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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#1
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731214/from-positive-psychology-to-psychopathology-the-continuum-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar, Giovanni A Salum
BACKGROUND: Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730282/blockade-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-prelimbic-cortex-impact-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-following-adolescent-atomoxetine-treatment
#3
Britahny M Baskin, Bríd Á Nic Dhonnchadha, Linda P Dwoskin, Kathleen M Kantak
RATIONALE: Research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder demonstrated that chronic methylphenidate treatment during adolescence increased cocaine self-administration established during adulthood under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Compared to vehicle, chronic atomoxetine treatment during adolescence failed to increase cocaine self-administration under a PR schedule in adult SHR. OBJECTIVES: We determined if enhanced noradrenergic transmission at α2-adrenergic receptors within prefrontal cortex contributes to this neutral effect of adolescent atomoxetine treatment in adult SHR...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729328/comparative-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-neurological-development-in-children-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#4
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Patricia Rios, Elise Cogo, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
OBJECTIVES: Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. PARTICIPANTS: 29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725548/age-dependent-lasting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-gabaergic-system-of-adhd-patients
#5
Michelle M Solleveld, Anouk Schrantee, Nicolaas A J Puts, Liesbeth Reneman, Paul J Lucassen
Stimulants are the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Their current prescription rates are rising, both in children, adolescents and adults. Related to the impulse control phenotype, both preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated lower γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in prefrontal brain regions in ADHD. Whereas stimulant treatment increases GABA levels, preclinical studies have suggested that stimulant treatment effects may be age-dependent...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723824/a-national-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-us-children-aged-2-to-5-years
#6
Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Mary Margaret Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H Claussen, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Clinical guidelines provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with specific guidance on caring for children younger than 6 years. This exploratory study describes ADHD diagnosis and treatment patterns among young children in the United States using 2 nationally representative parent surveys. METHODS: The National Survey of Children's Health (2007-2008, 2011-2012) was used to produce weighted prevalence estimates of current ADHD and ADHD medication treatment among US children aged 2 to 5 years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721826/clinical-uses-of-melatonin-in-neurological-diseases-and-mental-and-behavioural-disorders
#7
Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló, Noemi R Revilla, María D Mediavilla, Carmen Martínez-Cué, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715272/face-to-face-versus-online-behavioral-parent-training-for-young-children-at-risk-for-adhd-treatment-engagement-and-outcomes
#8
George J DuPaul, Lee Kern, Georgia Belk, Beth Custer, Molly Daffner, Andrea Hatfield, Daniel Peek
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant challenges in child functioning. Although behavioral parent training (BPT) can reduce ADHD symptoms, factors associated with traditional face-to-face (F2F) delivery results in only about half of families receiving BPT. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to examine parent engagement and program acceptability of F2F and online BPT, as well as the efficacy of both formats relative to a waitlist control (WLC) group...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713515/effectiveness-of-methylphenidate-and-pufa-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-adhd-a-double-blinded-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Mahbobeh Firouzkouhi Moghaddam, Maryam Shamekhi, Tayebeh Rakhshani
BACKGROUND: In some children with ADHD, sub-optimal levels of various nutrients including PUFA especially omega-3 has been observed, and contradictory reports exist on the results of studies conducted on the positive therapeutic effects of PUFA in patients with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of methylphenidate and PUFA on treatment of patients with ADHD in Zahedan, Iran. METHODS: In this clinical trial, 40 children between 6 and 12 years of age with ADHD were investigated in Zahedan in 2014...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712074/efficacy-and-safety-of-shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-forced-dose-clinical-study
#10
Richard H Weisler, Michael Greenbaum, Valerie Arnold, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Eligible adults [aged 18-55 years; meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ADHD criteria; baseline ADHD Rating Scale with Adult Prompts (ADHD-RS-AP) total scores ≥28] were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo or forced-dose SHP465 MAS (12...
July 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710695/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treated-with-methylphenidate-an-8-week-observational-pretest-posttest-study
#11
Aynur Pekcanlar Akay, Halil Resmi, Sevay Alsen Güney, Handan Özek Erkuran, Gonca Özyurt, Enis Sargin, Ahmet Topuzoglu, Ali Evren Tufan
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin in the brain that modulates dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in serum BDNF levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in response to OROS methylphenidate treatment. We also aimed to determine whether there were any pre-post-differences between ADHD subtypes and comorbid psychiatric disorders in serum BDNF levels. Fifty male children with ADHD and 50 male healthy controls within the age range of 6-12 years were recruited to the study...
July 14, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709018/adhd-research-in-india-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Rajesh Sagar, Balaji Bharadwaj, Preeti Kandasamy
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with no clear etiopathogenesis. Owing to unique socio cultural milieu of India, it is worthwhile reviewing research on ADHD from India and comparing findings with global research. Thereby, we attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of research on ADHD from India. METHODS: A boolean search of articles published in English from September 1966 to January 2017 on electronic search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, IndMED, MedIND, using the search terms "ADHD", "Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder", "Hyperactivity" ,"Child psychiatry", "Hyperkinetic disorder", "Attention Deficit Disorder", "India"was carried out and peer - reviewed studies conducted among human subjects in India were included for review...
