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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913681/the-borg-family-of-cdc42-effector-proteins-cdc42ep1-5
#1
REVIEW
Aaron J Farrugia, Fernando Calvo
Despite being discovered more than 15 years ago, the Borg (binder of Rho GTPases) family of Cdc42 effector proteins (Cdc42EP1-5) remains largely uncharacterised and relatively little is known about their structure, regulation and role in development and disease. Recent studies are starting to unravel some of the key functional and mechanistic aspects of the Borg proteins, including their role in cytoskeletal remodelling and signalling. In addition, the participation of Borg proteins in important cellular processes such as cell shape, directed migration and differentiation is slowly emerging, directly linking Borgs with important physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, neurotransmission and cancer-associated desmoplasia...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913679/modelling-gtpase-dynamics-to-understand-rhoa-driven-cancer-cell-invasion
#2
REVIEW
Joseph H R Hetmanski, Jean-Marc Schwartz, Patrick T Caswell
Metastasis, initially driven by cells migrating and invading through the local environment, leads to most cancer-associated deaths. Cells can use a variety of modes to move in vitro, all of which depend on Rho GTPases at some level. While traditionally it was thought that Rac1 activity drives protrusive lamellipodia at the leading edge of a polarised cell while RhoA drives rear retraction, more recent work in 3D microenvironments has revealed a much more complicated picture of GTPase dynamics. In particular, RhoA activity can dominate the leading edge polymerisation of actin to form filopodial actin-spike protrusions that drive more invasive cell migration...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911892/authorization-of-animal-experiments-is-based-on-confidence-rather-than-evidence-of-scientific-rigor
#3
Lucile Vogt, Thomas S Reichlin, Christina Nathues, Hanno Würbel
Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911772/c-terminal-domain-ctd-phosphatase-links-rho-gtpase-signaling-to-pol-ii-ctd-phosphorylation-in-arabidopsis-and-yeast
#4
Bo Zhang, Guohua Yang, Yu Chen, Yihong Zhao, Peng Gao, Bo Liu, Haiyang Wang, Zhi-Liang Zheng
Rho GTPases, including the Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and ROP subfamilies, act as pivotal signaling switches in various growth and developmental processes. Compared with the well-defined role of cytoskeletal organization in Rho signaling, much less is known regarding transcriptional regulation. In a mutant screen for phenotypic enhancers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of ROP2 (designated CA1-1), we identified RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) as a transcriptional regulator of ROP2 signaling...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911106/time-course-of-conjunctival-hyperemia-induced-by-a-rho-kinase-inhibitor-anti-glaucoma-eye-drop-ripasudil-0-4
#5
Etsuko Terao, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yasuko Fujisawa, Yuki Fujio, Kanae Matsuya, Yui Kobayashi, Hitoshi Tabuchi, Tsuyoshi Yoneda, Atsuki Fukushima, Yoshiaki Kiuchi
PURPOSE: We investigated the detailed time course of conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4%, a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor anti-glaucoma eye drop, in healthy subjects. METHODS: We recruited 51 healthy subjects and administered ripasudil 0.4% in their right eye. We evaluated conjunctival hyperemia using slit lamp photography and measured the intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Icare PRO Rebound Tonometer at baseline and after 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910983/investigation-and-intervention-of-autophagy-to-guide-cancer-treatment-with-nanogels
#6
Xudong Zhang, Xin Liang, Jianjun Gu, Danfeng Chang, Jinxie Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Wei Tao, Xiaowei Zeng, Gan Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Lin Mei, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells use autophagy to resist poor survival environmental conditions such as low PH, poor nutrients as well as chemical therapy. Nanogels have been used as efficient chemical drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, the effect of nanogels on autophagy is still unknown. Here, we used Rab proteins as the marker of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis and LC3 as the marker of autophagy to investigate the intracellular trafficking network of Rhodamine B (Rho)-labeled nanogels. The nanogels were internalized by the cells through multiple protein dependent endocytosis and micropinocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910904/melanosome-transfer-to-keratinocyte-in-the-chicken-embryonic-skin-is-mediated-by-vesicle-release-associated-with-rho-regulated-membrane-blebbing
#7
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Hidetaka Murai, Ken-Ichiro Sakai, Takahiro Okui, Yasuhiro Yokota, Yoshiko Takahashi
