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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213102/comparison-of-multiplate-and-verifynow-platelet-function-tests-in-predicting-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#1
Peter D Larsen, Ana S Holley, Alexander Sasse, Ali Al-Sinan, Sarah Fairley, Scott A Harding
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the ability of two widely used "point of care" platelet function assays, VerifyNow and Multiplate, to predict adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: We examined platelet reactivity using VerifyNow and Multiplate P2Y12 assays in patients with ACS and the relationship between platelet reactivity and both MACE (defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis and unplanned revascularisation) and TIMI major bleeding at 1year...
February 10, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212799/rho-mancing-to-sensitize-calcium-signaling-for-contraction-in-the-vasculature-role-of-rho-kinase
#2
T Szasz, R C Webb
Vascular smooth muscle contraction is an important physiological process contributing to cardiovascular homeostasis. The principal determinant of smooth muscle contraction is the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by activated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in response to increased Ca(2+) is the main pathway by which vasoconstrictor stimuli induce crossbridge cycling of myosin and actin filaments. A secondary pathway for vascular smooth muscle contraction that is not directly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration, but rather mediating Ca(2+) sensitization, is the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212376/the-legionella-pneumophila-genome-evolved-to-accommodate-multiple-regulatory-mechanisms-controlled-by-the-csra-system
#3
Tobias Sahr, Christophe Rusniok, Francis Impens, Giulia Oliva, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Carmen Buchrieser
The carbon storage regulator protein CsrA regulates cellular processes post-transcriptionally by binding to target-RNAs altering translation efficiency and/or their stability. Here we identified and analyzed the direct targets of CsrA in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Genome wide transcriptome, proteome and RNA-Co-immunoprecipitaion followed by deep sequencing of a wild type and a csrA mutant strain identified 479 RNAs with potential CsrA interaction sites located in the untranslated and/or coding regions of mRNAs or of known non-coding sRNAs...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211827/association-between-gait-variability-falls-and-mobility-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-specific-observation-on-the-edss-4-0-4-5-level
#4
Alon Kalron
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that gait variability increases throughout the disease process in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). While gait variability tends to remain steady in the lower levels of disability, a significant increase occurs once patients reach the moderate neurological level. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between variability of major spatio-temporal parameters of gait and falls, in PwMS with an expanded disability status scale score of 4...
February 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210622/epigenetics-and-signaling-pathways-in-glaucoma
#5
REVIEW
Angela C Gauthier, Ji Liu
Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209772/maternal-smoke-exposure-decreases-mesenchymal-proliferation-and-modulates-rho-gtpase-dependent-actin-cytoskeletal-signaling-in-fetal-lungs
#6
Uchenna Unachukwu, Jordis Trischler, Monica Goldklang, Rui Xiao, Jeanine D'Armiento
The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal smoke exposure results in fetal lung growth retardation due to dysregulation in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt (wingless-related integration site)/β-catenin pathway. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (100-150 mg/m(3)) or room air, and offspring were humanely killed on 12.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 d post coitum (dpc). We assessed lung stereology with Cavalieri estimation; apoptosis with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL, and caspase assays; and gene expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing on lung epithelium and mesenchyme retrieved by laser capture microdissection...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209722/long-term-outcome-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-il2rg-jak3-scid-a-cohort-report
#7
Intan Juliana Abd Hamid, Mary A Slatter, Fiona McKendrick, Mark S Pearce, Andrew R Gennery
