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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822049/potential-for-diagnosis-versus-therapy-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-new-epigenetic-biomarker-interacting-with-both-genotype-and-auto-immunity
#1
Walter Adriani, Emilia Romano, Mariangela Pucci, Esterina Pascale, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Paolo Curatolo, Oleg Granstrem, Mauro Maccarrone, Giovanni Laviola, Claudio D'Addario
In view of the need for easily accessible biomarkers, we evaluated in ADHD children the epigenetic status of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) in the SLC6A3 gene, coding for human dopamine transporter (DAT). We analysed buccal swabs and sera from 30 children who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, assigned to treatment according to severity. Methylation levels at six-selected CpG sites (among which, a CGGCGGCGG and a CGCG motif), alone or in combination with serum titers in auto-antibodies against dopamine transporter (DAT aAbs), were analysed for correlation with CGAS scores (by clinicians) and Conners' scales (by parents), collected at recruitment and after 6 weeks...
August 18, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818147/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-fatal-accidents-in-aviation-medicine
#2
Tanja Laukkala, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Antti Sajantila, Pooshan Navathe, Markku Sainio, Alpo Vuorio
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interfere with functioning and/or development. ADHD occurs in about 2.5% of adults. ADHD can be an excluding medical condition among pilots due to the risk of attentional degradation and therefore impact on flight safety. Diagnosis of ADHD is complex, which complicates aeromedical assessment. This study highlights fatal accident cases among pilots with ADHD and discusses protocols to detect its presence to help to assess its importance to flight safety...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814878/heavy-drinking-in-university-students-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-contributions-of-drinking-motives-and-protective-behavioral-strategies
#3
Andrea L Howard, Tyler R Pritchard
This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31) compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146). Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#5
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805445/prevalence-and-predictors-of-learning-and-psychological-diagnoses-following-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#6
Tricia S Williams, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Nomazulu Dlamini, Gabrielle deVeber, Robyn Westmacott
This study examined the prevalence of learning and psychological diagnoses and associated neurological and personal-environmental risk factors following perinatal and childhood arterial ischemic stroke. In our sample of 126 children and youth, 52.4% received a diagnosis following their assessment. Specifically, 32% had a single diagnosis and 21% had two or more diagnoses. Learning disability, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability were the most prevalent diagnoses. Associated risk factors varied by diagnosis with lower intellectual functioning being the common risk factor across categories...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801917/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-interaction-between-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-history-of-adhd-determines-prevalence
#7
Andrew S Rowland, Betty J Skipper, David L Rabiner, Fares Qeadan, Richard A Campbell, A Jack Naftel, David M Umbach
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. METHODS: We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#8
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791693/atypical-antipsychotics-for-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-youths
#9
REVIEW
Jik H Loy, Sally N Merry, Sarah E Hetrick, Karolina Stasiak
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths...
August 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791517/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-interrai-child-and-youth-mental-health-disruptive-aggression-behaviour-scale-dabs-and-hyperactive-distraction-scale-hds
#10
Chloe Lau, Shannon L Stewart, Donald H Saklofske, Paul F Tremblay, John Hirdes
The present study aims to validate the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (interRAI ChYMH), Disruptive/Aggression Behaviour Scale (DABS) and Hyperactive/Distraction Scale (HDS). Data were collected from children/youth aged 4-18 (N = 3464) across 39 mental health agencies in Ontario, Canada. Unrestricted factor analysis using polychoric correlation matrices and Samejima's graded item response theory (IRT) parameterizations were conducted for both measures. Scores on the HDS and DABS were also compared amongst children/youth diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) respectively using DSM-IV criteria...
August 8, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789776/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-their-treatment-with-psychotropic-medications-in-a-nationally-representative-outpatient-sample-1994-2009
#11
Kelly Kamimura-Nishimura, Tanya Froehlich, Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Ryan Adams, Bridget Fredstrom, Patty Manning
PURPOSE: No prior studies have assessed change in health care provider-coded rates of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses over time, and few have investigated sociodemographic factors associated with having an ASD diagnosis, having behavioral conditions comorbid with ASD, or using psychotropic medications for this group. METHODS: We used data from the 1994-2009 National (Hospital) Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for children aged 2-18 years (n = 158,488)...
July 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782290/risk-of-subsequent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-children-and-adolescents-with-amalgam-restorations-a-nationwide-longitudinal-study
#12
Po-Yen Lin, Jui Wang, Yu-Chih Chiang, Chen-Yin Lai, Hong-Ji Chang, Lin-Yang Chi
OBJECTIVES: Dental amalgam has been used as a common restorative material since the 1800s, but concerns have been raised regarding its purported neuropsychological effects due to the neurotoxicity of mercury. In this study, a nationwide population-based database was employed to investigate the association of dental amalgam restoration with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: After matching, 88 068 young people with at least one tooth restoration during 2002-2010 and no ADHD history before 2001 were selected and then collected the further information until the end of 2011...
