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Edgar Teddy Quispe-Soto, Gloria M Calaf
Global cancer burden increased to 14.1 million new cases in 2012; and breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012. Curcumin is the major bioactive ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing agent originally isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia. Curcumin and paclitaxel were evaluated with two human breast cancer cell lines as the luminal MCF-7 and the basal-like MDA-MB-231 that are either positive or negative for hormonal receptors estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, respectively...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
A P Delitala, G M Pes, A Errigo, M Maioli, G Delitala, M P Dore
OBJECTIVE: H. pylori infection is reportedly associated with autoimmune diseases such as chronic thyroiditis and autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the association between H. pylori infection and its virulent strain CagA with antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPO Ab) and thyrotropin (TSH) in a cohort of latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 234 LADA patients (53.8% women). Antibodies against H...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hiroaki Iwata, Mayumi Kamaguchi, Hideyuki Ujiie, Machiko Nishimura, Kentaro Izumi, Ken Natsuga, Satoru Shinkuma, Wataru Nishie, Hiroshi Shimizu
Macropinocytosis is an endocytic pathway that is involved in the nonselective fluid uptake of extracellular fluid. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies to type XVII collagen (COL17), which is a component of hemidesmosome. When keratinocytes are treated with BP-IgG, COL17 internalizes into cells by way of the macropinocytosis. We investigated the mechanism of COL17 macropinocytosis using DJM-1 cells, a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Banu Bozkurt, Hasibe Artac, Hulya Ozdemir, Ali Ünlü, Mete Kaan Bozkurt, Murat Irkec
PURPOSE: To evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] levels of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) children. METHODS: A total of 62 non-atopic healthy children (64.5% male, mean age 10.79 ± 3.3 years) and 29 VKC children (75.9%, mean age 12.17 ± 2.7 years) were included in the study. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels measured by HPLC were compared between the two groups and a p value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean serum 25(OH)D3 level of VKC group was significantly lower than in the control group (11...
October 24, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Viviana Guadagni, Chiara Cerri, Ilaria Piano, Elena Novelli, Claudia Gargini, Carla Fiorentini, Matteo Caleo, Enrica Strettoi
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of inherited pathologies characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration. In rodent models of RP, expression of defective genes and retinal degeneration usually manifest during the first weeks of postnatal life, making it difficult to distinguish consequences of primary genetic defects from abnormalities in retinal development. Moreover, mouse eyes are small and not always adequate to test pharmacological and surgical treatments. An inducible paradigm of retinal degeneration potentially extensible to large animals is therefore desirable...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Taewoong Rho, Mila Jung, Min Won Lee, Young-Won Chin, Kee Dong Yoon
Efficient high-performance countercurrent chromatography methods were developed to isolate five typical compounds from the extracts of Gentiana macrophylla. n-Butanol soluble extract of G. macrophylla contained three hydrophilic iridoids, loganic acid (1), swertiamarin (2) and gentiopicroside (3), and a chromene derivative, macrophylloside D (4) which were successfully isolated by flow rate gradient (1.5 mL/min in 0-60 min, 5.0 mL/min in 60-120 min), and consecutive flow rate gradient HPCCC using n-butanol/0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Junji Itou, Sunao Tanaka, Wenzhao Li, Atsuo Iida, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Fumiaki Sato, Masakazu Toi
During metastasis, cancer cell migration is enhanced. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we addressed this issue by functionally analyzing the transcription factor Sal-like 4 (SALL4) in basal-like breast cancer cells. Loss-of-function studies of SALL4 showed that this transcription factor is required for the spindle-shaped morphology and the enhanced migration of cancer cells. SALL4 also up-regulated integrin gene expression. The impaired cell migration observed in SALL4 knockdown cells was restored by overexpression of integrin α6 and β1...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
H Xu, J Ärnlöv, B Sandhagen, U Risérus, B Lindholm, L Lind, J J Carrero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unhealthy dietary fats are associated with faster kidney function decline. The cell membrane composition of phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) is a determinant of membrane fluidity and rheological properties. These properties, which have been linked to kidney damage, are thought to be reflected by the lipophilic index (LI). We prospectively investigated the associations of LI with kidney function and its decline. METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational study from the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors including 975 men and women with plasma phospholipid FAs composition and cystatin-C estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
September 16, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Li Qi, Yong-Gang Tang, Lin Wang, Wei He, Hong-Hua Pan, Rong-Rong Nie, Yan Can
