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microbiota metabolism syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407784/relationships-between-gut-microbiota-plasma-metabolites-and-metabolic-syndrome-traits-in-the-metsim-cohort
#3
Elin Org, Yuna Blum, Silva Kasela, Margarete Mehrabian, Johanna Kuusisto, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Zeneng Wang, Mika Ala-Korpela, Stanley L Hazen, Markku Laakso, Aldons J Lusis
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community that directly influences host phenotypes. In this study, we profile gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 531 well-phenotyped Finnish men from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. RESULTS: We investigate gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have an impact on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identify novel associations between gut microbiota and fasting serum levels of a number of metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, lipids, and glucose...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389566/microbial-metabolites-in-health-and-disease-navigating-the-unknown-in-search-of-function
#5
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa A Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. These include inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic (i.e. obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes), and neurological diseases. The advanced understanding of host-microbe interactions has largely been due to new technologies such as 16S rRNA sequencing to identify previously unknown microbial communities and more importantly their functional characteristics through metagenomic sequencing, and other multi-omic technologies such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386305/a-fermented-whole-grain-prevents-lipopolysaccharides-induced-dysfunction-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#6
Laura Giusti, Morena Gabriele, Giuseppe Penno, Monia Garofolo, Vincenzo Longo, Stefano Del Prato, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Pucci
Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377725/gut-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-contributes-to-cardiac-dysfunction-in-western-diet-induced-obese-mice
#7
Kui Chen, Xiaoqian Zheng, Mingchen Feng, Dongliang Li, Hongqi Zhang
Excessive consumption of diets high in sugars and saturated fat, frequently known as western diet (WD), may lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence shows that WD-induced obesity impairs cardiac function, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that elevated circulating TMAO levels contribute to cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376573/the-gut-microbiome
#8
Mayenaaz Sidhu, David van der Poorten
BACKGROUND: More than a trillion, mostly good, microbes live within our gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for vital metabolic, immune and nutritional functions. Dysbiosis, meaning a maladaptive imbalance of the microbiome, is associated with many common diseases and is a target for therapy. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the gut microbiome in health and disease, highlighting conditions such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with which dysbiosis is associated...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373658/nod2-and-nod2-regulated-microbiota-protect-balb-c-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#9
Ivan Rodriguez-Nunez, Tiffany Caluag, Kori Kirby, Charles N Rudick, Roman Dziarski, Dipika Gupta
Genetics plays a central role in susceptibility to obesity and metabolic diseases. BALB/c mice are known to be resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, however the genetic cause remains unknown. We report that deletion of the innate immunity antibacterial gene Nod2 abolishes this resistance, as Nod2 (-/-) BALB/c mice developed HFD-dependent obesity and hallmark features of metabolic syndrome. Nod2 (-/-) HFD mice developed hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, increased adiposity, and steatosis, with large lipid droplets in their hepatocytes...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362090/effects-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharides-from-chickpeas-on-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#10
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Minhao Xie, Qingxia Yuan, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
The gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host energy homeostasis, which may regulate metabolic disorders. Functional oligosaccharide may positively regulate the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, effects of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) from chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis were investigated. After 6 weeks of intervention, HFD led to significant increases in levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice compared to normal-chow-fed mice...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356129/the-effects-of-probiotic-and-synbiotic-supplementation-on-metabolic-syndrome-indices-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Nazila Kassaian, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Awat Feizi, Parvaneh Jafari, Masoud Amini
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity has been rising dramatically; however, their pathogenesis is particularly intriguing. Recently, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new candidate that may be linked to metabolic diseases. We hypothesize that selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic or synbiotic supplementation may improve metabolic dysfunction and prevent diabetes in prediabetics. In this study, a synthesis and study of synbiotics will be carried out for the first time in Iran...
