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microbiota metabolism syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#2
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101668/gut-microbiota-are-disease-modifying-factors-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Kristina A Kigerl, Klauss Mostacada, Phillip G Popovich
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the autonomic nervous system (ANS), impairing its ability to coordinate organ function throughout the body. Emerging data indicate that the systemic pathology that manifests from ANS dysfunction exacerbates intraspinal pathology and neurological impairment. Precisely how this happens is unknown, although new data, in both humans and in rodent models, implicate changes in the composition of bacteria in the gut (i.e., the gut microbiota) as disease-modifying factors that are capable of affecting systemic physiology and pathophysiology...
November 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100781/estrogens-and-female-liver-health
#4
Karen L Chen, Zeynep Madak-Erdogan
Due to declining estrogen levels during menopause, NAFLD prevalence is higher in postmenopausal women compared to in premenopausal women or in men. Postmenopausal women are more susceptible to weight gain, fat redistribution and dyslipidemia, all major hallmarks of metabolic syndrome associated with increased NAFLD risk. Gut microbiota plays important roles in development of gastrointestinal tract, metabolism and immunity. Host-microbe interactions allows regulation of a wide range of pathways that affect healthy and diseased physiology...
November 1, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090088/gut-microbiota-as-a-potential-target-of-metabolic-syndrome-the-role-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#5
REVIEW
Mingqian He, Bingyin Shi
Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises central obesity, increased plasma glucose levels, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and its incidence is increasing due to changes in lifestyle and dietary structure in recent years. MS has been proven to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review recent studies concerning the role of the gut microbiota in MS modulation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080046/the-microbiome-that-shapes-us-can-it-cause-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Endashaw Omer, Hadi Atassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to examine the effects of the gut microbial makeup on weight gain and obesity. We wanted to find out what the current research on this topic was and what the effect of the gut microbiota on energy metabolism is, as well the effects of diet on the microbiome and what effect the microbiome has on metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is thought to be due to greater calorie intake than expenditure. Recently, research has looked into the effects of the microbiome on obesity...
October 27, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077559/-microbiota-and-obesity
#8
Alicja Karney
Overweight and obesity can have serious consequences that are a major public health problem, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. According to recent reports, gut microbiota may play an important role in the "epidemic" of obesity. The fact that intestinal microbiota may influence body weight, insulin sensitivity or glucose and lipid metabolism has led to the hypothesis that these changes may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076444/-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-indications-in-perspective
#9
Y H van Beurden, E M Terveer, J J Keller, E J Kuijper, C J J Mulder, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
- As yet, with cure rates around 85%, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is the only definite indication for faecal microbiota transplantation.- Faecal microbiota transplantation induces clinical remission and endoscopic improvements in 24-30% of patients with ulcerative colitis, compared to 5% (water) to 20% (autologous faeces) in placebo-treated patients. Current research focuses on the identification of 'super donors', and subgroups of patients in which faecal microbiota transplantation is effective...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071710/microbiota-replacement-therapies-innovation-in-gastrointestinal-care
#10
Sahil Khanna
There has been an increasing interest in the association between human disease and altered gut microbiota, and therapeutics to modulate microbiota to treat disease. Healthy human gastrointestinal microbiota is highly diverse and rich, and harbors between 500 and 2000 species. Diseases associated with dysbiotic microbiota include antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, multi-drug resistant organisms, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, neuro-psychiatric diseases and systemic autoimmune diseases...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064399/pharmabiotics-as-an-emerging-medication-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-related-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Thi Thanh Binh Nguyen, Yan Yan Jin, Hea-Jong Chung, Seong-Tschool Hong
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with central obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. In recent decades, because of the remarkable increase in both prevalence and severity, MetS and its related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity, hypertension and diabetes have become the main global burden and challenge in strategic management involving prevention and treatment. However, currently, the preventions and treatments based on pharmaceutical interventions do not provide a solution for MetS and its related diseases...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061705/polyphenol-and-caffeine-rich-post-fermented-pu-er-tea-improves-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-by-remodeling-intestinal-homeostasis-in-mice
#12