During skin pigmentation in amniotes, melanin synthesized in the melanocyte is transferred to keratinocytes by a particle called the melanosome. Previous studies, mostly using dissociated cultured cells, have proposed several different models that explain how the melanosome transfer is achieved. Here, using a technique that labels the plasma membrane of melanocytes within a three-dimensional system that mimics natural tissues, we have visualized the plasma membrane of melanocytes with EGFP in chicken embryonic skin...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909683/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-s-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Jilly Naaijen, Natalie J Forde, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaira J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently investigated in prior studies. METHOD: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in children between 8 and 12 years of age (TD n = 15, ADHD n = 39, TD + ADHD n = 29, and healthy controls n = 53) as an in vivo method of evaluating glutamate concentrations in the fronto-striatal circuit...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909410/mechanosensitive-molecular-networks-involved-in-transducing-resistance-exercise-signals-into-muscle-protein-accretion
#9
REVIEW
Emil Rindom, Kristian Vissing
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909370/development-of-a-telephone-interview-version-of-the-chedoke-mcmaster-stroke-assessment-activity-inventory
#10
Ruth Barclay, Patricia A Miller, Sepideh Pooyania, Paul Stratford
Purpose: To develop a telephone version of the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment Activity Inventory (CMSA-AI) and estimate the test-retest reliability, interrater reliability (between participant and proxy), and construct validity of the scores for individuals with stroke. Methods: Adults with stroke and their caregivers or proxies were included. Participants were assessed with the CMSA-AI at discharge from a stroke rehabilitation unit and interviewed using the telephone version (TCMSA-AI). Two months after discharge, participants were evaluated with the CMSA-AI and interviewed over the phone using the TCMSA-AI on two occasions 2-3 days apart...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908688/increased-production-of-l-serine-in-escherichia-coli-through-adaptive-laboratory-evolution
#11
Hemanshu Mundhada, Jose S Miguel, Konstantin Schneider, Anna Koza, Hanne B Christensen, Tobias Klein, Patrick V Phaneuf, Markus Herrgard, Adam M Feist, Alex T Nielsen
L-serine is a promising building block biochemical with a high theoretical production yield from glucose. Toxicity of L-serine is however prohibitive for high-titer production in E. coli. Here, E. coli lacking L-serine degradation pathways was evolved for improved tolerance by gradually increasing L-serine concentration from 3 to 100g/L using adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). Genome sequencing of isolated clones revealed multiplication of genetic regions, as well as mutations in thrA, thereby showing a potential mechanism of serine inhibition...
November 28, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907191/trio-a-rho-family-gef-interacts-with-the-presynaptic-active-zone-proteins-piccolo-and-bassoon
#12
Ryan T Terry-Lorenzo, Viviana I Torres, Dhananjay Wagh, Jose Galaz, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Clarissa L Waites, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Richard J Reimer, Craig C Garner
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906964/undernutrition-vitamin-a-and-iron-deficiency-are-associated-with-impaired-intestinal-mucosal-permeability-in-young-bangladeshi-children-assessed-by-lactulose-mannitol-test
#13
Md Iqbal Hossain, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Am Shamsir Ahmed, M Munirul Islam, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lactulose/mannitol (L:M) test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy). We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children. METHODS: The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) following standard procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906453/syk-inhibition-blocks-airway-constriction-and-protects-from-th2-induced-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-mice
#14
Christoph Tabeling, Julia Herbert, Andreas C Hocke, David Lamb, Lutz Wollin, Klaus Erb, Ekaterina Boiarina, Hesam Movassagh, Jörg Scheffel, Jan M Doehn, Stefan Hippenstiel, Marcus Maurer, Abdelilah S Gounni, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
BACKGROUND: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which has been implicated as central immune modulator promoting allergic airway inflammation. Syk inhibition has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach in asthma. However, the direct effects of Syk inhibition on airway constriction independent of allergen sensitization remain elusive. METHODS: Spectral confocal microscopy of human and murine lung tissue was performed to localize Syk expression...