March 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352942/long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-the-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#12
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akihide Tanimoto, Tadashi Kaname, Toshihiro Matsuzaki, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Taro Uchida, Junko Nakasone, Chisayo Kozuka, Masayoshi Ishida, Haruaki Kubota, Yuji Taira, Yuichi Totsuka, Shin-Ichiro Kina, Hajime Sunakawa, Junichi Omura, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Shiro Maeda, Yusuke Ohya, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
March 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347564/the-gut-microbiota-metabolism-of-pomegranate-or-walnut-ellagitannins-yields-two-urolithin-metabotypes-that-correlate-with-cardiometabolic-risk-biomarkers-comparison-between-normoweight-overweight-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
María V Selma, Antonio González-Sarrías, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Cesarettin Alasalvar, Asım Örem, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan C Espín
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Urolithins are microbial metabolites produced after consumption of ellagitannin-containing foods such as pomegranates and walnuts. Parallel to isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes, ellagitannin-metabolizing phenotypes (urolithin metabotypes A, B and 0; UM-A, UM-B and UM-0, respectively) can vary among individuals depending on their body mass index (BMI), but correlations between urolithin metabotypes (UMs) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors are unexplored. We investigated the association between UMs and CMR factors in individuals with different BMI and health status...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335507/hydroxytyrosol-in-the-prevention-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-related-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Julien Peyrol, Catherine Riva, Marie Josèphe Amiot
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation)...
March 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325746/dietary-emulsifiers-directly-alter-human-microbiota-composition-and-gene-expression-ex-vivo-potentiating-intestinal-inflammation
#15
Benoit Chassaing, Tom Van de Wiele, Jana De Bodt, Massimo Marzorati, Andrew T Gewirtz
OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including IBD and metabolic syndrome. Administration of substances that alter microbiota composition, including the synthetic dietary emulsifiers polysorbate 80 (P80) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), can promote such inflammatory disorders. However, that inflammation itself impacts microbiota composition has obfuscated defining the extent to which these compounds or other substances act directly upon the microbiota versus acting on host parameters that promote inflammation, which subsequently reshapes the microbiota...
March 21, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320888/mutual-reinforcement-of-pathophysiological-host-microbe-interactions-in-intestinal-stasis-models
#16
Ketrija Touw, Daina L Ringus, Nathaniel Hubert, Yunwei Wang, Vanessa A Leone, Anuradha Nadimpalli, Betty R Theriault, Yong E Huang, Johnathan D Tune, Paul B Herring, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Eugene B Chang
Chronic diseases arise when there is mutual reinforcement of pathophysiological processes that cause an aberrant steady state. Such a sequence of events may underlie chronic constipation, which has been associated with dysbiosis of the gut. In this study we hypothesized that assemblage of microbial communities, directed by slow gastrointestinal transit, affects host function in a way that reinforces constipation and further maintains selection on microbial communities. In our study, we used two models - an opioid-induced constipation model in mice, and a humanized mouse model where germ-free mice were colonized with stool from a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in humans...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290049/type-2-diabetes-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-factors-and-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
P Wainwright, E Scorletti, C D Byrne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to assess the epidemiological evidence for a link between type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate possible pathophysiological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of type 2 diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, and treatment with metformin may be associated with a lower risk. Treatment with insulin and sulphonylureas may be associated with increased risk...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279074/oxidized-derivatives-of-linoleic-acid-in-pediatric-metabolic-syndrome-is-their-pathogenic-role-modulated-by-the-genetic-background-and-the-gut-microbiota
#19
Domenico Tricò, Anna Di Sessa, Sonia Caprio, Naga Chalasani, Wanqing Liu, Tiebing Liang, Joerg Graf, Raimund I Herzog, Casey D Johnson, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Ariel E Feldstein, Nicola Santoro
We tested whether oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAM) are associated with pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile in 122 obese adolescents. Furthermore, we examined whether genetic and metagenomic factors can modulate plasma OXLAM concentrations by genotyping the fatty acid desaturase 1/2 (FADS) gene and by characterizing the gut microbiota. Subjects with MetS (n = 50) showed higher concentrations of 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-oxo-ODE) than subjects without MetS (n = 72)...
April 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#20
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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