Xiaoyu Gao, Qiuhong Xie, Ping Kong, Ling Liu, Sheng Sun, Boyu Xiong, Baojia Huang, Liang Yan, Jun Sheng, Hongyu Xiang
Post-fermented Pu-er tea (PE) protects against metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known regarding its underlying mechanisms. Animal experiments were performed to determine whether gut microbiota mediated the improvement in diet-induced MS by PE and its main active components (PEAC). We confirmed that PE altered the body composition and energy efficiency; attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and systemic and multiple-tissue inflammation; and improved the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via multiple pathways...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056925/host-microbiota-mutualism-in-metabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Mirko Trajkovski
The intestinal microbiota is a plastic ecosystem that is shaped by environmental and genetic factors, interacting with virtually all tissues of the host. Many signals result from the interplay between the microbiota with its mammalian symbiont that can lead to altered metabolism. Disruptions in the microbial composition are associated with a number of comorbidities linked to the metabolic syndrome. Promoting the niche expansion of beneficial bacteria through diet and supplements can improve metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047231/alterations-in-gut-microbiota-and-immunity-by-dietary-fat
#14
REVIEW
Bo Gie Yang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung Shik Lee
Gut microbiota play critical physiological roles in energy extraction from the intestine and in the control of systemic immunity, as well as local intestinal immunity. Disturbance of gut microbiota leads to the development of several diseases, such as colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, etc. From a metabolic point of view, the gut is a large metabolic organ and one of the first to come into contact with dietary fats. Interestingly, excessive dietary fat has been incriminated as a primary culprit of metabolic syndrome and obesity...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041989/links-of-gut-microbiota-composition-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#15
Veronika B Dubinkina, Alexander V Tyakht, Vera Y Odintsova, Konstantin S Yarygin, Boris A Kovarsky, Alexander V Pavlenko, Dmitry S Ischenko, Anna S Popenko, Dmitry G Alexeev, Anastasiya Y Taraskina, Regina F Nasyrova, Evgeny M Krupitsky, Nino V Shalikiani, Igor G Bakulin, Petr L Shcherbakov, Lyubov O Skorodumova, Andrei K Larin, Elena S Kostryukova, Rustam A Abdulkhakov, Sayar R Abdulkhakov, Sergey Y Malanin, Ruzilya K Ismagilova, Tatiana V Grigoryeva, Elena N Ilina, Vadim M Govorun
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse has deleterious effects on human health by disrupting the functions of many organs and systems. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver diseases, with its composition manifesting expressed dysbiosis in patients suffering from alcoholic dependence. Due to its inherent plasticity, gut microbiota is an important target for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Identification of the impact of alcohol abuse with associated psychiatric symptoms on the gut community structure is confounded by the liver dysfunction...
October 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038387/nephrotoxic-effect-of-aspartame-as-an-artificial-sweetener-a-brief-review
#16
Mohammad Reza Ardalan, Hadi Tabibi, Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Aida Malek Mahdavi
Aspartame is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners over the world. Although its consumption is considered to be safe in acceptable daily intake ranges which were set by the United States Food and Drugs Administration and other regulatory agencies, there are lots of controversies regarding its safety nowadays. Some of the recent experimental and epidemiological studies showed that consumption of aspartame may causes some adverse health effects including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and alteration in gut microbiota...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988228/the-relationship-between-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-among-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#17
Oana Belei, Laura Olariu, Andreea Dobrescu, Tamara Marcovici, Otilia Marginean
BACKGROUND: The increasing rate of obesity and overweight among children has highlighted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common cause of chronic pediatric liver diseases. There are many publications supporting the idea that gut microbiota is altered in NAFLD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD among overweight and obese children with and without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to a control group and to assess if intestinal dysbiosis represents a risk factor for NAFLD...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978426/improvement-of-insulin-sensitivity-after-lean-donor-feces-in-metabolic-syndrome-is-driven-by-baseline-intestinal-microbiota-composition
#18
Ruud S Kootte, Evgeni Levin, Jarkko Salojärvi, Loek P Smits, Annick V Hartstra, Shanti D Udayappan, Gerben Hermes, Kristien E Bouter, Annefleur M Koopen, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, Ellen E Blaak, Jing Zhao, Hauke Smidt, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeijer, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Hans A Romijn, Frank G Schaap, Steven W M Olde Damink, Mariette T Ackermans, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Erwin Zoetendal, Willem M de Vos, Mireille J Serlie, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline...
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#19
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973971/effects-of-antidiabetic-drugs-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#20
REVIEW
Sophie A Montandon, François R Jornayvaz
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis...
September 30, 2017: Genes
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