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adhd diagnosis

Joan Forns, Hein Stigum, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Isabelle Sioen, Eva Sovcikova, Nikola Nowack, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mònica Guxens, Jesús Ibarluzea, Matias Torrent, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Eva Govarts, Tomas Trnovec, Cecile Chevrier, Gunnar Toft, Martine Vrijheid, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Larissa J Maier, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use aiming at increased performance at work or while studying, usually referred to as pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE), has been extensively researched in recent years. While large scale national studies have tried to assess the prevalence of PCE among the general population, cross-cultural comparisons have been hampered by the different definitions and designs included. In addition, the non-medical use of prescription drugs indicated to treat the symptoms of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been the focus of discussion, yet no study has addressed the association between ADHD rates, prescribing behaviour and PCE yet...
June 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Leejin Kim, Sungmin Myoung
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the comorbidity of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for the Korean national health insurance data (NHID) by using association rule mining (ARM). Methods: We used data categorized mental disorder according to the international classification of disease, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnosis system from NHID from 2011 to 2013 in youths aged 18 yr or younger. Overall, 211420 subjects, comorbid cases with ADHD were present in 105784...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Aikatarini Trantou, Hanne K Carlsen, Christina Anderson, Steinn Steingrimsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine sickness absence recommendation (SAR) prevalence for treatment-seeking patients with ADHD depending on comorbidity. METHOD: Population-based patient chart review of ADHD outpatients aged 19 to 29 years. The outcome, SAR, included both available financial benefit forms; activity compensation and sickness benefit. Latent class analyses (LCA) of demography and psychiatric comorbidities were performed both with and without SAR as an outcome variable...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
S LaBianca, A K Pagsberg, K D Jakobsen, A B Demur, M Bartalan, J LaBianca, T Werge
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur and show high genetic correlation. With the introduction of DSM-5, there is a new concept of an ASD and/or ADHD spectrum (ASD/ADHD). This study aimed to identify predictors of severity and need of healthcare within this spectrum. 39 families with multiple individuals affected by ASD/ADHD were recruited from a psychiatric clinic. Diagnoses, functional and demographic characteristics were retrieved from journals while hospital admissions were identified in the Danish health register...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. As shown in the literature, this disorder is frequently associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Patients affected by ADHD show high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking. These characteristics can significantly increase the risk of alcohol abuse, which is itself a clinical condition associated with high levels of impulsivity. Clinical studies suggest that atomoxetine is effective and safe in patients affected by both ADHD and alcohol dependence; however, information focused specifically on impulsivity is very limited...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
M Rufo-Campos, M Rufo-Munoz
This study reports on the latest advances in childhood headaches that have been made in the last few years, with special emphasis on the important new modifications that have been produced with respect to the previous ones, published in the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. These include headaches that have undergone important qualifications, the appearance of new entities and a section which reports the existence of new headaches, but which have still not been considered as new entities...
June 5, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Maurizio Bonati, Massimo Cartabia, Michele Zanetti, Laura Reale, Anna Didoni, Maria Antonella Costantino
A number of worldwide studies have demonstrated that children born later in the school year are more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than their same school-year peers. There is, however, variation in findings between countries. We aimed to confirm whether relative age is associated with ADHD diagnosis, with or without comorbidities, and to investigate whether relative age is associated with ADHD type and severity, and if this age relationship is in common with other neurodevelopmental disorder. We used the Lombardy Region's ADHD registry...
June 6, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
P K Douglas, Boris Gutman, Ariana Anderson, C Larios, Katherine E Lawrence, Katherine Narr, Biswa Sengupta, Gerald Cooray, David B Douglas, Paul M Thompson, James J McGough, Susan Y Bookheimer
Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children. Diagnosis is currently based on behavioral criteria, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is increasingly used in ADHD research. To date however, MRI studies have provided mixed results in ADHD patients, particularly with respect to the laterality of findings. Methods: We studied 849 children and adolescents (ages 6-21 y.o.) diagnosed with ADHD ( n  = 341) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls with structural brain MRI...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nirit Soffer-Dudek
OBJECTIVE: Dissociative absorption is a tendency to become absorbed in imagination or in an external stimulus (movie, book) to the point of obliviousness to one's surroundings and reduced self-awareness. It has been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. However, because absorption is a trait of reduced attentional control, a possible confound may be attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms, which have been reported to be comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
June 5, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Heather M Joseph, Traci M Kennedy, Elizabeth M Gnagy, Susan B Perlman, William E Pelham, Brooke S G Molina
Despite high heritability, no research has followed children with ADHD to parenthood to study their offspring and parenting behaviors. Given greater prevalence of ADHD in males and lack of research involving fathers, this study evaluated offspring of fathers with and without ADHD histories for ADHD and disruptive behavior and compared fathers' parenting behaviors. Male fathers (N = 29) from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) participated with their preschool-aged offspring. Fathers completed self-reported measures, and father-child dyads completed an interaction task...
