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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#1
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326279/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
Takeshi Kitai, W H Wilson Tang
Accumulating evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the gut microbiota and host diseases. In addition to alterations in the gut microbial composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent technological developments of molecular and biochemical analyses enable us to detect and characterize the gut microbiota via assessment and classification of its genomes and corresponding metabolites. These advances have provided emerging data supporting the role of gut microbiota in various physiological activities including host metabolism, neurological development, energy homeostasis, and immune regulation...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290360/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-harmful-protective-or-diagnostic-marker-in-lifestyle-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230708/changes-in-gut-microbiota-linked-to-a-reduction-in-systolic-blood-pressure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-fed-an-extra-virgin-olive-oil-enriched-diet
#4
Marina Hidalgo, Isabel Prieto, Hikmate Abriouel, Ana Belén Villarejo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez, Antonio Cobo, Nabil Benomar, Antonio Gálvez, Magdalena Martínez-Cañamero
Fat type in diet is responsible for specific changes in gut microbiota (GM). Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been shown to be beneficial for blood pressure and to produce effects on GM. To analyze the cause-effect relationship between intestinal microbial changes and blood pressure, we studied the effect of EVOO on fecal microbiota and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR were fed either an enriched EVOO diet or a standard diet for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the microbial profiles in the feces were studied in both groups by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...
December 11, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155324/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-irbesartan-reduces-stress-induced-intestinal-inflammation-via-at1a-signaling-and-ace2-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#5
Maimaiti Yisireyili, Yasuhiro Uchida, Koji Yamamoto, Takayuki Nakayama, Xian Wu Cheng, Tadashi Matsushita, Shigeo Nakamura, Toyoaki Murohara, Kyosuke Takeshita
Stress is associated with pathophysiology of both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II)/Ang II type I receptor axis (AT1). Inhibition of the classical RAS pathway is also involved in upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which activates the Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway to counteract inflammatory signaling and acts as a partner of the amino acid transporter, B0AT-1, to absorb tryptophan for regulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#6
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118721/gut-brain-axis-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#7
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Jasenka Zubcevic
Hypertension (HTN) is an escalating health issue worldwide. It is estimated that 1.56 billion people will suffer from high blood pressure (BP) by 2025. Recent studies reported an association between gut dysbiosis and HTN, thus proposing interesting avenues for novel treatments of this condition. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the immune system (IS) play a recognized role in the onset and progression of HTN, while reciprocal communication between gut microbiota and the brain can regulate BP by modulating the interplay between the IS and SNS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113028/restoration-of-a-healthy-intestinal-microbiota-normalizes-portal-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
Teresa García-Lezana, Imma Raurell, Miren Bravo, Manuel Torres-Arauz, María Teresa Salcedo, Alba Santiago, Andreu Schoenenberger, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Joan Genescà, María Martell, Salvador Augustin
Portal hypertension (PH) drives most of the clinical complications in chronic liver diseases. However, its progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its association with the intestinal microbiota (IM) has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to investigate the role of IM in the mechanisms leading to PH in early NASH. The experimental design was divided in two stages: Stage 1: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with high-fat diet and high-glucose/fructose syrup (HFGFD) or control diet/water (CD)...
November 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102544/gut-microbiota-and-hypertension-from-pathogenesis-to-new-therapeutic-strategies
#9
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Hypertension (HTN) has become a global public health concern and a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and kidney diseases. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. Accumulating evidence has illustrated the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with hypertension. Certain gut microbial strains may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of hypertension. Oral probiotics can therefore represent a therapeutic approach for hypertension treatment...
