keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

defense

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927159/diagnostic-value-of-inflammatory-cell-infiltrates-tumor-stroma-percentage-and-disease-free-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#1
Katarzyna Jakubowska, Wojciech Kisielewski, Luiza Kańczuga-Koda, Mariusz Koda, Waldemar Famulski
The anticancer immune defense mechanism involves humoral and cellular responses. The main effector mechanisms of antitumor responses involve the following: the activity of cytotoxic T cells; the activation of macrophages and neutrophils; the activity of cytokines secreted by T cells; and natural killer cell activity. Selected cell populations are responsible for the stimulation or suppression of the immune system against tumor cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the location, extent and composition of the cellular inflammatory infiltration of tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927034/cyclin-d3-deficiency-inhibits-skin-tumor-development-but-does-not-affect-normal-keratinocyte-proliferation
#2
Sung Hyun Lee, Xian Wang, Sun Hye Kim, Yongbaek Kim, Marcelo L Rodriguez-Puebla
Rearrangement and amplification of the D-type cyclin genes have been reported in human cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that Ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis depends on pathways that act through cyclin D1 and D2; however, the role of cyclin D3 remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that cyclin D3 ablation does not affect keratinocyte proliferation, but instead increases apoptosis levels in the bulge region of the hair follicle. Consequently, cyclin D3 ablation reduces skin papilloma development in a Ras-dependent carcinogenesis model...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926983/expression-of-the-grape-vasts19-gene-in-arabidopsis-improves-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-botrytis-cinerea-but-increases-susceptibility-to-pseudomonas-syringe-pv-tomato-dc3000
#3
Yaqiong Wang, Dejun Wang, Fan Wang, Li Huang, Xiaomin Tian, Steve van Nocker, Hua Gao, Xiping Wang
Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#4
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926758/some-aspects-of-the-iodine-metabolism-of-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-phaeophyceae
#5
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926741/cellular-glutathione-levels-in-hl-60-cells-during-respiratory-burst-are-not-correlated-with-ultra-weak-photon-emission
#6
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Wei Zhang, Eduard P A van Wijk, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar, Jan van der Greef
Recently, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was developed as a novel tool for measuring oxidative metabolic processes, as its generation is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both an imbalance in ROS or the uncontrolled production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, which is commonly associated with many diseases. In addition to playing several biological functions, the thiol amino acid glutathione has an important antioxidant function in the body's defense against ROS. Specifically, glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain oxidant levels...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926584/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-anthelmintic-effects-of-procyanidins-in-c-elegans
#7
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926127/recall-features-and-allorecognition-in-innate-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Hirofumi Uehara, Koichiro Minami, Markus Quante, Yeqi Nian, Timm Heinbokel, Haruhito Azuma, Abdala El Khal, Stefan G Tullius
Alloimmunity traditionally distinguishes short-lived, rapid and non-specific innate immune responses from adaptive immune responses that are characterized by a highly specific response initiated in a delayed fashion. Key players of innate immunity such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages present the first-line defense of immunity. The concept of unspecific responses in innate immunity has recently been challenged. The discovery of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) has demonstrated that innate immune cells respond in a semi-specific fashion through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) representing conserved molecular structures shared by large groups of microorganisms...
September 19, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925548/a-bifunctional-catalase-peroxidase-makatg1-contributes-to-virulence-of-metarhizium-acridum-by-overcoming-oxidative-stress-on-the-host-insect-cuticle
#9
Guohong Li, Anni Fan, Guoxiong Peng, Nemat O Keyhani, Jiankang Xin, Yueqing Cao, Yuxian Xia
Microbial pathogens are exposed to damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced from a variety of sources including chemical reactions due to exposure to stress (UV, heat) or by hosts as a defense response. Here we demonstrate that a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase, MakatG1, in the locust-specific fungal pathogen, Metarhizium acridum, functions as a ROS detoxification mechanism during host cuticle penetration. MakatG1 expression was highly induced during on-cuticle appressoria development as compared to vegetative (mycelia) growth or during in vivo growth in the insect hemocoel...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924722/evaluation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-ho-1-in-cd-and-ni-induced-cytotoxicity-and-crosstalk-with-ros-quenching-enzymes-in-two-to-four-leaf-stage-seedlings-of-vigna-radiata
#10
Lovely Mahawar, Rajesh Kumar, Gyan Singh Shekhawat
Research on heme oxygenase in plants has received consideration in recent years due to its several roles in development, defense, and metabolism during various environmental stresses. In the current investigation, the role of heme oxygenase (HO) 1 was evaluated in reducing heavy metal (Cd and Ni) uptake and alleviating Cd and Ni toxicity effects in the hydroponically grown seedlings of Vigna radiata var. PDM 54. Seedlings were subjected to Cd- and Ni-induced oxidative stress independently at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM...