July 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708247/adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-require-specific-support-from-healthcare-professionals
#13
Ida Lindblad, Ann-Charlotte Engström, Charlotte Nylander, Elisabeth Fernell
AIM: Managing type 1 diabetes mellitus requires efficient cognitive and executive skills and adolescents who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may face specific challenges. This study explored young people's experiences of diabetes treatment and care. METHOD: In a population-based study, comprising 175 patients aged 5-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus in two Swedish counties, we found that eight also met criteria for ADHD. Six of these, aged 14...
July 14, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705922/the-cochrane-collaboration-withdraws-a-review-on-methylphenidate-for-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Kim Boesen, Luis Carlos Saiz, Juan Erviti, Ole Jakob Storebø, Christian Gluud, Peter C Gøtzsche, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen
A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis is unusual but can be necessary. We provide a summary of the criticism that led to the withdrawal. We detail the methodological flaws of the withdrawn Cochrane systematic review and general issues of bias and shortcomings of the included ADHD trials: cross-over designs compared with parallel-group designs, exclusion of participants with psychiatric comorbidity, absence of 'functional outcomes' and use of clinical outcomes with limited relevance, short trial duration and small trial populations, broken blinding caused by easily recognisable side effects, combining outcome assessments by trial investigators and participants, outcome reporting bias, poor evaluation of cardiovascular and psychiatric harms and conflicts of interest of trialists and systematic reviewers...
July 13, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705637/-do-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-have-a-diferent-gait-pattern-relationship-between-idiopathic-toe-walking-and-adhd
#15
Víctor Soto Insuga, Beatriz Moreno Vinués, Rebeca Losada Del Pozo, María Rodrigo Moreno, Marta Martínez González, Raquel Cutillas Ruiz, Carmen Mateos Carmen
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic toe-walking (ITW) is described as a gait pattern with no contact between the heels and the ground in children older than 3years. The diagnosis is clinical, making it necessary to rule out other neurological and orthopaedic conditions. A relationship between ITW and vestibular dysfunction and/or proprioceptive sensibility has been proposed. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism, language and cognitive disorders) often have ITW. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of ITW in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD)...
July 10, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700715/the-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analyses-of-randomised-trials
#16
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Amparo Núñez-Beltrán, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Miguel A Catalá, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700036/computerized-cognitive-training-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-add-on-treatment-to-stimulants-feasibility-study-and-protocol-description
#17
Virginia de Oliveira Rosa, Marcelo Schmitz, Carlos Roberto Moreira-Maia, Flavia Wagner, Igor Londero, Caroline de Fraga Bassotto, Guilherme Moritz, Caroline Dos Santos de Souza, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
Background: Cognitive training has received increasing attention as a non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Few studies have assessed cognitive training as add-on treatment to medication in randomized placebo controlled trials. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the feasibility of implementing a computerized cognitive training program for ADHD in our environment, describe its main characteristics and potential efficacy in a small pilot study...
April 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690646/effects-of-lamotrigine-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-pediatric-epilepsy-patients
#18
Seung-A Han, Eu Jeen Yang, Mi-Kyoung Song, Sun Jun Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lamotrigine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Pediatric patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy (n=90 [61 boys and 29 girls]; mean age, 9.1±3.4 years) were enrolled. All patients were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS)-IV before treatment with lamotrigine and after doses had been administered. The mean interval of ADHD testing was approximately 12...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690202/the-impact-of-methylphenidate-and-its-enantiomers-on-dopamine-synthesis-and-metabolism-in-vitro
#19
Jasmin Bartl, Ferruccio Palazzesi, Michele Parrinello, Leif Hommers, Peter Riederer, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant, is an effective first-line treatment for the symptoms associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although most MPH formulations are composed of the racemic 1:1 mixture of the two enantiomers (d- and l-threo), converging lines of evidence indicate that d-threo MPH seems to be superior to the l-isomer. We aimed to investigate whether MPH racemic mixture or pure enantiomers influence the enzyme activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in vitro in homogenates of rat PC12 cells incubated with racemic, d- and l-threo MPH (1nM up to 100μM), or a vehicle for control...
July 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687370/-the-epidemiology-of-pharmacologically-treated-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-the-region-of-murcia-spain-differences-by-gender-age-and-location-of-residence
#20
Diego Pablo Sánchez Martínez, José Jesús Guillén Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent disorder in childhood and adolescence, and is seen as a public health problem. The recommended treatment includes pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the prescribing of the medicines used in ADHD treatment in the Region of Murcia, as well as their socio-demographic variability. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted using the dispensing of medicines for ADHD treatment by means of prescription in the Region of Murcia from 2010 to 2014...
July 4, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
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