August 7, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774669/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-children-with-macrocephaly-a-prevalence-study-and-pten-gene-analysis
#13
Hirofumi Kurata, Kentaro Shirai, Yoshiaki Saito, Tetsuya Okazaki, Koyo Ohno, Masayoshi Oguri, Kaori Adachi, Eiji Nanba, Yoshihiro Maegaki
PURPOSE: To clarify the relationship between macrocephaly and neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as identify the prevalence of PTEN mutations in autism spectrum disorders with macrocephaly in Japan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Diagnostic and other medical information of children with macrocephaly younger than 4years (n=93) were collected for analysis. PTEN gene mutation analysis was conducted in another set of 16 macrocephalic individuals aged 3-22years. RESULTS: Sixteen macrocephalic children were associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (n=6), autistic traits (n=5), intellectual disability (n=5), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=1), developmental coordination disorders (n=1), and language disorder (n=1)...
July 31, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770037/adhd-related-symptoms-and-attention-profiles-in-the-unaffected-siblings-of-probands-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-focus-on-the-subtypes-of-autism-and-asperger-s-disorder
#14
Yi-Ling Chien, Miao-Chun Chou, Yen-Nan Chiu, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Yu Wu, Wen-Che Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: The presence of attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms and impaired attention performance are commonly noted in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about attention performance in their unaffected siblings. This study aimed to investigate the ADHD-related traits and attention performance in unaffected siblings of probands with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS), as well as the clinical correlates of ADHD-related traits. METHODS: We assessed the intention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional symptoms, and attention profiles of 199 probands with a diagnosis of ASD (122 autism, 77 AS), their unaffected siblings, and 196 typically developing controls (TD) by their parents' reports on the ADHD-related symptoms and the Connors' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT), respectively...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768287/the-association-of-poor-academic-performance-with-tic-disorders-a-longitudinal-mainstream-school-based-population-study
#15
Esther Cubo, Cristina Gonzalez, Vanesa Ausin, Vanesa Delgado, Sara Saez, Sara Calvo, Xose Garcia Soto, José Cordero, Katie Kompoliti, Elan D Louis, Raquel de la Fuente Anuncibay
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the academic performance of students with tic disorders (TD). Our aim was to investigate the association of TD and poor academic performance over time. METHODS: Longitudinal, observational study of mainstream schoolchildren comparing grade retention (GR) and learning disorders (LD) in students with vs. without TD between 2010 and 2014. Students with vs. without TD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, or with vs. without GR and LD were compared in terms of comorbidities, school, and environmental characteristics...
July 29, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762862/a-clinician-s-guide-to-adhd-treatment-options
#16
Gregory W Mattingly, Joshua Wilson, Anthony L Rostain
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition of children and adolescents that often persists into adulthood. Primary care physicians are commonly the first to diagnosis ADHD and initiate a treatment plan with the patient. Guidelines recommend psychostimulant treatment as a first-line therapy in the management plan because it has a substantial impact on alleviating the core symptoms of ADHD. The recent development of a variety of methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations provides many options to meet individual patient lifestyle needs...
August 1, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754226/febrile-seizures-and-epilepsy-association-with-autism-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-the-child-and-adolescent-twin-study-in-sweden
#17
Christopher Gillberg, Sebastian Lundström, Elisabeth Fernell, Gill Nilsson, Brian Neville
BACKGROUND: There is a recently well-documented association between childhood epilepsy and earlysymptomaticsyndromeselicitingneurodevelopmentalclinicalexaminations (ESSENCE) including autism spectrum disorder, but the relationship between febrile seizures and ESSENCE is less clear. METHODS: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing population-based study targeting twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Parents of 27,092 twins were interviewed using a validated DSM-IV-based interview for ESSENCE, in connection with the twins' ninth or twelfth birthday...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753498/the-impact-of-epilepsy-on-academic-achievement-in-children-with-normal-intelligence-and-without-major-comorbidities-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
S W Wo, L C Ong, W Y Low, P S M Lai
PURPOSE: To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. METHODS: A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English...
July 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751869/alterations-of-growth-factors-in-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Alma Y Galvez-Contreras, Tania Campos-Ordonez, Rocio E Gonzalez-Castaneda, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Growth factors (GFs) are cytokines that regulate the neural development. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in the expression level of GFs during embryogenesis are linked to the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this concise review, we summarize the current evidence that supports the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophins 3 and 4, and epidermal growth factor in the pathogenesis of ADHD and ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749829/the-presence-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-may-be-associated-with-interpersonal-sensitivity-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#20
Ahmet Koyuncu, Fahri Çelebi, Erhan Ertekin, Çağdaş Ö Memiş, Raşit Tükel
The goal of this study was to evaluate a possible association between childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and interpersonal sensitivity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The study involved 125 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of SAD. To evaluate childhood ADHD, the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and clinical rating scales were completed...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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