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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724229/microbial-association-with-the-dynamics-of-particulate-organic-carbon-in-response-to-the-amendment-of-elevated-co2-derived-wheat-residue-into-a-mollisol
#1
Yanhong Wang, Zhenhua Yu, Yansheng Li, Guanghua Wang, Junjie Liu, Judong Liu, Xiaobing Liu, Jian Jin
As the chemical quality of crop residue is likely to be affected by elevated CO2 (eCO2), residue amendments may influence soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, in Mollisols, the dynamics of the SOC fractions in response to amendment with wheat residue produced under eCO2 and the corresponding microbial community composition remain unknown. Such investigation is essential to residue management, which affects the soil quality and productivity of future farming systems. To narrow this knowledge gap, (13)C-labeled shoot and root residue derived from ambient CO2 (aCO2) or eCO2 were amended into Mollisols and incubated for 200days...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724227/carbon-and-nitrogen-allocation-strategy-in-posidonia-oceanica-is-altered-by-seawater-acidification
#2
Andrea Scartazza, Stefano Moscatello, Olga Gavrichkova, Maria Cristina Buia, Marco Lauteri, Alberto Battistelli, Maurizio Lorenti, Samantha Laird Garrard, Carlo Calfapietra, Enrico Brugnoli
Rising atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification that represents one of the major ecological threats for marine biota. We tested the hypothesis that long-term exposure to increased CO2 level and acidification in a natural CO2 vent system alters carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile), affecting its resilience, or capability to restore the physiological homeostasis, and the nutritional quality of organic matter available for grazers. Seawater acidification decreased the C to N ratio in P...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724080/qtls-associated-with-crown-root-angle-stomatal-conductance-and-maturity-in-sorghum
#3
Jose R Lopez, John E Erickson, Patricio Munoz, Ana Saballos, Terry J Felderhoff, Wilfred Vermerris
Three factors that directly affect the water inputs in cropping systems are root architecture, length of the growing season, and stomatal conductance to water vapor (). Deeper-rooted cultivars will perform better under water-limited conditions because they can access water stored deeper in the soil profile. Reduced limits transpiration rate () and thus throughout the vegetative phase conserves water that may be used during grain filling in water-limited environments. Additionally, growing early-maturing varieties in regions that rely on soil-stored water is a key water management strategy...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724075/a-comprehensive-image-based-phenomic-analysis-reveals-the-complex-genetic-architecture-of-shoot-growth-dynamics-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#4
Malachy T Campbell, Qian Du, Kan Liu, Chris J Brien, Bettina Berger, Chi Zhang, Harkamal Walia
Early vigor is an important trait for many rice ( L.)-growing environments. However, genetic characterization and improvement for early vigor is hindered by the temporal nature of the trait and strong genotype × environment effects. We explored the genetic architecture of shoot growth dynamics during the early and active tillering stages by applying a functional modeling and genomewide association (GWAS) mapping approach on a diversity panel of ∼360 rice accessions. Multiple loci with small effects on shoot growth trajectory were identified, indicating a complex polygenic architecture...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722226/biology-of-slac1-type-anion-channels-from-nutrient-uptake-to-stomatal-closure
#5
REVIEW
Rainer Hedrich, Dietmar Geiger
Contents 1 I. 1 II. 2 III. 5 IV. 8 V. 11 VI. 12 13 13 References 13 SUMMARY: Stomatal guard cells control leaf CO2 intake and concomitant water loss to the atmosphere. When photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is limited and the ratio of CO2 intake to transpiration becomes suboptimal, guard cells, sensing the rise in CO2 concentration in the substomatal cavity, deflate and the stomata close. Screens for mutants that do not close in response to experimentally imposed high CO2 atmospheres identified the guard cell-expressed Slowly activating anion channel, SLAC1, as the key player in the regulation of stomatal closure...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721188/trait-variation-along-elevation-gradients-in-a-dominant-woody-shrub-is-population-specific-and-driven-by-plasticity
#6
Alix A Pfennigwerth, Joseph K Bailey, Jennifer A Schweitzer
Elevation gradients are frequently used as space-for-time substitutions to infer species' trait responses to climate change. However, studies rarely investigate whether trait responses to elevation are widespread or population-specific within a species, and the relative genetic and plastic contributions to such trait responses may not be well understood. Here, we examine plant trait variation in the dominant woody shrub, Rhododendron maximum, along elevation gradients in three populations in the South Central Appalachian Mountains, USA, in both field and common garden environments...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720952/anthocyanins-enriched-purple-tea-exhibits-antioxidant-immunostimulatory-and-anticancer-activities
#7
Robin Joshi, Ajay Rana, Vinay Kumar, Dharmesh Kumar, Yogendra S Padwad, Sudesh Kumar Yadav, Ashu Gulati
