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Gordana Tomović, Uroš Buzurović, Sanja Đurović, Dražen Vicić, Nevena Mihailović, Ksenija Jakovljević
This study surveyed three species of the genus Armeria Willd. from five ultramafic outcrops, two non-ultramafic (schist) soils, and one tailing heap of an abandoned iron-copper mine from Serbia. Similarities and differences among the three Armeria species growing on different geological substrates in the ability to control uptake and translocate nine metals were examined. Chemical characteristics of the soil and plant samples (concentrations of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, and Pb) are presented...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ji Feng Shao, Jing Che, Naoki Yamaji, Ren Fang Shen, Jian Feng Ma, Hendrik Küpper
Silicon (Si) alleviates cadmium (Cd) toxicity and accumulation in a number of plant species, but the exact molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of Si on Cd toxicity and accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) by using two mutants (lsi1 and lsi2) defective in Si uptake and their wild types (WTs). Root elongation was decreased with increasing external Cd concentrations in both WTs and mutants, but Si did not show an alleviative effect on Cd toxicity in all lines...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Karen L McKee, William C Vervaeke
To avoid submergence during sea-level rise, coastal wetlands build soil surfaces vertically through accumulation of inorganic sediment and organic matter. At climatic boundaries where mangroves are expanding and replacing salt marsh, wetland capacity to respond to sea-level rise may change. To compare how well mangroves and salt marshes accommodate sea-level rise, we conducted a manipulative field experiment in a subtropical plant community in the subsiding Mississippi River Delta. Experimental plots were established in spatially equivalent positions along creek banks in monospecific stands of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) or Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and in mixed stands containing both species...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Gabriel Lichtenstein, Saleh Alseekh, Laise Rosado-Souza, Mariana Conte, Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama, Bruno Silvestre Lira, Dimitrios Fanourakis, Björn Usadel, Leonardo Lopes Bhering, Fábio M DaMatta, Ronan Sulpice, Wagner L Araújo, Magdalena Rossi, Nathalia de Setta, Alisdair R Fernie, Fernando Carrari, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
To identify genomic regions involved in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, a population of Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs) was analyzed. We determined phenotypes for physiological, metabolic and growth related traits, including gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Data analysis allowed the identification of 208 physiological and metabolic QTL with 33 of these being associated to smaller intervals of the genomic regions, termed BINs...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Alka Shankar, Joel Lars Fernandes, Kanwaljeet Kaur, Manisha Sharma, Suman Kundu, Girdhar K Pandey
Just like animals, plants also contain haemoglobins (known as phytoglobins in plants). Plant phytoglobins (Pgbs) have been categorized into six different classes viz. Phytogb0 (Pgb0), Phytogb1 (Pgb1), Phytogb2 (Pgb2), SymPhytogb (sPgb), Leghemoglobin (Lb) and Phytogb3 (Pgb3). Among the 6 Phytogbs, sPgb and Lb have been functionally characterized and the understanding of roles of other Pgbs is still evolving. In our present study, we have explored the function of two rice Pgbs (OsPgb1.1 and OsPgb1.2). OsPgb1...