June 5, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ilan S Ben-Ami, Ran Ankory, Assaf Kadar, Dani Rotman, Nimrod Snir, Haggai Schermann
BACKGROUND: Previous research has detected an increased risk of stress fractures among subjects who reported previous use of methylphenidate. Conversely, stimulant medication use has been associated with traumatic fracture risk reduction, possibly because of the improved control of the underlying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of previous methylphenidate use on the incidence of traumatic and stress fractures among combat soldiers with previously treated and untreated ADHD...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
A B Bowling, H W Tiemeier, V W V Jaddoe, E D Barker, P W Jansen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk of overweight/obesity among children and adults. Studies have also implicated obesity as a risk factor for ADHD. However, no studies have evaluated bidirectional, longitudinal associations between childhood fat mass and ADHD symptom severity. OBJECTIVES: We investigate bidirectional associations between ADHD symptoms and measures of body composition between ages 1.5 and 9. We further examine effects of specific eating patterns linked to ADHD on associations between symptom severity and body composition...
June 4, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Hatice Gunes, Canan Tanidir, Hilal Adaletli, Ali Guven Kilicoglu, Caner Mutlu, Mustafa Kayhan Bahali, Melike Topal, Nurullah Bolat, Ozden Sukran Uneri
Objectives The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in a clinical sample of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to detect the moderating effects of co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) on the association between ADHD and IA. Methods The study group comprised 119 adolescent subjects who were consecutively referred to our outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of ADHD. The Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) was completed by parents, and subjects were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Soumya Jhanda, Savita Malhotra, Sandeep Grover
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of comorbid attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) on Bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Patients aged 13-40 years with diagnosis of BD with ADHD (N = 30) were compared to those with BD without ADHD (N = 69) for clinical course, functional outcome and quality of life. RESULTS: Those with BD + ADHD had significantly lower age of onset of BD (p < 0.001), a significantly higher number of total lifetime episodes (p = 0...
May 19, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Nathan J Blum, Justine Shults, Elizabeth Harstad, Susan Wiley, Marilyn Augustyn, Jareen K Meinzen-Derr, Mark L Wolraich, William J Barbaresi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of stimulants and alpha-2 agonists (A2As) for the treatment of preschool-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 2 Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network sites. METHODS: Demographic information, diagnoses, and medications prescribed by developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs) were extracted from the electronic health record for all outpatient visits from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Yasodha Maheshi Rohanachandra, Shamini Prathapan, Swarna Wijetunge
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional and conduct disorders, neurocognitive deficits, ADHD, substance abuse, and personality disorder in the offspring. We aimed to describe the proportion of psychological problems among children of mothers with depression in Sri Lanka and to describe the associated sociodemographic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 100 children and adolescents between 4 and 16 years, whose mothers have a diagnosis of depression and are currently in remission...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Shoou-Lian Hwang-Gu, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Yu-Chi Chen, Yu-Han Tseng, Wen-Yau Hsu, Miao-Chun Chou, Wen-Jun Chou, Yu-Yu Wu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Increased intrasubject variability in reaction times (RT-ISV) is frequently found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dimensional attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact RT-ISV in individuals with ASD remains elusive. We assessed 97 high-functioning youths with co-occurring ASD and ADHD (ASD+ADHD), 124 high-functioning youths with ASD only, 98 youths with ADHD only, and 249 typically developing youths, 8-18 years of age, using the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Víctor B Arias, Igor Esnaola, Jairo Rodríguez-Medina
Background: For the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) proposes that adherence to six symptoms in either group (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) will lead to the diagnosis of one of three presentations of the disorder. Underlying this diagnostic algorithm is the assumption that the 18 symptoms have equal relevance for the diagnosis of ADHD, all are equally severe, and all have the same power to detect the presence of the disorder in all its degrees of severity, without considering the possibility of using marker symptoms...
2018: PeerJ
Ana Pérez-Vigil, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Gustaf Brander, Kayoko Isomura, Andreas Jangmo, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Eva Hesselmark, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, David Mataix-Cols
Importance: The influence of Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders on academic performance has not been objectively quantified. Objective: To investigate the association of Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders with objectively measured educational outcomes, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured factors shared between siblings and taking common psychiatric comorbidities into account. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based birth cohort consisting of all individuals born in Sweden from 1976 to 1998 was followed up until December 2013...
May 29, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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