok Foo, Sharifah Huda Syed Alwi, Hans Van Rostenberghe
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether feeding with 2-hourly or 3-hourly feeding interval reduces the time to achieve full enteral feeding and to compare their outcome in very low birthweight preterm infants. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Two regional tertiary neonatal intensive care units. PATIENTS: 150 preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestation with birth weight between 1...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Jeff Bolstridge, Tracy Bell, Barbara Dean, Amy Mackley, Gina Moore, Cheryl Swift, Dina Viscount, David A Paul, Stephen A Pearlman
BACKGROUND: Due to clinical benefits, delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended in infants born before 37 weeks gestational age. The objective was to institute a delayed cord clamping program and to evaluate clinical outcomes one year after initiation. METHODS: This study occured at Christiana Care Health System, a tertiary care facility with a 52 bed level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary team created a departmental policy, a DCC protocol and educational programs to support the development of a DCC program...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Pak Cheung Ng
Preterm, very low birthweight (VLBW) infants are prone to life-threatening hypotension secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immaturity, resulting in adrenocortical insufficiency. Clinical presentations of inotrope-resistant refractory hypotension are usually evident, but interpretation of serum cortisol may pose much difficulty to front-line neonatologists. This review examines the salient pathophysiology of adrenocortical insufficiency in the immediate postnatal period, characterises its endocrinological abnormalities, and describes the typical and variant clinical presentations...
September 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Kevin N Johnson, Tina Thomas, Jason Grove, Marcus D Jarboe
BACKGROUND: Neonates commonly require central access, and in those with very low or extremely low birthweight this can be challenging. Described here is a technique that uses ultrasound guidance in the placement of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in neonates and an analysis of outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients below 1500 g that underwent placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter under ultrasound guidance between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014 at a single center...
November 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
A Feldman, B De Benedictis, Gad Alpan, E F La Gamma, J Kase
OBJECTIVES: In very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, hypothermia is associated with poor outcomes. The goal of this study is to assess the relationship between the rate of rewarming these babies and their outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 98 inborn VLBW infants who were hypothermic (<36°C rectally) upon admission to the NICU. A logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between the rates of rewarming and time to achieve euthermia and the following outcomes: death, intraventricular hemorrhage, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Natsuki Ohkawa, Hiromichi Shoji, Naho Ikeda, Hiroki Suganuma, Toshiaki Shimizu
AIM: Poor post-natal growth is related to later morbidity and poor cognitive development in preterm infants. We investigated the relationship between plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), leptin, active ghrelin levels and post-natal growth in preterm infants small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: Plasma IGF-1, leptin and active ghrelin levels were measured at birth and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after birth in 42 very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (born between 27 and 31 weeks of gestation), including 14 SGA infants with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR), 6 SGA infants without EUGR and 22 appropriate-for-gestational-age infants...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Jon Skranes, Gro C C Løhaugen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Evidence-based Mental Health
Jonathan W Davis, David Odd, Sally Jary, Karen Luyt
OBJECTIVE: Very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS) have an increased risk of neurodisability. Care bundles to reduce bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are effective in reducing LOS. Our aim was to determine if a sepsis reduction bundle introduced through a quality improvement project would impact neurodevelopmental outcomes in VLBW infants. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Level 3 regional NICU in the South West of England...
August 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Christian Haslinger, Bernhard Stoiber, Federica Capanna, Marie-Kristin Schäffer, Roland Zimmermann, Leonhard Schäffer
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To evaluate pregnancy outcome in pregnant women aged ≥45 years, termed very advanced maternal age (VAMA). METHODS: We retrospectively compared the outcome of pregnancies in VAMA patients with controls aged 30 years at time of delivery. Subgroups of singleton and multiple pregnancies were also analysed. Incidences of maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were measured. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted where necessary...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Hans Wolf, Birgit Arabin, Christoph C Lees, Dick Oepkes, Federico Prefumo, Baskaran Thilaganathan, Tullia Todros, Gerard H A Visser, Caterina M Bilardo, Jan B Derks, Anke Diemert, Johannes J Duvekot, Enrico Ferrazzi, Tiziana Frusca, Kurt Hecher, Neil Marlow, Pasquale Martinelli, Eva Ostermayer, Aris T Papageorghiou, Hubertina C J Scheepers, Dietmar Schlembach, K T M Schneider, Adriana Valcamonico, Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Wessel Ganzevoort
OBJECTIVES: To explore if in early fetal growth restriction (FGR) the longitudinal pattern of short-term fetal heart rate (FHR) variation (STV) can be used for identifying imminent fetal distress and if abnormalities of FHR registration associate with two-year infant outcome. METHODS: The original TRUFFLE study assessed if in early FGR the use of ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index (DVPI), in combination with a safety-net of very low STV and / or recurrent decelerations, could improve two-year infant survival without neurological impairment in comparison to computerised cardiotocography (cCTG) with STV calculation only...