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures the T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte and Natural Killer (NK) cell differentiation defect in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID. We evaluated long-term clinical features, longitudinal immunoreconstitution, donor chimerism and quality of life (QoL) of IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients >2 years post-HSCT at our center. Clinical data were collated and patients/families answered PedsQL Generic Core Scale v4.0 questionnaires. We performed longitudinal analyses of CD3+, CD4+ naïve T-lymphocyte, CD19+ and NK cell numbers from pre-transplant until 15 years post-transplant...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208873/high-dose-intravenous-anti-d-immune-globulin-is-more-effective-and-safe-in-indian-paediatric-patients-of-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#8
Trupti Rekha Swain, Rabindra Kumar Jena, Kali Prasanna Swain
INTRODUCTION: Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterised by an autoimmune antibody-mediated destruction of platelets and impaired platelet production. Few controlled trials exist to guide management of patients with ITP in Indian scenario for which patients require an individualized approach. Anti-D (Rho (D) immune globulin) at a higher dose can prove to be a cost effective and safe alternative for Indian patients with ITP. AIM: To compare the safety and efficacy of higher dose (75μg/kg) intravenous Anti-D immune globulin against the standard dose of 50μg/kg for the management of ITP in Indian patients...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208809/a-lipid-emulsion-reverses-toxic-dose-bupivacaine-induced-vasodilation-during-tyrosine-phosphorylation-evoked-contraction-in-isolated-rat-aortae
#9
Seong-Ho Ok, Soo Hee Lee, Seong-Chun Kwon, Mun Hwan Choi, Il-Woo Shin, Sebin Kang, Miyeong Park, Jeong-Min Hong, Ju-Tae Sohn
The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of a lipid emulsion on toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in a model of tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded rat aortae and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanism. The effect of a lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of a local anesthetic during sodium orthovanadate-induced contraction was examined. In addition, the effects of various inhibitors, either bupivacaine alone or a lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine, on protein kinase phosphorylation induced by sodium orthovanadate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells was examined...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208589/association-of-lpp-and-tagap-polymorphisms-with-celiac-disease-risk-a-meta-analysis
#10
Shi-Qi Huang, Na Zhang, Zi-Xing Zhou, Chui-Can Huang, Cheng-Li Zeng, Di Xiao, Cong-Cong Guo, Ya-Jing Han, Xiao-Hong Ye, Xing-Guang Ye, Mei-Ling Ou, Bao-Huan Zhang, Yang Liu, Eddy Y Zeng, Guang Yang, Chun-Xia Jing
Background: Lipoma preferred partner (LPP) and T-cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to celiac disease. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis by identifying relevant studies to estimate the risks of these polymorphisms on celiac disease. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched (up to October 2016) for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074 polymorphisms. Results: This meta-analysis included the same 7 studies for LPP rs1464510 and TAGAP rs1738074...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208438/crawling-and-turning-in-a-minimal-reaction-diffusion-cell-motility-model-coupling-cell-shape-and-biochemistry
#11
Brian A Camley, Yanxiang Zhao, Bo Li, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel
We study a minimal model of a crawling eukaryotic cell with a chemical polarity controlled by a reaction-diffusion mechanism describing Rho GTPase dynamics. The size, shape, and speed of the cell emerge from the combination of the chemical polarity, which controls the locations where actin polymerization occurs, and the physical properties of the cell, including its membrane tension. We find in our model both highly persistent trajectories, in which the cell crawls in a straight line, and turning trajectories, where the cell transitions from crawling in a line to crawling in a circle...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208020/graphene-oxide-induced-perturbation-to-plasma-membrane-and-cytoskeletal-meshwork-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-agents
#12
Jianqiang Zhu, Ming Xu, Ming Gao, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu, Tian Xia, Sijin Liu
The outstanding physicochemical properties endow graphene materials (e.g. graphene oxide, GO) with beneficial potentials in diverse biomedical fields such as bioimaging, drug delivery and biomolecular detection. GO recently emerges to act as chemosensitizer; however, the detailed molecular bases underlying GO-conducted sensitization and according biological effects are still elusive. Based on our recent findings that GO treatment at sublethal concentrations could impair the general cellular priming state including disorders of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton construction, we here aimed to explore the mechanism of GO as a sensitizer to make cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents...
