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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926497/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Amy E Vierhile, Donna Palumbo, Heidi Belden
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by signs and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that typically begin in childhood. ADHD can persist into adulthood, causing impairments in occupational performance and peer and family relationships. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD.
October 18, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925314/effect-of-methylphenidate-on-visual-responses-in-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-anaesthetised-rat-role-of-cortical-activation
#2
L Hetherington, E J Dommett, A C Turner, T B Riley, J X Haensel, P G Overton
The mechanism of action of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is still largely unknown, although recent evidence suggests one possibility is that the drugs affect the superior colliculus (SC). We have previously demonstrated that systemically administered d-amphetamine attenuates/abolishes visual responses to wholefield light flashes in the superficial layers of the SC in anaesthetised rats, and the present study sought to extend this work to methylphenidate (MPH)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922069/glutamatergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-compulsivity-and-impulsivity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#4
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921528/practitioner-review-treatment-of-chronic-insomnia-in-children-and-adolescents-with-neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#5
REVIEW
Oliviero Bruni, Marco Angriman, Fabrizio Calisti, Alessandro Comandini, Giovanna Esposito, Samuele Cortese, Raffaele Ferri
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, in particular insomnia, represent a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Currently, there are no approved medications for insomnia in children by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency and therefore they are prescribed off-label. We critically reviewed pediatric literature on drugs as well as nonpharmacological (behavioral) interventions used for sleep disturbances in children with NDDs. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid (including PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(®) , and Embase), and Web of Knowledge databases were searched through February 12, 2017, with no language restrictions...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921526/parsing-heterogeneity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-eeg-based-subgroups
#6
Sandra K Loo, James J McGough, James T McCracken, Susan L Smalley
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous condition for which multiple efforts to characterize brain state differences are underway. The objective of this study was to identify distinct subgroups of resting electroencephalography (EEG) profiles among children with and without ADHD and subsequently provide extensive clinical characterization of the subgroups. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used with resting state EEG recorded from a large sample of 781 children with and without ADHD (N = 620 ADHD, N = 161 Control), aged 6-18 years old...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919767/relationship-between-subtypes-and-symptoms-of-adhd-insomnia-and-nightmares-in-connection-with-quality-of-life-in-children
#7
Julia Grünwald, Angelika Anita Schlarb
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the links between sleep disorders and subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-inattention, ADHD-combined, ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive) in childhood. We set up a hypothetical model linking different symptoms of both disorders to construct the underlying and shared pathways. By examining a sample of children with ADHD we firstly tested parts of the model. METHODS: A total of 72 children with symptoms of ADHD (aged 6-13 years; 79...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919571/reasons-why-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-stop-and-restart-taking-medicine
#8
William B Brinkman, John O Simon, Jeffery N Epstein
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of reasons why children and adolescents stop and restart attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medicine and whether functional impairment is present after stopping medicine. METHODS: We used the prospective longitudinal cohort from the Multimodal Treatment of Study of Children with ADHD. At the 12 year follow-up when participants were a mean of 21.1 years old, 372 participants (76% male, 64% Caucasian) reported ever taking ADHD medicine...
September 12, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913744/eight-year-latent-class-trajectories-of-academic-and-social-functioning-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
George J DuPaul, Paul L Morgan, George Farkas, Marianne M Hillemeier, Steve Maczuga
We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910145/the-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-amphetamines-utilized-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
John S Markowitz, Kennerly S Patrick
Amphetamine (AMP), an indirectly acting psychostimulant approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults, is among the most long-standing therapeutic agents in all of clinical psychopharmacology. This review focuses on AMP absorption, metabolism, and elimination brought to bear on comparative pharmacokinetics in its various formulations. A comprehensive search of the published literature was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed) and Google Scholar databases through April 2017 to retrieve all pertinent in vitro and human studies for review and synthesis...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906604/a-multisymptomatic-child-with-bipolar-disorder-how-to-track-and-sequence-treatment
#11
Robert M Post, Michael Rowe, Dana Kaplan, Robert L Findling
Treatment sequences for the multisymptomatic child with bipolar disorder are not adequately described or based on a systematic clinical trial database, and systems for longitudinal tracking of symptoms are rarely utilized. We present a patient whose symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional behavior, and mania are rated by a parent and plotted on a weekly basis in the Child Network under a Johns Hopkins Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. This 9-year-old girl remained inadequately responsive to lithium or risperidone...
