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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782855/role-of-statins-and-mevalonate-pathway-on-impaired-hdac2-activity-induced-by-oxidative-stress-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#1
Maria Gabriella Matera, Luigino Calzetta, Giulia Gritti, Laura Gallo, Brunella Perfetto, Giovanna Donnarumma, Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani, Maria Donniacuo, Barbara Rinaldi
In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the inflammatory response is often steroid-resistant, likely since oxidative stress and cigarette smoking impair histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity. Since it has been demonstrated that statins may restore the HDAC2 activity in cultured human endothelial cells, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of statins in reversing the steroid-resistance induced by oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of simvastatin and dexamethasone on HDAC2 expression and activity, and the role of mevalonate and Rho/ROCK pathways in A549 cells, a human lung type II epithelial cell line stressed with H2 O2 ...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782826/sheets-of-human-retinal-progenitor-transplants-improve-vision-in-rats-with-severe-retinal-degeneration
#2
Bin Lin, Bryce T McLelland, Anuradha Mathur, Robert B Aramant, Magdalene J Seiler
Loss of photoreceptors and other retinal cells is a common endpoint in retinal degenerate (RD) diseases that cause blindness. Retinal transplantation is a potential therapy to replace damaged retinal cells and improve vision. In this study, we examined the development of human fetal retinal sheets with or without their retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplanted to immunodeficient retinal degenerate rho S334ter-3 rats. Sheets were dissected from fetal human eyes (11-15.7 weeks gestation) and then transplanted to the subretinal space of 24-31 d old RD nude rats...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782810/chloride-and-sodium-ion-concentrations-in-saliva-and-sweat-as-a-method-to-diagnose-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Aline Cristina Gonçalves, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Regina Maria Holanda Mendonça, Carmen Sílvia Bertuzzo, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Carlos Emílio Levy
OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis diagnosis is dependent on the chloride ion concentration in the sweat test (≥60mEq/mL - recognized as the gold standard indicator for cystic fibrosis diagnosis). Moreover, the salivary glands express the CFTR protein in the same manner as sweat glands. Given this context, the objective was to verify the correlation of saliva chloride concentration (SaCl) and sweat chloride concentration (SwCl), and between saliva sodium concentration (SaNa) and sweat sodium concentration (SwNa), in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy control subjects, as a tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis...
May 18, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779894/epigenetic-regulation-by-baf-complexes-limits-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-by-suppressing-wnt-signaling-in-late-embryonic-development
#4
Huong Nguyen, Cemil Kerimoglu, Mehdi Pirouz, Linh Pham, Kamila A Kiszka, Godwin Sokpor, M Sadman Sakib, Joachim Rosenbusch, Ulrike Teichmann, Rho H Seong, Anastassia Stoykova, Andre Fischer, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
During early cortical development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide symmetrically to expand the progenitor pool, whereas, in later stages, NSCs divide asymmetrically to self-renew and produce other cell types. The timely switch from such proliferative to differentiative division critically determines progenitor and neuron numbers. However, the mechanisms that limit proliferative division in late cortical development are not fully understood. Here, we show that the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes restrict proliferative competence and promote neuronal differentiation in late corticogenesis...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778535/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-lpa-6-regulates-endothelial-blood-brain-barrier-function-implication-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
Kayo Masago, Yasuyuki Kihara, Keisuke Yanagida, Fumie Hamano, Shinsuke Nakagawa, Masami Niwa, Takao Shimizu
Cerebral edema is a life-threatening neurological condition characterized by brain swelling due to accumulation of excess fluid both intracellularly and extracellularly. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) develops cerebral edema by disrupting blood brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms by which mediator induces brain edema in FHF remain to be elucidated. Here, we assessed a linkage between brain edema and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling by utilizing an animal model of FHF and in vitro BBB model. Azoxymethane-treated mice developed FHF and hepatic encephalopathy, associated with higher autotaxin (ATX) activities in serum than controls...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778131/vitamin-d-receptor-level-in-biopsy-specimen-of-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-results-from-a-center-in-western-anatolia
#6
Adil Coskun, Irfan Yavasoglu, Ibrahim Meteoglu, Mustafa Unubol, Burak Yasar, Serkan Borazan, Imran Kurt Omurlu, Vahit Yukselen, M Hadi Yasa
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by uncontrolled inflammatory condition of the colon and rectal mucosa marked by recurrent periods of remission and exacerbation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the steroid receptor family that mediates the effects of vitamin D by regulating transcription of multiple cellular genes. We aimed to evaluate vitamin d receptor level in biopsy specimen of patients with UC in this study. METHODS: VDR levels were retrospectively studied in colon biopsy specimens of UC patients...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777035/septin-dependent-remodeling-of-cortical-microtubule-drives-cell-reshaping-during-epithelial-wound-healing