Purple coloured tea shoot clones have gained interest due to high content of anthocyanins in addition to catechins. Transcript expression of genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), flavonol synthase (FLS) and leucoantho cyanidin reductase (LAR) enzymes in three new purple shoot tea clones compared with normal tea clone showed higher expression of CsDFR, CsANR, CsANS and lower expression of CsFLS and CsLAR in purple shoot clones compared to normal clone...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720538/direct-compaction-an-update-of-materials-trouble-shooting-and-application
#8
REVIEW
Zhe Li, LiJie Zhao, Xiao Lin, Lan Shen, Yi Feng
Direct compaction (DC) is the preferred choice for tablet manufacturing; however, only less than 20% of active pharmaceutical ingredients could be compacted via DC as its high requirement for functional properties of materials. Materials with improper functionalities could lead to serious troubles during DC manufacturing, such as content non-uniformity, sticking, and capping, all of which profoundly affect the properties of final products and, thus, severely restrict the practical application of DC. With undoubted importance, these seem to be unexpectedly ignored by reviewers but not researchers in terms of many original research articles published recently...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716414/functional-characterization-of-the-sbnrat1-gene-in-sorghum
#9
Muxue Lu, Zhigang Wang, Shan Fu, Guangzhe Yang, Mingxing Shi, Youshe Lu, Xiaohu Wang, Jixing Xia
The Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Nramp) members play diverse roles in metal transport in plants. Recent studies have showed that OsNrat1 (OsNramp4) encodes an Al transporter, which is required for rice Al tolerance. In this study, we functionally characterized a Nramp member in sorghum, SbNrat1, which is homologous to OsNrat1 with 88% identity. SbNrat1 was expressed in both roots and shoots, and its expression was not induced by Al treatment. When expressed in yeast, SbNrat1 transports trivalent Al ion, but not Mn and Cd...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715761/effects-of-lead-mineralogy-on-soil-washing-enhanced-by-ferric-salts-as-extracting-and-oxidizing-agents
#10
Jong-Chan Yoo, Sang-Min Park, Geun-Seok Yoon, Daniel C W Tsang, Kitae Baek
In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl3 and Fe(NO3)3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO3, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2, PbSO4, PbS, and Pb5(PO4)3(OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO3, disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2-EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO3)3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714046/effects-of-cd-and-zn-on-physiological-and-anatomical-properties-of-hydroponically-grown-brassica-napus-plants
#11
Martina Benáková, Hassan Ahmadi, Zuzana Dučaiová, Edita Tylová, Stephan Clemens, Jiří Tůma
Clarifying the connection between metal exposure and anatomical changes represents an important challenge for a better understanding of plant phytoextraction potential. A hydroponic screening experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined interactions of Cd and Zn on mineral uptake (Mg, K, Ca, Na) and on the physiological and anatomical characteristics of Brassica napus L cv. Cadeli, Viking, and Navajo. Plants were exposed to 5 μM Cd (CdCl2), 10 μM Zn (ZnSO4), or both Cd + Zn, for 14 days...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713973/a-dichloromethane-fraction-of-triticum-aestivum-sprouts-reduces-allergic-immune-response-through-inhibiting-th2-differentiation-in-ovalbumin%C3%A2-immunized-mice
#12
Hyeon-Hui Ki, Sung-Woo Hwang, Ji-Hyun Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Dae-Ki Kim, Young-Mi Lee
Triticum aestivum sprouts are small shoots that germinate from seeds and are consumed as a dietary supplement. The present study aimed to determine whether a dichloromethane fraction isolated from Triticum aestivum sprouts (TDF) suppressed the allergic immune response in ovalbumin (OVA)‑sensitized mice. In vivo experiments were performed by administering TDF or vehicle to mice during the sensitization and this was immediately followed by an intradermal injection of OVA into the ears. Splenocytes isolated from OVA‑sensitized mice were pre‑treated with TDF and re‑challenged with OVA for ex vivo evaluation...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713572/a-transcriptome-analysis-of-two-grapevine-populations-segregating-for-tendril-phyllotaxy
#13
Jie Arro, Jose Cuenca, Yingzhen Yang, Zhenchang Liang, Peter Cousins, Gan-Yuan Zhong
The shoot structure of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L. typically exhibits a three-node modular repetitive pattern, two sequential leaf-opposed tendrils followed by a tendril-free node. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of this pattern by characterizing differentially expressed genes in 10 bulk samples of young tendril tissue from two grapevine populations showing segregation of mutant or wild-type shoot/tendril phyllotaxy. One population was the selfed progeny and the other one, an outcrossed progeny of a Vitis hybrid, 'Roger's Red'...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713405/vegetable-grafting-as-a-tool-to-improve-drought-resistance-and-water-use-efficiency
#14
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Giuseppe Colla