August 31, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906602/addressing-diagnosis-and-treatment-gaps-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Rakesh Jain, Saundra Jain, C Brendan Montano
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was originally defined in children but is now recognized to persist into adulthood for some patients. Despite this recognition, adult ADHD remains underdiagnosed. This narrative review describes the negative impact of ADHD across multiple functional domains, diagnostic guidelines for adult ADHD and its clinical features, the importance of screening tools and clinical interviews to help evaluate adults for ADHD, and adult ADHD treatment options. Diagnostic guidelines for ADHD now incorporate adult-specific symptoms and behavioral manifestations, which may aid in diagnosing adult ADHD...
September 7, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905127/adhd-is-associated-with-migraine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Haitham Salem, David Vivas, Fei Cao, Iram F Kazimi, Antonio L Teixeira, Cristian P Zeni
An association between primary headaches and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been suggested. Moreover, headache is regarded as a common side effect of stimulants, the most effective treatment for ADHD. So far, no systematic review has evaluated the potential association between ADHD and headache. We performed a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of all reported studies on ADHD and primary headaches. Our analysis showed a positive association between ADHD and migraine (OR 1...
September 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#14
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902066/latent-class-analysis-of-adhd-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-comorbidities
#15
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D Bramlett, Susanna N Visser, Melissa L Danielson, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and those who do often exhibit higher levels of impairment than children with ADHD alone. This study provides a latent class analysis (LCA) approach to categorizing children with ADHD into comorbidity groups, evaluating condition expression and treatment patterns in each group. METHODS: Parent-reported data from a large probability-based national sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) were used for an LCA to identify groups of children with similar groupings of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities among children with current ADHD (n = 2495)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900800/resting-state-neurophysiological-activity-patterns-in-young-people-with-asd-adhd-and-asd%C3%A2-%C3%A2-adhd
#16
Elizabeth Shephard, Charlotte Tye, Karen L Ashwood, Bahar Azadi, Philip Asherson, Patrick F Bolton, Grainne McLoughlin
Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899641/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-use-in-adolescents-the-patient-s-perspective
#17
Richelle C Kosse, Marcel L Bouvy, Daphne Philbert, Tjalling W de Vries, Ellen S Koster
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to gain more insight into the attitudes of adolescents using medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study among adolescents (aged 12-18 years) who filled at least two prescriptions for ADHD medication in the preceding year was conducted. Adolescents were invited to fill in an online questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographics, health status, illness perceptions, medication adherence, and medication beliefs...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893336/problematic-internet-use-in-gamblers-impact-on-clinical-and-cognitive-measures
#18
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. METHODS: A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments...
September 12, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892073/progress-and-roadblocks-in-the-search-for-brain-based-biomarkers-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
REVIEW
L Q Uddin, D R Dajani, W Voorhies, H Bednarz, R K Kana
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders benefit most from early interventions and treatments. The development and validation of brain-based biomarkers to aid in objective diagnosis can facilitate this important clinical aim. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of current progress in the use of neuroimaging to identify brain-based biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. We summarize empirical work that has laid the foundation for using neuroimaging to objectively quantify brain structure and function in ways that are beginning to be used in biomarker development, noting limitations of the data currently available...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888814/primary-and-secondary-enuresis-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Bernhard Haid, Serdar Tekgül
CONTEXT: Enuresis is a common and possibly underestimated condition. While 5-10% of school-aged children suffer from the condition, a lack of background knowledge may impede timely child-adapted and successful therapy. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of enuresis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Guideline and position papers from the European Society of Pediatric Urology, the European Association of Urology, and the International Children's Continence Society were acquired...
September 6, 2017: European Urology Focus
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