October 17, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Divya Singh, Arun Kumar
In the past decade, there has been an unprecedented growth in the application of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide. Even though the acute toxicity of CuO and ZnO NPs to plants has been investigated in past, the trans-generational effects of these NPs in the environment are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the treatment of radish plants with CuO and ZnO NPs as single compound and as a binary mixture (10, 100 and 1000 mg/Kg soil) through their lifecycle would affect the seed quality and the development of second-generation seedlings or not...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Debao You, Ping Tian, Pengxiang Sui, Wenke Zhang, Bin Yang, Hua Qi
In recent years, yield instability of spring maize becomes increasingly pronounced under the traditional cropping system. In 2014 and 2015, short-term effects of tillage (plow-till, rotary-till and no-till) and residue (removal and incorporation) on soil properties, maize growth and yield were investigated in a brown soil region. Our results indicated that short-term reduced tillage (rotary-till and no-till) and residue incorporation promoted soil properties and maize growth. Compared with plow-till, rotary-till and no-till decreased soil bulk density and compaction below the plough layer (~30 cm)...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wendy Siman, Srinivas Cheenu Kappadath
Rationale: Continuous bed motion (CBM) acquisition mode has been made commercially available in Siemens Biograph mCT positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners. CBM mode is designed for whole-body imaging with a long scan length (multiple axial fields of view [aFOVs]) and short acquisition duration (2-3 min/aFOV). PET/CT has recently been used following (90)Y-microsphere therapy to quantify (90)Y activity distribution in the liver. Here we compared counting efficiencies along the bed-motion direction (z axis) between CBM and step-and-shoot (SS) acquisition modes for limited-view organ scans, such as (90)Y PET/CT liver studies, that have short scan lengths (≤2 aFOVs) and long acquisition durations (10-30 min/aFOV)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Thorsten Knipfer, Italo Cuneo, Jeffrey Mason Earles, Clarissa Reyes, Craig Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water storage is thought to play an integral role in the maintenance of whole plant water balance. The contribution of both living and dead cells to water storage can be derived from rehydration and pressure-volume curves on excised plant material, but the underlying tissue-specific emptying/refilling dynamics remain unclear. Here, we used X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) to characterize refilling of xylem fibers, pith cells and vessels under both excised and in-vivo conditions in Laurus nobilis. In excised stems supplied with H2O, water uptake exhibited a biphasic response curve, and microCT images showed that high water storage capacitance was associated with fiber and pith refilling as driven by capillary forces; fibers refilled more rapidly than pith cells while vessel refilling was minimal...
October 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
Vittoria Brambilla, Damiano Martignago, Daniela Goretti, Martina Cerise, Marc Somssich, Matteo de Rosa, Francesca Galbiati, Roshi Shrestha, Federico Lazzaro, Rüdiger Simon, Fabio Fornara
Plants measure day or night lengths to coordinate specific developmental changes with a favorable season. In rice (Oryza sativa), the reproductive phase is initiated by exposure to short days when expression of HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) is induced in leaves. The cognate proteins are components of the florigenic signal, and move systemically through the phloem to reach the shoot apical meristem (SAM). In the SAM, they form a transcriptional activation complex with the bZIP transcription factor OsFD1, to start panicle development...
October 17, 2017: Plant Cell
Tonje Holt, Tine Jensen, Grete Dyb, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
OBJECTIVE AND SETTING: The objective of this study was to provide knowledge about the emotional reactions in parents whose offspring experienced a mass shooting on Utøya island in Norway in 2011. The research questions included whether parents' reactions were influenced by their offspring's symptom level, age, living situation and parental gender. DESIGN: The study was designed as an open cohort study. The data were collected at two time points; 4-5 months and 14-15 months after the shooting...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
Vicente Vives-Peris, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Rosa María Pérez-Clemente
This article describes the root exudation of proline and phytohormones in citrus and their involvement in salt- and heat-stress responses. Plants are constantly releasing several compounds to the rhizosphere through their roots, including primary and secondary metabolites. Root exudation can be affected by growth conditions, including pH, nutrient availability, soil salinity, or temperature. In vitro-cultured plants of two citrus genotypes with contrasting tolerance to salt- and heat-stress conditions were used as plant material...
