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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428817/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adhd-among-adolescents-in-a-beirut-community-sample-results-from-the-bei-psy-study
#1
Elias Ghossoub, Lilian A Ghandour, Fadi Halabi, Pia Zeinoun, Al Amira Safa Shehab, Fadi T Maalouf
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking behavior related to ADHD among adolescents from Lebanon. METHODS: Five hundred and ten adolescents were recruited through multistage stratified cluster sampling of households in Beirut, and separately interviewed along with one parent/legal guardian, using the DAWBA. All adolescents completed the PRQ and the SDQ; the parent/legal guardian also completed the SDQ and provided basic demographic information, including attitudes towards seeking mental health services...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#2
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#3
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427034/taxometric-analyses-and-predictive-accuracy-of-callous-unemotional-traits-regarding-quality-of-life-and-behavior-problems-in-non-conduct-disorder-diagnoses
#4
Pierre C M Herpers, Helen Klip, Nanda N J Rommelse, Mark J Taylor, Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have mainly been studied in relation to conduct disorder (CD), but can also occur in other disorder groups. However, it is unclear whether there is a clinically relevant cut-off value of levels of CU traits in predicting reduced quality of life (QoL) and clinical symptoms, and whether CU traits better fit a categorical (taxonic) or dimensional model. Parents of 979 youths referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic rated their child's CU traits on the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU), QoL on the Kidscreen-27, and clinical symptoms on the Child Behavior Checklist...
April 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425688/pediatric-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-preliminary-observational-data-from-a-prospective-study
#5
Michela Gatta, Alessia Raffagnato, Stefania Mannarini, Laura Balottin, Irene Toldo, Marilena Vecchi, Clementina Boniver
BACKGROUND: Several studies have confirmed psychiatric comorbidity and a worse quality of life in children with epilepsy, but the clinical assessment and monitoring of these patients often pays insufficient attention to their psychological aspects alongside their neurological issues. The present study aims to describe the distribution of psychopathologies and their clinical evolution over 18 months in a sample of children followed up since the onset of their epilepsy. METHODS: After being diagnosed with epilepsy, 49 subjects (age 4-18y) were followed up with psychiatric and psychological assessments based on the use of dimensional and categorical psychometric tools...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424381/-the-relationship-between-physical-activity-and-executive-functions-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Martina Miklós, Judit Futó, Judit Balázs
The connection between physical activity and executive functions has recently started to emerge as a new focus of research within the field of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). In the present paper we summarise the major findings of these studies concentrating specifically on paediatric population. We present the results of six studies that focus on the connection between acute physical activity and executive functions and seven others that examine the relationship between chronic physical activity and executive functions in children with ADHD...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422635/simulated-driving-skills-evaluation-of-teenagers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-before-driving-lessons
#7
Navah Zelda Ratzon, Efrat Kadury Lunievsky, Arie Ashkenasi, Joseph Laks, Herman Avner Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the driving skills of teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during simulated driving before starting driving lessons and observed whether methylphenidate (MPH) affected their performance. METHOD: Sixty teenagers ages 15-18 yr were included; 29 teenagers with ADHD were tested with and without MPH, and 31 teenagers (control group) were tested once. All participants were tested on the STISIM Drive™ simulator. RESULTS: The number of center-line crossings was higher in the group without MPH treatment than in the control group and the MPH-treated group...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422527/attitudes-toward-stimulant-treatment-of-offspring-of-adult-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Carlos Canela, Anna Buadze, Anish Dube, Dominique Eich, Michael Liebrenz
AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate how adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder viewed the testing and use of stimulants in their children. METHODS: Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed 32 outpatients from a special care unit of a university hospital. RESULTS: Emerging themes centered around concerns about the right age to test children and opinions about stimulant treatment ranging from unreserved agreement to reluctance, as well as the need for a shared decision with the child...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-reveals-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#9
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Ike Dela Peña, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Aeree Sohn, Chan Young Shin, Doug Hyun Han, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae Hoon Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421383/pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-single-and-multiple-doses-of-guanfacine-extended-release-formulation-in-healthy-japanese-and-caucasian-male-adults
#10
Yumiko Matsuo, Masafumi Okita, James Ermer, Toshihiro Wajima
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Guanfacine extended-release (guanfacine XR) could be a useful treatment option for children and adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As an initial step in the development in Japan, the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability were assessed in healthy Japanese and non-Hispanic Caucasian adults. METHODS: A Phase 1, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-oral dose escalation study of guanfacine XR was conducted...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420586/impaired-oral-absorption-of-methylphenidate-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#11
REVIEW
Carmil Azran, Peter Langguth, Arik Dahan
The anatomic and physiologic changes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after bariatric surgery may significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of medications taken by the patients for various reasons. Unfortunately, there is little information regarding changes in drug absorption after bariatric surgeries, limiting the ability of medical professionals to produce clear recommendations on what changes should be made to the formulations and dosing regimens of drugs after bariatric surgery. In this article, we report and analyze a case of 52-year-old male patient with morbid obesity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who experienced lack of methylphenidate efficacy after Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), which was eventually resolved by using the transdermal patch instead of an oral product...