February 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208012/hypothermia-inhibits-endothelium-independent-vascular-contractility-via-rho-kinase-inhibition
#13
Yoon Hee Chung, Keon Woong Oh, Sung Tae Kim, Eon Sub Park, Hyun Dong Je, Hyuk-Jun Yoon, Uy Dong Sohn, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyen-Oh La
The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A₂-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205334/long-non-coding-rna-tug1-promotes-migration-and-invasion-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-335-5p-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#14
Yong Wang, Tao Yang, Zhen Zhang, Ming Lu, Wei Zhao, Xiandong Zeng, Weiguo Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have now become the new hotspots in an ocean of diseases including osteosarcoma. The function of taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) and its working mechanism in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In our research, we found that TUG1 was elevated and correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Also, the following functional experiment showed that decreased TUG1 could remarkably inhibit osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion, indicating that TUG1 functioned as an oncogene in osteosarcoma...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205330/effect-of-matrix-stiffness-on-osteoblast-functionalization
#15
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Shu Zhang, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: Stiffness of bone tissue differs response to its physiological or pathological status, such as osteoporosis or osteosclerosis. Consequently, the function of cells residing in bone tissue including osteoblasts (OBs), osteoclasts and osteocytes will be affected. However, to the best of our knowledge, the detailed mechanism of how extracellular matrix stiffness affects OB function remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a study that exposed rat primary OBs to polydimethylsiloxane substrates with varied stiffness to investigate the alterations of cell morphology, osteoblastic differentiation and its potential mechanism in mechanotransduction...
February 15, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204951/possible-role-of-zinc-in-diminishing-lead-related-occupational-stress-a-zinc-nutrition-concern
#16
Ab Latif Wani, Ajaz Ahmad, G G H A Shadab, Jawed Ahmad Usmani
Lead and zinc are mostly present at the same occupational source and usually found as co-contaminants. Lead is known to associate with detrimental effects to humans. Zinc however is an essential nutrient and its deficiency causes debilitating effects on growth and development. Besides, it acts as core ion of important enzymes and proteins. The purpose of this study was to examine if zinc concentrations are associated with blood lead levels and if zinc may prevent lead-induced DNA damage. Blood samples were collected from 92 workers as participants occupationally exposed to lead or lead and zinc and 38 comparison participants having no history of such exposure...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203416/learning-curve-and-established-phase-for-uniportal-vats-lobectomies-the-papworth-experience
#17
Benedetta Bedetti, Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Marco Scarci
BACKGROUND: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) has increasingly gained importance in the thoracic surgery scenario. The use of this technique can reduce postoperative pain and length of stay and gives the surgeon the same operative perspective as open surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 73 patients who underwent uniportal VATS lobectomies from November 2014 to December 2015 in our institution. We divided the patients in two groups (group 1: first 30 patients vs...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#18
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202690/a-rhog-mediated-signaling-pathway-that-modulates-invadopodia-dynamics-in-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Silvia M Goicoechea, Ashtyn Zinn, Sahezeel S Awadia, Kyle Snyder, Rafael Garcia-Mata
One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize. During metastasis, cancer cells degrade the extracellular matrix, which acts as a physical barrier, by developing a specialized actin-rich membrane protrusion structure called invadopodia. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by Rho GTPases, a family of proteins that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe a novel role for RhoG in the regulation of invadopodia disassembly in human breast cancer cells...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199964/blockade-of-rho-associated-protein-kinase-rock-inhibits-the-contractility-and-invasion-potential-of-cancer-stem-like-cells
#20
Srisathya Srinivasan, Vandhana Ashok, Sagarajit Mohanty, Alakesh Das, Sreya Das, Sushant Kumar, Shamik Sen, Rahul Purwar
Recent studies have implicated the roles of cancer stem like cells (CSCs) in cancer metastasis. However, very limited knowledge exists at the molecular and cellular level to target CSCs for prevention of cancer metastasis. In this study, we examined the roles of contractile dynamics of CSCs in cell invasion and delineated the underlying molecular mechanisms of their distinct cell invasion potential. Using de-adhesion assay and atomic force microscopy, we show that CSCs derived from melanoma and breast cancer cell lines exhibit increased contractility compared to non-CSCs across all tumor types...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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