#7
Asako Shindo, Anastasia Audrey, Maki Takagishi, Masahide Takahashi, John B Wallingford, Makoto Kinoshita
Wounds in embryos heal rapidly through the contraction of the wound edges. Despite well-recognized significance of the actomyosin purse-string for wound closure, roles for other cytoskeletal components are largely unknown. Here, we report that the septin cytoskeleton cooperates with actomyosin and microtubules to coordinate circumferential contraction of the wound margin and concentric elongation of wound-proximal cells in Xenopus laevis embryos. Microtubules reoriented radially, forming bundles along lateral cell cortices in elongating wound-proximal cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777025/victoria-sanz-moreno-rho-together-for-cancer-research
#8
Marie Anne O'Donnell
Sanz-Moreno investigates how the cytoskeleton controls tumor biology.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776926/occurrence-of-traditional-and-alternative-fecal-indicators-in-tropical-urban-environments-under-different-land-use-patterns
#9
Nazanin Saeidi, Xiaoqiong Gu, Tran Ngoc Han, Shin Giek Goh, Masaaki Kitajima, Ariel Kushmaro, Bradley William Schmitz, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
This study evaluates the geospatial distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (i.e., E. coli , Enterococcus spp.) and the alternative fecal indicator, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), in tropical freshwater environments under different land use patterns. Results show that the occurrence and concentration of microbial fecal indicators was higher for urban-dominated areas than parkland-dominated, consistent with land use weightage. Significant positive correlations with traditional FIB indicate that PMMoV is a suitable indicator of fecal contamination in tropical catchments waters (0...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776816/patterns-and-associations-of-structural-and-functional-cutaneous-responses-during-loading-at-heel-and-sacral-skin-in-aged-females-a-reanalysis-of-clinical-study-data
#10
Eva K B Pfannes, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Jan Kottner
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore possible interrelationships and cutaneous response patterns at the heel and sacral skin due to prolonged loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skin stiffness, elasticity, roughness and transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, erythema, and temperature of n = 20 aged females (mean age 69.9 years) were measured before and after 90 and 150 min loading in supine position. Delta values were calculated and correlated using Spearman's rho...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#11
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775503/artificial-rod-and-cone-photoreceptors-with-human-like-spectral-sensitivities
#12
Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong-Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo-Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk-Jae Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Hyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim
Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774933/-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-prognostic-factor-analysis-of-carcinoma-in-remnant-stomach-cancer-at-peking-university-cancer-hospital
#13
Yinkui Wang, Ziyu Li, Chenggen Jin, Xiangji Ying, Chao Gao, Yuchen Wang, Qiyan Xiao, Yan Zhang, Yufan Chen, Lianhai Zhang, Jiafu Ji
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interval time to canceration, clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of carcinoma in remnant stomach (CRS) in patients with primary benign diseases or primary malignant tumors. METHODS: Based on the criteria of the definition of CRS proposed by Japanese Gastric Cancer Association in 2017, a retrospective analysis was conducted on clinicopathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with CRS at Peking University Cancer Hospital from March 1992 to March 2017...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774524/%C3%AE-e-catenin-is-a-candidate-tumor-suppressor-for-the-development-of-e-cadherin-expressing-lobular-type-breast-cancer
#14
Jolien S de Groot, Max A K Rätze, Miranda van Amersfoort, Tanja Eisemann, Eva J Vlug, Mijanou T Niklaas, Suet-Feung Chin, Carlos Caldas, Paul J van Diest, Jos Jonkers, Johan de Rooij, Patrick W B Derksen
Mutational inactivation of E-cadherin (CDH1) is the main driver of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC), although approximately 10-15% of all ILCs retain membrane-localized E-cadherin, despite the presence of an apparent non-cohesive and invasive lobular growth pattern. Given that ILC is dependent on constitutive actomyosin contraction for tumor development and progression, we used a combination of cell systems and in vivo experiments to investigate the consequences of α-catenin (CTNNA1) loss in the regulation of anchorage independence of non-invasive breast carcinoma...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774203/small-rho-gtpases-and-the-effector-vipa-mediate-the-invasion-of-epithelial-cells-by-filamentous-legionella-pneumophila
#15