December 1, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904175/biostatistics-series-module-6-correlation-and-linear-regression
#15
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Correlation and linear regression are the most commonly used techniques for quantifying the association between two numeric variables. Correlation quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between paired variables, expressing this as a correlation coefficient. If both variables x and y are normally distributed, we calculate Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). If normality assumption is not met for one or both variables in a correlation analysis, a rank correlation coefficient, such as Spearman's rho (ρ) may be calculated...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904131/mir-31-regulates-rho-associated-kinase-myosin-light-chain-rock-mlc-pathway-and-inhibits-gastric-cancer-invasion-roles-of-rhoa
#16
Zhuo Chen, Shengnan Liu, Yuan Xia, Kejian Wu
BACKGROUND This study evaluated how the expression of miR-31 can be used to detect gastric cancer (GC) to help illuminate the role of miR-31 and RhoA in GC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out our experiments using tissue specimens from 70 GC patients. The relative expression of miR-31 and RhoA mRNA in tissues and cells was detected by RT-PCR. The expression level of RhoA protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. GC cell line BGC-823 was transfected with six groups of vectors: blank group, NC (negative control) group, miR-31 mimics group, miR-31 mimics + RhoA group, miR-31 mimics + ROCK group, and miR-31 mimics + MLCK agonist group...
December 1, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904039/role-of-rac1-wave2-signaling-in-mediating-the-inhibitory-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-on-mammary-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#17
Ibrahim Gayadh Algayadh, Venkateshwararao Dronamraju, Paul William Sylvester
The majority of breast cancer deaths result from the progression of this disease to a metastatic phenotype. Rac1 and Cdc42 are Rho family members that together with their downstream effectors, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2) and Arp2/3, play an important role in cytoskeletal reorganization and the formation of membrane protrusions that promote cancer cell migration and invasion. γ-Tocotrienol, is a natural isoform within the vitamin E family of compounds that inhibits breast cancer cell growth and progression by suppressing various signaling pathways involved in mitogenic signaling and metastatic progression...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901299/first-steps-in-validating-the-pediatric-anesthesia-parent-satisfaction-paps-survey
#18
Sarah J Milliken-Glabe, Jeannie Zuk, Sonja I Ziniel, Kara A Bjur, Monica Alvarez, Judit M Szolnoki, Norah R Janosy
BACKGROUND: In the last few decades, patient satisfaction has become a critical component of quality assessment and is being incorporated into payment for performance plans. However, assessment of satisfaction with anesthesia services is problematic and few validated satisfaction tools have been published. Assessing parent satisfaction with pediatric anesthesia services is even more challenging. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop, implement, and start validating a set of survey questions that evaluate parental satisfaction with the pediatric anesthesia services in order to identify strengths and potential areas for improvement...
November 30, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899881/transcriptomics-of-environmental-enrichment-reveals-a-role-for-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-addiction
#20
Yafang Zhang, Fanping Kong, Elizabeth J Crofton, Steven N Dragosljvich, Mala Sinha, Dingge Li, Xiuzhen Fan, Shyny Koshy, Jonathan D Hommel, Heidi M Spratt, Bruce A Luxon, Thomas A Green
There exists much variability in susceptibility/resilience to addiction in humans. The environmental enrichment paradigm is a rat model of resilience to addiction-like behavior, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective phenotype may lead to novel targets for pharmacotherapeutics to treat cocaine addiction. We investigated the differential regulation of transcript levels using RNA sequencing of the rat nucleus accumbens after environmental enrichment/isolation and cocaine/saline self-administration...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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