August 3, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Hengxi Chen, Jing Fu, Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high circulating levels of prolactin. Idopathic hyperprolactinemia is the term used when no cause of prolactin hypersecretion can be identified and it is causally related to the development of miscarriage in pregnant women, especially women who have a history of recurrent miscarriage. A possible mechanism is that high levels of prolactin affect the function of the ovaries, resulting in a luteal phase defect and miscarriage. A dopamine agonist is a compound with high efficacy in lowering prolactin levels and restoring gonadal function...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Samantha J Lain, Jason P Bentley, Veronica Wiley, Christine L Roberts, Michelle Jack, Bridget Wilcken, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism causes intellectual delay unless identified and effectively treated soon after birth. Newborn screening has almost eliminated intellectual disability associated with congenital hypothyroidism. However, clinical uncertainty remains about infants with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations less than the newborn screening cutoffs. We assessed the association between neonatal TSH concentrations and educational and developmental outcomes. METHODS: We did a population-based record-linkage study of all liveborn infants undergoing newborn screening from 1994 to 2008 in New South Wales, Australia, with assessments of childhood development or school performance...
September 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
M Ben Said, S Hays, M Bonfils, E Jourdes, J-P Rasigade, F Laurent, J-C Picaud
During hospitalization, sepsis occurs in one of every five very-low-birthweight infants. The emergence of Staphylococcus capitis (SC)-related sepsis in preterm infants was observed recently. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical severity of SC-related sepsis in preterm infants. Of the 105 infants who presented with sepsis related to coagulase-negative staphylococci, 74 were SC. Severe morbidity was more common in the SC group (55.4%) than in the non-SC coagulase-negative staphylococci group (32.0%) (P=0...
September 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Portavia Featherstone, Jan M Eberth, Daniela Nitcheva, Jihong Liu
Introduction Mortality for infants born with very-low birthweight (VLBW, 500-1499 grams) is markedly higher than for babies born with normal birthweight (2500-4000 grams). Although these high-risk infants show better outcomes in advanced care settings, only 80 % of VLBW infants born in South Carolina (SC) are delivered in hospitals with a level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The purpose of this research project was to assess geographic access to delivery hospitals and risk of neonatal death among singleton VLBW infants born in SC...
July 12, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Tuomo Eskelinen, Päivi Roivainen, Pentti Mäkelä, Jari Keinänen, Olavi Kauhanen, Seppo Saarikoski, Jukka Juutilainen
BACKGROUND: Data on reproductive and developmental effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) are inconclusive. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to ELF MFs is associated with increased time to pregnancy (TTP), reduced birthweight or small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 373 mothers who gave birth between 1990 and 1994 in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. To increase prevalence of high ELF MF exposure, women living in buildings near known ELF MF sources were included...
September 2016: Environment International
Aline Fuchs, Lara Zimmermann, Myriam Bickle Graz, Jacques Cherpillod, Jean-François Tolsa, Thierry Buclin, Eric Giannoni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of gentamicin exposure on sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Exposure to gentamicin was determined in infants born between 1993 and 2010 at a gestational age < 32 weeks and/or with a birthweight < 1500 g, who presented with SNHL during the first 5 years of life. For each case, we selected two controls matched for gender, gestational age, birthweight, and year of birth. RESULTS: We identified 25 infants affected by SNHL, leading to an incidence of SNHL of 1...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca Caesar, Roslyn N Boyd, Paul Colditz, Giovani Cioni, Robert S Ware, Kaye Salthouse, Julie Doherty, Maxine Jackson, Leanne Matthews, Tom Hurley, Anthony Morosini, Clare Thomas, Laxmi Camadoo, Erica Baer
INTRODUCTION: Over 80% of very preterm (<32 weeks) and very low birthweight (<1500 g) infants will have either typical development (TD) or mild developmental delay (MDD) in multiple domains. As differentiation between TD and MDD can be difficult, infants with MDD often miss opportunities for intervention. For many clinicians, the ongoing challenge is early detection of MDD without over servicing the population. This study aims to: (1) identify early clinical biomarkers for use in this population to predict and differentiate between TD and MDD at 24 months corrected age...
2016: BMJ Open
Tammy Z Movsas, Alan R Spitzer, Ira H Gewolb
AIM: The prevalence of Down syndrome in infants with fetal ventriculomegaly is 5% to 10%; however, the converse, the prevalence of cerebral ventriculomegaly in live-born infants with Down syndrome, is not well established. Because cranial ultrasounds are performed on most very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight <1500g), our aim was to examine ultrasound abnormalities of VLBW infants to determine prevalence of ventriculomegaly and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in VLBW infants with Down syndrome, and whether VLBW infants with Down syndrome are at higher risk for cranial ultrasound abnormalities, compared with the already elevated risk in other VLBW infants...
June 30, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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