Drought is one of the most prevalent limiting factors causing considerable losses in crop productivity, inflicting economic as well as nutritional insecurity. One of the greatest challenges faced by the scientific community in the next few years is to minimize the yield losses caused by drought. Drought resistance is a complex quantitative trait controlled by many genes. Thus, introgression of drought resistance traits into high yielding genotypes has been a challenge to plant breeders. Vegetable grafting using rootstocks has emerged as a rapid tool in tailoring plants to better adapt to suboptimal growing conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712850/ex-vivo-instability-of-glycated-albumin-a-role-for-autoxidative-glycation
#15
Joshua W Jeffs, Shadi Ferdosi, Hussein N Yassine, Chad R Borges
Ex vivo protein modifications occur within plasma and serum (P/S) samples due to prolonged exposure to the thawed state-which includes temperatures above -30 °C. Herein, the ex vivo glycation of human serum albumin from healthy and diabetic subjects was monitored in P/S samples stored for hours to months at -80 °C, -20 °C, and room temperature, as well as in samples subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, incubated at different surface area-to-volume ratios or under different atmospheric compositions...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712717/radiobiological-evaluation-of-prostate-cancer-imrt-and-conformal-rt-plans-using-different-treatment-protocols
#16
Panayiotis Mavroidis, Georgios Komisopoulos, Courtney Buckey, Margarita Mavroeidi, Gregory P Swanson, Dimos Baltas, Nikos Papanikolaou, Sotirios Stathakis
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of both step-and-shoot IMRT and 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy modalities (CRT) in treating prostate cancer using radiobiological measures. Another aim was to estimate the risks for developing secondary malignancies in bladder and rectum due to radiotherapy from the corresponding modalities. The treatment plans of ten prostate cancer patients were developed using IMRT and CRT. For the IMRT plans, two beam energies and two treatment protocols were used (the RTOG 0415 and a most restrictive one proposed by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC))...
July 13, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712076/nickel-stressed-responses-of-rice-in-ni-subcellular-distribution-antioxidant-production-and-osmolyte-accumulation
#17
Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Imtiaz, Zhihua Dai, Sajid Mehmood, Muhammad Adeel, Jinchang Liu, Shuxin Tu
Nickel has been found a key pollutant in farmlands of central and south China, and understanding of Ni toxicity in rice is of great significance in safety production of rice and remediation of Ni polluted paddy soils. The present study aimed to investigate the uptake and subcellular distribution of Ni, antioxidant production, and osmolyte accumulation of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. yangliangyou 6) plants exposed to excessive Ni concentrations to gain an insight into Ni-induced phytotoxicity. Results revealed that exposure of rice seedlings to high Ni concentrations resulted a decline in root and shoot lengths and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of rice plants, which are in connection with the depletion of the contents of photosynthetic pigments...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711721/-supporting-nursing-midwifery-and-allied-health-professional-students-to-raise-concerns-with-the-quality-of-care-a-review-of-the-research-literature
#18
REVIEW
Frank Milligan, Mark Wareing, Michael Preston-Shoot, Yannis Pappas, Gurch Randhawa, Janine Bhandol
BACKGROUND: This article reports aspects of a systematic literature review commissioned by the UK Council of Deans of Health. The review collated and analysed UK and international literature on pre-registration healthcare students raising concerns with poor quality care. The research found in that review is summarised here. OBJECTIVE: To review research on healthcare students raising concerns with regard to the quality of practice published from 2009 to the present...
June 23, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711523/plant-hak-kup-kt-k-transporters-function-and-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Weihong Li, Guohua Xu, Alli Abdel, Ling Yu
The HAK/KUP/KT family of potassium (K(+)) transporters belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of carriers for secondary active transport and have been widely associated with K(+) transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The plant genome contains large number of HAK/KUP/KT transporters, and they show the diverse roles in K(+) uptake and translocation, salt tolerance and osmotic potential regulation, as well as in controlling root morphology and shoot phenotyping...
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708985/ultrastructural-protein-and-photosynthetic-alterations-induced-by-pb-and-cd-in-cynara-cardunculus-l-and-its-potential-for-phytoremediation
#20
C Arena, F Figlioli, M C Sorrentino, L G Izzo, F Capozzi, S Giordano, V Spagnuolo
The effects of cadmium and lead were investigated in Cynara cardunculus L. Plant uptake by root and shoot, changes in cell ultrastructure and photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic key protein levels, as well as regulation of stress-induced Hsp70 were examined. Cynara cardunculus accumulated Cd and Pb in their tissue, with a different trend for the two metals. The prompt translocation of Cd to the shoot may justify the ultrastructural injuries, especially observed in chloroplasts. However, Cd- treated plants did not show any decline in photochemistry; it is likely that Cd in shoot tissue triggers defense mechanisms, increasing the level of proteins involved in photosynthesis (i...
July 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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