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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722014/il-23-promotes-intestinal-th17-immunity-and-ameliorates-obesity-associated-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-murine-high-fat-diet-model
#1
Larissa M S Martins, Malena M Perez, Camila A Pereira, Frederico R C Costa, Murilo S Dias, Rita C Tostes, Simone G Ramos, Marcel R de Zoete, Bernhard Ryffel, João S Silva, Daniela Carlos
We addressed the role of IL-23 in driving the intestinal Th17 response during obesity and metabolic syndrome progression induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean mice received HFD or control diet (CTD), respectively, for 20 weeks. The nutritional, metabolic and immune parameters were examined at weeks 9 and 20. Gene and protein IL-23p19 and IL-23R expression was increased in the ileum of obese wild-type mice (WT) fed the HFD for nine weeks. Mice lacking IL-23 and fed the HFD exhibited greater weight gain, higher fat accumulation, adipocyte hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis...
May 2, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702489/what-s-new-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Lore Billiauws, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease but with many complications due to intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition and underlying disease. A better prevention, comprehension and treatment could improve the outcome of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been published on acute intestinal failure, first cause of SBS, and gives us strategy to avoid extended intestinal resection and thus SBS. There has been progress in the comprehension of intestinal adaptation, characterized by improvements in intestinal absorption, changes on hormonal secretion, development of a hyperphagia and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700349/integrative-metabolic-and-microbial-profiling-on-patients-with-spleen-yang-deficiency-syndrome
#3
Zhang Lin, Wu Ye, Xianpeng Zu, Haisheng Xie, Houkai Li, Yiping Li, Weidong Zhang
Gut microbiota is recognized as an indispensable "metabolic organ" that plays crucial roles in maintaining human health or initiating diseases. Spleen-yang-deficiency syndrome (SYDS) is a common syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) clinic. It is a complex phenotype reflecting the overall changes of metabolism which are mainly caused by digestive disorders. However, little is known about the changes of gut microbiota and metabolism in patients with SYDS, as well as the crosstalk between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692770/modulation-of-active-gut-microbiota-by-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#4
Yosep Ji, Soyoung Park, Haryung Park, Eunchong Hwang, Hyeunkil Shin, Bruno Pot, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
Gut microbiota play a key role in the development of metabolic disorders. Defining and correlating structural shifts in gut microbial assemblages with conditions related to metabolic syndrome have, however, been proven difficult. Results from 16S genomic DNA and 16S ribosomal RNA analyses of fecal samples may differ widely, leading to controversial information on the whole microbial community and metabolically active microbiota. Using a C57BL/6J murine model, we compared data from 16S genomic DNA and ribosomal RNA of the fecal microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686658/gut-microbiota-profiling-and-gut-brain-crosstalk-in-children-affected-by-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-and-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#5
Andrea Quagliariello, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sofia Reddel, Giulia Conte, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Francesco Cardona, Antonio Gasbarrini, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672196/the-effects-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-body-mass-index-metabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-appetite-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Samira Rabiei, Mehdi Hedayati, Bahram Rashidkhani, Navid Saadat, Rahebeh Shakerhossini
It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. In this triple-blinded clinical trial, 46 Iranian patients with metabolic syndrome, from both sexes, aged 25-70 years, who fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomly categorized to receive either the synbiotic or a placebo capsule, twice a day for three months, plus a weight-loss diet using stratified random sampling based on body mass index (BMI)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661926/disruptions-in-gut-microbial-host-co-metabolism-and-the-development-of-metabolic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#9
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650468/exploring-bacteroidetes-metabolic-key-points-and-immunological-tricks-of-our-gut-commensals
#10
REVIEW
Giulia Gibiino, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Franco Scaldaferri, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host...