Akriti Prashar, María Eugenia Ortiz, Stefanie Lucarelli, Elizabeth Barker, Zohreh Tabatabeiyazdi, Feras Shamoun, Deepa Raju, Costin Antonescu, Cyril Guyard, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) exhibits different morphologies with varying degrees of virulence. Despite their detection in environmental sources of outbreaks and in respiratory tract secretions and lung autopsies from patients, the filamentous morphotype of Lp remains poorly studied. We previously demonstrated that filamentous Lp invades lung epithelial cells (LECs) and replicates intracellularly in a Legionella containing vacuole. Filamentous Lp activates β1integrin and E-cadherin receptors at the surface of LECs leading to the formation of actin-rich cell membrane structures we termed hooks and membrane wraps...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773874/mutations-in-six-nephrosis-genes-delineate-a-pathogenic-pathway-amenable-to-treatment
#16
Shazia Ashraf, Hiroki Kudo, Jia Rao, Atsuo Kikuchi, Eugen Widmeier, Jennifer A Lawson, Weizhen Tan, Tobias Hermle, Jillian K Warejko, Shirlee Shril, Merlin Airik, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Svjetlana Lovric, Daniela A Braun, Heon Yung Gee, David Schapiro, Amar J Majmundar, Carolin E Sadowski, Werner L Pabst, Ankana Daga, Amelie T van der Ven, Johanna M Schmidt, Boon Chuan Low, Anjali Bansal Gupta, Brajendra K Tripathi, Jenny Wong, Kirk Campbell, Kay Metcalfe, Denny Schanze, Tetsuya Niihori, Hiroshi Kaito, Kandai Nozu, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Ryojiro Tanaka, Kiyoshi Hamahira, Yasuko Kobayashi, Takumi Takizawa, Ryo Funayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Naonori Kumagai, Kazumoto Iijima, Henry Fehrenbach, Jameela A Kari, Sherif El Desoky, Sawsan Jalalah, Radovan Bogdanovic, Nataša Stajić, Hildegard Zappel, Assel Rakhmetova, Sharon-Rose Wassmer, Therese Jungraithmayr, Juergen Strehlau, Aravind Selvin Kumar, Arvind Bagga, Neveen A Soliman, Shrikant M Mane, Lewis Kaufman, Douglas R Lowy, Mohamad A Jairajpuri, Richard P Lifton, York Pei, Martin Zenker, Shigeo Kure, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
No efficient treatment exists for nephrotic syndrome (NS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here we show mutations in six different genes (MAGI2, TNS2, DLC1, CDK20, ITSN1, ITSN2) as causing NS in 17 families with partially treatment-sensitive NS (pTSNS). These proteins interact and we delineate their roles in Rho-like small GTPase (RLSG) activity, and demonstrate deficiency for mutants of pTSNS patients. We find that CDK20 regulates DLC1. Knockdown of MAGI2, DLC1, or CDK20 in cultured podocytes reduces migration rate...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773647/altered-sterol-metabolism-in-budding-yeast-affects-mitochondrial-iron-sulfur-fe-s-cluster-synthesis
#17
Diane M Ward, Opal S Chen, Liangtao Li, Jerry Kaplan, Shah Alam Bhuiyan, Selvamuthu K Natarajan, Martin Bard, James E Cox
Ergosterol synthesis is essential for cellular growth and viability of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis are therefore highly regulated in this species. Erg25 is an iron-containing C4-methyl sterol oxidase that contributes to the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol, a precursor of ergosterol. The ERG29 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and here we identified a role for Erg29 in the methyl sterol oxidase step of ergosterol synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772762/paradoxical-effect-of-chloroquine-treatment-in-enhancing-chikungunya-virus-infection
#18
Pierre Roques, Simon-Djamel Thiberville, Laurence Dupuis-Maguiraga, Fok-Moon Lum, Karine Labadie, Frédéric Martinon, Gabriel Gras, Pierre Lebon, Lisa F P Ng, Xavier de Lamballerie, Roger Le Grand
Since 2005, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged and caused numerous outbreaks in the world, and finally, was introduced into the Americas in 2013. The lack of CHIKV-specific therapies has led to the use of non-specific drugs. Chloroquine, which is commonly used to treat febrile illnesses in the tropics, has been shown to inhibit CHIKV replication in vitro. To assess the in vivo effect of chloroquine, two complementary studies were performed: (i) a prophylactic study in a non-human primate model (NHP); and (ii) a curative study "CuraChik", which was performed during the Reunion Island outbreak in 2006 in a human cohort...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772566/the-epigenetic-factor-kdm2b-regulates-emt-and-small-gtpases-in-colon-tumor-cells
#19
Nefeli Zacharopoulou, Anna Tsapara, Galatea Kallergi, Evi Schmid, Saad Alkahtani, Saud Alarifi, Philip N Tsichlis, Sotirios C Kampranis, Christos Stournaras
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epigenetic factor KDM2B is a histone demethylase expressed in various tumors. Recently, we have shown that KDM2B regulates actin cytoskeleton organization, small Rho GTPases signaling, cell-cell adhesion and migration of prostate tumor cells. In the present study, we addressed its role in regulating EMT and small GTPases expression in colon tumor cells. METHODS: We used RT-PCR for the transcriptional analysis of various genes, Western blotting for the assessment of protein expression and immunofluorescence microscopy for visualization of fluorescently labeled proteins...
May 14, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770876/reliability-and-validity-of-the-eating-assessment-tool-10-greek-adaptation-in-neurogenic-and-head-and-neck-cancer-related-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#20
Athanasia Printza, Athanasios Kyrgidis, Elena Pavlidou, Stefanos Triaridis, Jannis Constantinidis
PURPOSE: Dysphagia is a symptom associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with profound impact on physical ability and quality of life. Many questionnaires have been used to assess patient-reported dysphagia, but issues related to developmental and measurement properties affect their wide applicability. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10, Greek adaptation) in neurogenic and head and neck cancer-related dysphagia...
May 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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