March 9, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417219/treatment-effect-of-methylphenidate-on-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adhd-children-a-multivariate-analysis
#12
Jae Hyun Yoo, Dohyun Kim, Jeewook Choi, Bumseok Jeong
Methylphenidate is a first-line therapeutic option for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, elicited changes on resting-state functional networks (RSFNs) are not well understood. This study investigated the treatment effect of methylphenidate using a variety of RSFN analyses and explored the collaborative influences of treatment-relevant RSFN changes in children with ADHD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 20 medication-naïve ADHD children before methylphenidate treatment and twelve weeks later...
April 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413998/optimising-treatment-strategies-for-adhd-in-adolescence-to-minimise-lost-in-transition-to-adulthood
#13
J K Buitelaar
The persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from adolescence to adulthood is not matched by continuity of care in this transition period. Many adolescents with ADHD have poor medication adherence or even stop medication treatment, and use of behavioural interventions is also suboptimal. The present commentary focuses on treatment strategies that might improve effects of ADHD medication treatment by improving adherence in adolescents with ADHD and/or optimise behavioural interventions for ADHD in adolescence...
April 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413936/processing-speed-can-monitor-stimulant-medication-effects-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-disorder-with-hyperactivity
#14
Niels Peter Nielsen, Elisabeth H Wiig, Svante Bäck, Jan Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Treatment responses to methylphenidate by adults with ADHD are generally monitored against DSM-IV/DSM-V symptomatology, rating scales or interviews during reviews. AIMS: To evaluate the use of single- and dual-dimension processing-speed and efficiency measures to monitor the effects of pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate after a short period off medication. METHODS: A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) monitored the effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in 40 previously diagnosed and medicated adults with ADHD...
May 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413935/predictive-validity-of-the-k-sads-pl-2009-version-in-school-aged-and-adolescent-outpatients
#15
Håkan Jarbin, Markus Andersson, Maria Råstam, Tord Ivarsson
BACKGROUND: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS) is one of the most commonly used standardized diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry. Validity studies are scarce, and limited to concurrent validity with other measures and clinical diagnoses. AIMS: To evaluate the K-SADS interview in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) setting with a Longitudinal Expert All Data (LEAD) procedure...
May 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413925/triple-bead-mixed-amphetamine-salts-shp465-in-adults-with-adhd-results-of-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomized-forced-dose-trial
#16
Glen Frick, Brian Yan, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in ADHD. METHOD: Adults with ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥32 were randomized to 6 weeks of triple-bead MAS (25, 50, or 75 mg) or placebo. The primary endpoint was ADHD-RS-IV total score change from baseline at end of study (EOS). RESULTS: Least squares mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) treatment differences for ADHD-RS-IV total score changes from baseline to EOS significantly favored triple-bead MAS (all doses combined: -10...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413900/efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-with-and-without-medication-for-adults-with-adhd
#17
Mariya V Cherkasova, Lisa R French, Cassidy A Syer, Lorne Cousins, Harry Galina, Yasaman Ahmadi-Kashani, Lily Hechtman
OBJECTIVE: Recent trials have demonstrated efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in medicated adults with ADHD. Efficacy of CBT in unmedicated versus medicated adults remains mostly unknown. We evaluated the effects of group CBT alone versus combined with medication on ADHD symptoms and functional outcomes in adult patients. METHOD: Eighty-eight adults with ADHD received 12 manualized group CBT sessions, accompanied by individual coaching, either without ( n = 46) or with ( n = 42) medication...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412886/a-long-term-open-label-safety-study-of-triple-bead-mixed-amphetamine-salts-shp465-in-adults-with-adhd
#18
Lenard A Adler, Glen Frick, Brian Yan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in adults with ADHD. METHOD: Adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) ADHD criteria and satisfying study criteria from one of two antecedent studies were enrolled in this 52-week (dose titration, 4 weeks; dose maintenance, 11 months) open-label extension. The protocol included 12.5- to 75-mg triple-bead MAS but was amended to a maximum of 50-mg triple-bead MAS...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412445/methylphenidate-effects-in-the-young-brain-friend-or-foe
#19
REVIEW
Sara Loureiro-Vieira, Vera Marisa Costa, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Soares Capela
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408873/neurofeedback-of-slow-cortical-potentials-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-multicenter-randomized-trial-controlling-for-unspecific-effects
#20
Ute Strehl, Pascal Aggensteiner, Daniel Wachtlin, Daniel Brandeis, Björn Albrecht, Maria Arana, Christiane Bach, Tobias Banaschewski, Thorsten Bogen, Andrea Flaig-Röhr, Christine M Freitag, Yvonne Fuchsenberger, Stephanie Gest, Holger Gevensleben, Laura Herde, Sarah Hohmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Anna-Maria Marx, Sabina Millenet, Benjamin Pniewski, Aribert Rothenberger, Christian Ruckes, Sonja Wörz, Martin Holtmann
Background: Neurofeedback (NF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been investigated in a series of studies over the last years. Previous studies did not unanimously support NF as a treatment in ADHD. Most studies did not control for unspecific treatment effects and did not demonstrate that self-regulation took place. The present study examined the efficacy of NF in comparison to electromyographic (EMG) feedback to control for unspecific effects of the treatment, and assessed self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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