October 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Eshita Sharma, Robin Joshi, Ashu Gulati
l-theanine (l-Th), a non-protein amino acid present in tea, is a valuable nutraceutical product with unique health benefits and used as an additive in food industry. l-Th enhances the umami taste but its use is limited due to its inadequate production. Different extraction approaches from tea shoots, chemical synthesis to microbial transformation have been tried to meet its demand. In vitro, in vivo as well as clinical studies have shown its positive effect in regulating CNS disorders. l-Th has become choice ingredient in CNS active products due to its anti-stress and neuroprotective role in dementias particularly in retrogression of Alzheimer's...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mathieu Cladière, Grégoire Delaporte, Even Le Roux, Valérie Camel
This study attempts at uniting the analysis of four different classes of contaminants for both liquid and solid tea samples. A total of 32 compounds, classified as pesticides, mycotoxins, process-induced toxicants or packaging contaminants, were carefully chosen for their diversity of structures and physicochemical properties. The proposed method combines a sample treatment strategy coming from metabolomics with liquid chromatography analysis using a silica bonded C18-pentafluorophenyl column coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mei-Ya Liu, Asdrubal Burgos, Lifeng Ma, Qunfeng Zhang, Dandan Tang, Jianyun Ruan
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in the formation of tea quality-related compounds, like amino acids and flavor/aroma origin compounds. Lipids, which have been reported to be affected by N deficiency, are precursors to the generation of flavor/aroma origin compounds in tea plant. However, there is no literature about the lipid profiles of tea plant affected by N fertilization. Hence, we hypothesize that the biosynthesis of flavor-related compounds in tea was affected by N through its regulation of lipid metabolism...
October 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Hongfang Jia, Songtao Zhang, Lizhi Wang, Yongxia Yang, Hongying Zhang, Hong Cui, Huifang Shao, Guohua Xu
The responses of plants to auxin and phosphate (Pi) starvation are closely linked. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting the Pi starvation (-Pi) responses to auxin are largely unclear. Here, we show that OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), a phosphate transporter, functions in both the auxin and -Pi responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The overexpression of OsPT8 (OsPT8-Oe) led to the loss of sensitivity to auxin and -Pi in adventitious roots, lateral roots, and root hairs in rice. The expression levels of OsPT8 and pOsPT8::GUS staining in roots, root-shoot junctions and leaves of rice were induced by IAA treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yu Jiao, Yinghao Chen, Chaofeng Ma, Jingjing Qin, Thi Hong Nhung Nguyen, Di Liu, Honghao Gan, Shen Ding, Zhi-Bin Luo
To investigate the physiological responses of poplars to amino acids as sole nitrogen (N) sources, Populus × canescens (Ait.) Smith plants were supplied with one of three nitrogen fertilizers (NH4NO3, phenylalanine (Phe) or the mixture of NH4NO3 and Phe) in sand culture. A larger root system, and decreased leaf size and CO2 assimilation rate was observed in Phe- versus NH4NO3-treated poplars. Consistently, a greater root biomass and a decreased shoot growth were detected in Phe-supplied poplars. Decreased enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and elevated activities of nitrite reductase (NiR), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthase (AS) were found in Phe-treated roots...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Takashi Ishida, Mika Yoshimura, Yuko Imamura, Chie Shimaoka, Shinichiro Sawa
The ligand-receptor-mediated intercellular communication system plays important roles in coordinating developmental and physiological events in multicellular organisms. In plants, CLE peptides and their cognate receptors are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant life cycle. Although the importance of this communication is broadly recognized, most CLE peptides are yet to be functionally characterized. A major problem in research on small signaling peptide-encoding genes is the limited number of loss-of-function mutants available due to their small gene size...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jonathan T Richard, Martin S Heimbeck, L Blake Autin, Henry O Everitt
The combination of wide bandwidth W-band inverse synthetic aperture radar imagery and high-fidelity numerical simulations has been used to identify distinguishing signatures from simple metallic and dielectric targets. Targets are located with millimeter-scale accuracy using super-resolution techniques. Radon transform reconstructions of the returns from rotated targets approached the image quality of the complete data set in a fraction of the time by sampling as few as 10 angles. The limitations of shooting-and-bouncing ray simulations at high frequencies are illustrated through a critical comparison of their predictions with the measured data and the method of moments simulations, indicating the importance of accurately capturing the obfuscating role played by multipath interference in complex targets...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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