March 20, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628462/-long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#11
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, however whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) in mice. To this end, we prepared a low nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low nitrite/nitrate chow in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein, and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617463/mice-harboring-pathobiont-free-microbiota-do-not-develop-intestinal-inflammation-that-normally-results-from-an-innate-immune-deficiency
#12
Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND: Inability to maintain a stable and beneficial microbiota is associated with chronic gut inflammation, which classically manifests as colitis but may more commonly exist as low-grade inflammation that promotes metabolic syndrome. Alterations in microbiota, and associated inflammation, can originate from dysfunction in host proteins that manage the microbiota, such as the flagellin receptor TLR5. That the complete absence of a microbiota (i.e. germfree conditions) eliminates all evidence of inflammation in TLR5-deficient mice demonstrates that this model of gut inflammation is microbiota-dependent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581220/effect-of-vegan-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-carnitine-and-choline-derived-trimethylamine-n-oxide-production-and-vascular-inflammation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Loek P Smits, Ruud S Kootte, Evgeni Levin, Andrei Prodan, Susana Fuentes, Erwin G Zoetendal, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Maartje C P Cleophas, E Marleen Kemper, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Albert K Groen, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Erik S G Stroes, Willem M de Vos, Stanley L Hazen, Max Nieuwdorp
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563854/gut-microbiota-as-a-driver-of-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Maria Pina Dore, Claudia Simonelli, Estelle E Newton, Giovanni Cammarota
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the consequent burden of metabolic syndrome have increased in recent years. Although the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not completely understood, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the dysregulation of insulin-dependent pathways leading to insulin resistance and adipose tissue accumulation in the liver. Recently, the gut-liver axis has been proposed as a key player in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, as the passage of bacteria-derived products into the portal circulation could lead to a trigger of innate immunity, which in turn leads to liver inflammation...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547895/gout-state-of-the-art-after-a-decade-of-developments
#15
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534601/carotenoid-supplementation-and-retinoic-acid-in-immunoglobulin-a-regulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#16
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
April 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524863/the-gut-microbiome-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity-and-autoimmunity
#17
REVIEW
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
April 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521600/cecal-versus-fecal-microbiota-in-ossabaw-swine-and-implications-for-obesity
#18
Matthew R Panasevich, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, R Scott Rector
The gut microbiome plays a critical role in the onset and progression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, it is not well documented whether the cecal vs. the fecal microbiome is more relevant when assessing their contributions to these diseases. Here, we amplified the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal and fecal samples of female Ossabaw swine fed a low-fat control diet (10.5% fat, n = 4) or Western diet (43.0% fat, 17.8% high fructose corn syrup, 2% cholesterol; n = 3) for 36 wk. Obesity significantly lowered alpha-diversity ( P < 0...
May 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516144/intestinal-bacterial-signatures-of-white-feces-syndrome-in-shrimp
#19
Dongwei Hou, Zhijian Huang, Shenzheng Zeng, Jian Liu, Dongdong Wei, Xisha Deng, Shaoping Weng, Qingyun Yan, Jianguo He
Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely correlated with the host's health status. Thus, a serious disturbance that disrupts the stability of the intestinal microecosystem could cause host disease. Shrimps are one of the most important products among fishery trading commodities. However, digestive system diseases, such as white feces syndrome (WFS), frequently occur in shrimp culture and have led to enormous economic losses across the world. The WFS occurrences are unclear. Here, we compared intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp...
April 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514453/fuzhuan-brick-tea-polysaccharides-attenuate-metabolic-syndrome-in-high-fat-diet-induced-mice-in-association-with-modulation-in-the-gut-microbiota
#20
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Peng Wan, Dan Chen, Zhuqing Dai, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Zhonghua Liu
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota composition and structure contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome (MS), which has been put forward as a new target in the treatment of diet-induced MS. In this work, we aimed to investigate effects of Fuzhuan brick tea polysaccharides (FBTPS) on MS and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice and to further investigate whether its attenuation of MS is related to the modulation of gut microbiota. The results showed that FBTPS intervention could significantly attenuate metabolic syndrome in HFD-induced mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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