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adhd treatment

Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Stéphanie Bioulac, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Jenna Maire, Manuel P Bouvard, Albert A Rizzo, Patricia Sagaspe, Pierre Philip
OBJECTIVE: Virtual environments have been used to assess children with ADHD but have never been tested as therapeutic tools. We tested a new virtual classroom cognitive remediation program to improve symptoms in children with ADHD. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 children with ADHD (7-11 years) were assigned to a virtual cognitive remediation group, a methylphenidate group, or a psychotherapy group. All children were evaluated before and after therapy with an ADHD Rating Scale, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and a virtual classroom task...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lucy Barnard-Brak, Brook Roberts, Evelyn Valenzuela
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological interventions combined with behavioral treatment have been associated with better outcomes for children with ADHD. Yet, as children age into adolescence and gain autonomy, they may choose not to adhere to taking a prescribed medication. The purpose of the current study was to examine school outcomes among adolescents with ADHD who take medication breaks versus resisting medication with respect to grades and school behaviors. METHOD: We statistically controlled for a variety of variables such as the child's age, sex, the presence of side effects, and parent's relationship with child...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum, Pamela High, Nancy J Roizen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how insurance status affects elements of evaluation at developmental behavioral (DB) pediatric sites. OBJECTIVE: To compare DB referrals, evaluation, and treatment for children with Medicaid and private insurance. DESIGN/METHODS: Fifty-six developmental behavioral pediatricians at 12 sites recorded anonymous data on structured forms for ≤15 consecutive referrals. Children with Medicaid (n = 309) and private insurance (n = 393) were compared on sociodemographic factors, referral concerns, evaluation elements, and resulting diagnoses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Tim L Wigal, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Nelson Handal, Sharon B Wigal, Ioulietta Mulligan, Virginia Schmith, Eric Konofal
BACKGROUND: Mazindol is under investigation for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of its alertness-enhancing properties. A novel controlled-release (CR) formulation of mazindol was developed to allow once-daily dosing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mazindol CR in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trial. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Structured Interview (MINI) and with an ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (ADHD-RS-DSM5) score ≥ 28 were randomized to receive placebo or 1-3 mg/day of mazindol for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
James J Li
Atypical reward processing, including abnormal reward responsivity and sensitivity to punishment, has long been implicated in the etiology of ADHD. However, little is known about how these facets of behavior interact with positive (e.g., warmth, praise) and negative (e.g., hostility, harsh discipline) parenting behavior in the early expression of ADHD symptoms in young children. Understanding the interplay between children's reward processing and parenting may be crucial for identifying specific treatment targets in psychosocial interventions for ADHD, especially given that not all children benefit from contingency-based treatments (e...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Nicole Ali, Gabrielle Rigney, Shelly K Weiss, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Machiel Van der Loos, Penny V Corkum
Insomnia, which is related to daytime deficits and is a common problem for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is often successfully treated with behavioral strategies. However, there are barriers to accessing these treatments, and there has been little research examining what these interventions need to be usable and effective. The goal of this study was to gain consensus from experts in the field on the key components of an eHealth, parent-implemented, intervention program aimed at improving sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Megan E Narad, Megan Kennelly, Nanhua Zhang, Shari L Wade, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Jeffery N Epstein, Brad G Kurowski
Importance: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), children often experience impairment when faced with tasks and situations of increasing complexity. Studies have failed to consider the potential for attention problems to develop many years after TBI or factors that may predict the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (SADHD). Understanding these patterns will aid in timely identification of clinically significant problems and appropriate initiation of treatment with the hope of limiting additional functional impairment...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Aleksandra Klobučar, Vera Folnegović-Šmalc, Dubravka Kocijan-Hercigonja, Slavica Sović, Ljiljana Gulić
BACKGROUND: The main goal of this study was to analyse and show clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in 38 participants aged between 10 and 17 with DSM-IV diagnoses of Trichotillomania (TTM) that we were treating at Children's Hospital Zagreb from 2008 to 2017. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data obtained from semi-structured interviews by the criteria of DSM-IV, Youth Self Report (YSR) (Achenbach & Rescorla 2001) and survey that we created...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Giancarlo Giupponi, Gloria Giordano, Ignazio Maniscalco, Denise Erbuto, Isabella Berardelli, Andreas Conca, David Lester, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself during childhood with various combinations of symptoms, including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Research has shown that psychiatric comorbidities play an important role in the development of suicidal behavior and, recently, there has been a growing interest in a possible association between ADHD and suicide during both childhood and adulthood. Furthermore, some authors have shown a relationship between pharmacological treatments and suicide in patients affected by ADHD...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
L Zimmer, P Fourneret
Methylphenidate (MPH) remains the only accessible psychostimulant used in France in the attention and behavior disturbances of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Its prescription has been extended during the past decade to other neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, also associated with a deficit of attentional resources or, more broadly, fragility of executive functions. Despite its efficiency, validated by more than 400 randomized controlled and double-blind studies, and the good tolerance of MPH in these indications, this treatment remains limited in France because of many fears and other prejudices on the part of medical practitioners and/or families...
March 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
J H C de Roo, T M Bosch, A van Rhijn, R Del Canho
BACKGROUND: Medication is not always delivered in a safe dosing format. Up to 33% of medication errors can be attributed to confusing packaging or labelling. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy with ADHD, for which he was being treated with methylphenidate and pipamperone drops, was brought to the A&E department with signs of severe encephalopathy. He had apparently been given pipamperone in streams rather than in drops in the previous months. The pipamperone level in his blood was raised to toxic levels...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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