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to elucidate the role of Rho-mediated ROCK-Semaphorin3A signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a mouse model. METHODS: One-hundred twelve eight-week male C57BL/6 mice were selected. The mouse model of PD was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. All mice were divided into four groups (28 mice in each group): Blank group, Model group, Rho knockout (Rho+/-) group and ROCK knockout (ROCK+/-) group...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jonica Campolo, Renata De Maria, Lorena Cozzi, Marina Parolini, Stefano Bernardi, Paola Proserpio, Lino Nobili, Giorgio Gelosa, Immacolata Piccolo, Elio C Agostoni, Maria G Trivella, Paolo Marraccini
OBJECTIVES: We explored the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory molecules as potential Parkinson (PD) biomarkers and correlated biological with non-motor abnormalities (olfactory impairment and dysautonomia), in patients with idiopathic REM behavior disorder (iRBD) (prodromal PD) and established PD. METHODS: We recruited 11 iRBD and 15 patients with idiopathic PD (Hohen&Yahr 1-3, on L-DOPA and dopamine agonists combination therapy) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xiangbing Wu, Chandler L Walker, Qingbo Lu, Wei Wu, Daniel B Eddelman, Jonathan M Parish, Xiao-Ming Xu
Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Igor Prpić, Ana Milardović, Inge Vlašić-Cicvarić, Zdravko Špiric, Jelena Radić Nišević, Petar Vukelić, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Milena Horvat
OBJECTIVES: To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
P Gómez-Contreras, J M Ramiro-Díaz, A Sierra, C Stipp, F E Domann, R J Weigel, G Lal
ECM1 overexpression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in primary breast carcinomas, however the mechanisms by which ECM1 affects tumor progression have not been completely elucidated. ECM1 was silenced in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines Hs578T and MDAMB231 using siRNA and the cells were evaluated for changes in morphology, migration, invasion and adhesion. Actin cytoskeleton alterations were evaluated by fluorescent staining and levels of activated Rho GTPases by pull down assays. ECM1 downregulation led to significantly diminished cell migration (p = 0...
October 21, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Hisateru Komatsu, Tomohiro Iguchi, Takaaki Masuda, Hidenari Hirata, Masami Ueda, Shinya Kidogami, Yushi Ogawa, Kuniaki Sato, Qingjiang Hu, Sho Nambara, Tomoko Saito, Shotaro Sakimura, Ryutaro Uchi, Shuhei Ito, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Keishi Sugimachi, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Koshi Mimori
BACKGROUND: The RND1 gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Rho GTPase family, which regulates various cellular functions. Depletion of RND1 expression activates the oncogenic Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to clarify the clinical significance of RND1 expression in predicting prognosis and to investigate its biological role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The association between RND1 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with HCC was analyzed in three independent cohorts: 120 cases resected in our hospital; 370 cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA); and 242 cases in GSE14520...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Estelle Seyman, Hilla Shaim, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Tali Jonash-Kimchi, Natan M Bornstein, Hen Hallevi
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common neurological event that causes varying degrees of disability. AIS outcome varies considerably, from complete recovery to complete loss of tissue and function. This diversity is partly explained by the compensatory ability of the collateral circulation and the ensuing cerebral flow grade. The collateral flow to the anterior circulation largely supplies the cortical areas. The deep brain tissue is supplied by penetrating arteries and has little or no collateral supply...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Ana Rolo, Sarah Escuin, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube closure is an important morphogenetic event that involves dramatic reshaping of both neural and non-neural tissues. Rho GTPases are key cytoskeletal regulators involved in cell motility and in several developmental processes, and are thus expected to play pivotal roles in neurulation. Here, we discuss 2 recent studies that shed light on the roles of distinct Rho GTPases in different tissues during neurulation. RhoA plays an essential role in regulating actomyosin dynamics in the neural epithelium of the elevating neural folds, while Rac1 is required for the formation of cell protrusions in the non-neural surface ectoderm during neural fold fusion...
October 21, 2016: Small GTPases
Emily Dalton, Natasha A Lannin, Kate Laver, Leo Ross, Stephen Ashford, Annie McCluskey, Anne Cusick
PURPOSE: The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a patient reported outcome measure for evaluating upper limb function in people with musculoskeletal conditions. While the DASH has good psychometric properties when used with people with musculoskeletal conditions, it has not been tested with adults after stroke. METHODS: Data for n = 61 adults following stroke (aged 32-93 years, 44% male) were analyzed to test validity and reliability of the DASH for use with a stroke population...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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