November 1, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090088/gut-microbiota-as-a-potential-target-of-metabolic-syndrome-the-role-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#10
REVIEW
Mingqian He, Bingyin Shi
Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises central obesity, increased plasma glucose levels, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and its incidence is increasing due to changes in lifestyle and dietary structure in recent years. MS has been proven to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review recent studies concerning the role of the gut microbiota in MS modulation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064399/pharmabiotics-as-an-emerging-medication-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-related-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Thi Thanh Binh Nguyen, Yan Yan Jin, Hea-Jong Chung, Seong-Tschool Hong
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with central obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. In recent decades, because of the remarkable increase in both prevalence and severity, MetS and its related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity, hypertension and diabetes have become the main global burden and challenge in strategic management involving prevention and treatment. However, currently, the preventions and treatments based on pharmaceutical interventions do not provide a solution for MetS and its related diseases...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044635/development-and-application-of-a-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-a-novel-gut-bacteriophage-crassphage
#12
Yuying Liang, Xin Jin, Yuan Huang, Shuiping Chen
BACKGROUND: crAssphage is a novel and by far the most abundant bacteriophage in human gut. This bacteriophage might modulate gut microbiota balance so as to be involved in some diseases like obesity, diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension, and cancer. Therefore, a rapid and reliable detection and quantification method for crAssphage is essential for studying its molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in human diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primers-probes set for the quantitative real-time PCR assay was designed based on the DNA polymerase gene (ORF00018) of crAssphage...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023288/gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
Shadi Ahmadmehrabi, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, an interest in intestinal microbiota-host interactions has increased due to many findings about the impact of gut bacteria on human health and disease. Dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut microbiota, has been associated with much pathology, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This article will review normal functions of the gut microbiome, its link to CVD, and potential therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently discovered contribution of gut microbiota-derived molecules in the development of heart disease and its risk factors has significantly increased attention towards the connection between our gut and heart...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988228/the-relationship-between-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-among-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#14
Oana Belei, Laura Olariu, Andreea Dobrescu, Tamara Marcovici, Otilia Marginean
BACKGROUND: The increasing rate of obesity and overweight among children has highlighted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common cause of chronic pediatric liver diseases. There are many publications supporting the idea that gut microbiota is altered in NAFLD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD among overweight and obese children with and without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to a control group and to assess if intestinal dysbiosis represents a risk factor for NAFLD...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969447/beneficial-effects-of-a-probiotic-blend-on-gastrointestinal-side-effects-induced-by-leflunomide-and-amlodipine-in-a-rat-model
#15
S-C Song, Y-M An, J-H Shin, M-J Chung, J-G Seo, E Kim
Patients with metabolic disorders frequently suffer from side effects induced by long-term oral medications. The present study using a rat model system indicated that leflunomide (LF) and amlodipine (AMD), the active ingredients contained in the medications for rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, respectively, appeared to induce various bowel problems including constipation and inflammation. In the small and large intestine, LF increased the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 compared to the null control and AMD increased the expression of both TNF-α and IL-1β, although its effect on IL-6 was only increased in the large intestine...
October 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933045/a-prospective-single-arm-trial-of-modified-long-biliopancreatic-and-short-alimentary-limbs-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-mild-obesity
#16
Abdon José Murad, Ricardo Vitor Cohen, Eudes Paiva de Godoy, Christian Lamar Scheibe, Giuliano Peixoto Campelo, Almino Cardoso Ramos, Roclides Castro de Lima, Luís Eduardo Veras Pinto, Daniel Coelho, Hamilton Belo França Costa, Ígor Marreiros Pereira Pinto, Tiago Pereira, Francisco Raúl Santos Teófilo, José Aparecido Valadão
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) patients with body mass index (BMI) below 35 kg/m(2) carry lower remission rates than severely obese T2D individuals submitted to "standard limb lengths" Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Mild-obese patients appear to have more severe forms of T2D, where the mechanisms of glycemic control after a standard-RYGB may be insufficient. The elongation of the biliopancreatic limb may lead to greater stimulation of the distal intestine, alterations in bile acids and intestinal microbiota, among other mechanisms, leading to better metabolic outcomes...
September 20, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884091/alterations-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-hypertension
#17
Qiulong Yan, Yifang Gu, Xiangchun Li, Wei Yang, Liqiu Jia, Changming Chen, Xiuyan Han, Yukun Huang, Lizhe Zhao, Peng Li, Zhiwei Fang, Junpeng Zhou, Xiuru Guan, Yanchun Ding, Shaopeng Wang, Muhammad Khan, Yi Xin, Shenghui Li, Yufang Ma
Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s) have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857085/enteric-dysbiosis-linked-gut-barrier-disruption-triggers-early-renal-injury-induced-by-chronic-high-salt-feeding-in-mice
#19
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Jieyan Wang, Wenli Tang, Junqi Lu, Shan Wu, Zhi Xiong, Guizhi Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Tian Lan, Hongwei Zhou, Jing Nie, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the 'gut-kidney axis'. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis...
August 25, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836619/beyond-gut-feelings-how-the-gut-microbiota-regulates-blood-pressure
#20
REVIEW
Francine Z Marques, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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