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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921044/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cause-or-effect-of-metabolic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease throughout the world. Pathophysiological insights into this disease have recently illustrated that various factors such as insulin resistance, innate immunity, metabolic inflammation, and the microbiota are of relevance. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share many pathophysiological aspects, and inflammatory processes in the adipose tissue, gut, and liver have evolved to be of exceptional importance. Most of NAFLD patients are obese and encounter a high risk of developing MS and T2D...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920621/toxins-toxicity-and-endotoxemia-a-historical-and-clinical-perspective-for-chiropractors
#2
REVIEW
David R Seaman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to review the notion of toxicity in the context of chiropractic practice. DISCUSSION: The belief that body toxicity is the cause of disease has been promoted for thousands of years. Prior to the emergence of the chiropractic profession, the medical profession embraced the notion that the body becomes "toxic," requiring detoxification interventions or surgery. The legacy of body toxicity within the chiropractic approach to patient care began with Daniel David Palmer...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917879/colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-in-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs-effects-of-food-composition-at-different-times-of-pregnancy
#3
Xiang-Feng Kong, Yu-Jiao Ji, Hua-Wei Li, Qian Zhu, F Blachier, Mei-Mei Geng, Wen Chen, Yu-Long Yin
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#4
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#5
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891639/consensus-report-faecal-microbiota-transfer-clinical-applications-and-procedures
#6
REVIEW
J König, A Siebenhaar, C Högenauer, P Arkkila, M Nieuwdorp, T Norén, C Y Ponsioen, U Rosien, N G Rossen, R Satokari, A Stallmach, W de Vos, J Keller, R J Brummer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication. AIM: To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#7
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
November 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888332/interaction-of-gut-microbiota-with-bile-acid-metabolism-and-its-influence-on-disease-states
#8
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexa R Weingarden, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
Primary bile acids serve important roles in cholesterol metabolism, lipid digestion, host-microbe interactions, and regulatory pathways in the human host. While most bile acids are reabsorbed and recycled via enterohepatic cycling, ∼5% serve as substrates for bacterial biotransformation in the colon. Enzymes involved in various transformations have been characterized from cultured gut bacteria and reveal taxa-specific distribution. More recently, bioinformatic approaches have revealed greater diversity in isoforms of these enzymes, and the microbial species in which they are found...
November 25, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879962/intestinal-hormones-gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#9
Nikolaos Koukias, Elena Buzzetti, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and has a complex pathophysiology with multiple pathways of development and progression implicated. Intestinal hormones regulate multiple biological functions and may play a role in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by affecting food intake, body weight and insulin resistance. Bacterial products can affect the secretion of these hormones and thus have an effect on metabolism. Gut microbiota are normally involved in the intestinal energy harvest and their role has been increasingly been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and NAFLD...
November 23, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858930/environmental-spread-of-microbes-impacts-the-development-of-metabolic-phenotypes-in-mice-transplanted-with-microbial-communities-from-humans
#10
Li Zhang, Martin Iain Bahl, Henrik Munch Roager, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Lars I Hellgren, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Oluf Pedersen, Jens-Christian Holm, Torben Hansen, Tine Rask Licht
Microbiota transplantation to germ-free animals is a powerful method to study involvement of gut microbes in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome. Owing to large interpersonal variability in gut microbiota, studies with broad coverage of donors are needed to elucidate the establishment of human-derived microbiotas in mice, factors affecting this process and resulting impact on metabolic health. We thus transplanted faecal microbiotas from humans (16 obese and 16 controls) separately into 64 germ-free Swiss Webster mice caged in pairs within four isolators, with two isolators assigned to each phenotype, thereby allowing us to explore the extent of microbial spread between cages in a well-controlled environment...
November 18, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824645/a-single-species-of-clostridium-subcluster-xiva-decreased-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#11
Kozue Takeshita, Shinta Mizuno, Yohei Mikami, Tomohisa Sujino, Keiichiro Saigusa, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Makoto Naganuma, Tadashi Sato, Toshihiko Takada, Hirokazu Tsuji, Akira Kushiro, Koji Nomoto, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of the intestinal microbiota is associated with gastrointestinal disease and autoimmune disease and metabolic syndrome. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota has recently progressed, and the association with inflammatory bowel disease has been reported at the species level. Such findings suggest that the recovery of homeostasis in the intestinal microbiota could cure inflammatory bowel disease. We aimed to search new probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel disease through translational research by analysis of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients' intestinal microbiota and clarify the effects of them on inflammation...
November 7, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821485/dietary-emulsifier-induced-low-grade-inflammation-promotes-colon-carcinogenesis
#12
Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of CRC. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods which alter the composition of gut microbiota...
November 7, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#13
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812581/a-comparative-study-of-the-antidiabetic-effects-exerted-by-live-and-dead-multi-strain-probiotics-in-the-type-2-diabetes-model-of-mice
#14
Xiangfei Li, Qi Xu, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. In this study, the anti-diabetic effects of live and dead multi-strain probiotics were explored and compared in a high-fat and streptozotocin-induced model of type 2 diabetes in mice. Either live or dead probiotics were daily administered orally to the mice over 10 weeks. Both live and dead multi-strain probiotics reduced HbA1C and leptin levels, improved glucose tolerance, and protected against the impairment of the pancreas, while the live probiotic showed a greater ability to reduce fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels...
November 4, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793218/circadian-rhythm-and-the-gut-microbiome
#15
R M Voigt, C B Forsyth, S J Green, P A Engen, A Keshavarzian
Circadian rhythms are 24-h patterns regulating behavior, organs, and cells in living organisms. These rhythms align biological functions with regular and predictable environmental patterns to optimize function and health. Disruption of these rhythms can be detrimental resulting in metabolic syndrome, cancer, or cardiovascular disease, just to name a few. It is now becoming clear that the intestinal microbiome is also regulated by circadian rhythms via intrinsic circadian clocks as well as via the host organism...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777570/interactions-between-obesity-status-and-dietary-intake-of-monounsaturated-and-polyunsaturated-oils-on-human-gut-microbiome-profiles-in-the-canola-oil-multicenter-intervention-trial-comit
#16
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775551/antibiotic-effects-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolism-are-host-dependent
#17
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754288/br-07-3-the-effect-of-host-genetics-on-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndromes
#18
GwangPyo Ko
Recently, there were dramatically increased interests on human microbiome research worldwide. Human microbiome has been considered as the second genome in addition to our own genome and played very crucial roles in maintaining human health. Human microbiota typically reside on the surface of epithelial cells and play various biological roles ranging from metabolism, immune development, mental health, and to organ development. Since 2008, we have determined the diversity of Korean microbiome and determined the genes and pathways of gut microbiome using Korean Twin Cohort...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753990/ed-05-2-interaction-of-gut-dysbiosis-and-innate-immune-dysfunction-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729172/intestinal-microbiota-in-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-preliminary-results-from-a-pilot-study
#20
Stefania Boccia, Ida Torre, Lidia Santarpia, Carmela Iervolino, Concetta Del Piano, Anna Puggina, Roberta Pastorino, Miroslav Dragic, Rosarita Amore, Tonia Borriello, Raffaele Palladino, Francesca Pennino, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal bacterial flora plays a central role in human intestinal health and disease. Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), a clinical condition deriving from extensive bowel resections, influence intestinal microbiota (IM) composition in order to reach a new metabolic balance. Little is known about IM in adult patients after wide intestinal resections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal samples from 12 SBS patients and 16 controls were analyzed in their microbial profile by using both culture-dependent method and quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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