September 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#11
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924552/schisandra-sphenanthera-extract-wuzhi-tablet-protects-against-chronic-binge-and-acute-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-by-regulating-the-nrf2-are-pathway-in-mice
#12
Xuezhen Zeng, Xi Li, Chenshu Xu, Fulin Jiang, Yufei Mo, Xiaomei Fan, Yaoting Li, Yiming Jiang, Dongshun Li, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Alcohol abuse leads to alcoholic liver disease and no effective therapy is currently available. Wuzhi Tablet (WZ), a preparation of extract from Schisandra sphenanthera that is a traditional hepato-protective herb, exerted a significant protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in our recent studies, but whether WZ can alleviate alcohol-induced toxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of WZ to alcohol-induced liver injury by using chronic-binge and acute models of alcohol feeding...
September 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#13
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923525/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-the-hemocytes-from-the-pearl-oyster-pteria-hirundo-and-their-immune-responses-against-vibrio-infections
#14
Graziela Cleuza Vieira, Patrícia Mirella da Silva, Margherita Anna Barracco, Augusto Ferrari Hering, Marcos Caivano Pedroso de Albuquerque, Jaqueline da Rosa Coelho, Éder Carlos Schmidt, Zenilda Laurita Bouzon, Rafael Diego Rosa, Luciane Maria Perazzolo
Hemocyte populations of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo were characterized at morphological, ultrastructural and functional levels. Three main hemocyte populations were identified: hyalinocytes, granulocytes and blast-like cells. Hyalinocytes were the most abundant population (88.2%) characterized by the presence of few or no granules in the cytoplasm and composed by two subpopulations, large and small hyalinocytes. Comparatively, granulocytes represented 2.2% of the hemocyte population and were characterized by the presence of numerous large electron-lucid granules in the cytoplasm...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923524/mandarin-fish-p53-genomic-structure-alternatively-spliced-variant-and-its-mrna-expression-after-virus-challenge
#15
Huizhi Guo, Xiaozhe Fu, Qiang Lin, Lihui Liu, Hongru Liang, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li, Jianguo Su
A number of size variants of the p53 protein have been described in mammal, but little is known about alternative splicing of p53 expression and function in the fish. In our previous study, the immune defense and antiviral responses of p53 had been determined in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). However, the role of its splicing variants remains unknown. In the present study, the organization of mandarin fish p53 (Sc-p53) genome sequence was determined and a novel splice variant was characterized. The Sc-p53 genomic sequence was composed of 5543 bp, containing 11 exons and 10 introns, which was similar to other species...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923341/acute-toxicity-bioconcentration-elimination-and-antioxidant-effects-of-fluralaner-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Zhong-Qiang Jia, Di Liu, Cheng-Wang Sheng, John E Casida, Chen Wang, Ping-Ping Song, Yu-Ming Chen, Zhao-Jun Han, Chun-Qing Zhao
Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline insecticide which shows high insecticidal activity against parasitic, sanitary and agricultural pests, but there is little information about the effect of fluralaner on non-target organisms. This study reports the acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant response of fluralaner in zebrafish. All LC50 values of fluralaner to zebrafish were higher than 10 mg L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. To study the bioconcentration and elimination, the zebrafish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of fluralaner (2...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923242/epichlo%C3%A3-fungal-endophytes-and-plant-defenses-not-just-alkaloids
#17
REVIEW
Daniel A Bastias, M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Carlos L Ballaré, Pedro E Gundel
Although the role of fungal alkaloids in protecting grasses associated with Epichloë fungal endophytes has been extensively documented, the effects of the symbiont on the host plant's immune responses have received little attention. We propose that, in addition to producing protective alkaloids, endophytes enhance plant immunity against chewing insects by promoting endogenous defense responses mediated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We advance a model that integrates this dual effect of endophytes on plant defenses and test its predictions by means of a standard meta-analysis...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923159/the-extended-trust-hypothesis-single-attractor-self-contagion-in-day-to-day-changes-in-implicit-positive-affect-predicts-action-oriented-coping-and-psychological-symptoms
#18
Julius Kuhl, Olga Mitina, Sander L Koole
According to the extended trust hypothesis, the ability to cope with negative experiences is grounded in intuitive positive feelings about one's existence (Kuhl, Quirin, & Koole, 2015). In the present study, the authors empirically tested this hypothesis by examining the nonlinear dynamics in a series of day-to-day autoregressive functions of affective states taken from a 30-day daily mood diary study among 40 participants. A parameter (?) related to the asymptotic level of day-to-day changes in implicit positive mood predicted action orientation, a personality variable that relates to coping with negative affect, and psychological symptoms...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923062/tissue-resident-stem-cell-activity-a-view-from-the-adult-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract
#19
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The gastrointestinal tract serves as a fast-renewing model for unraveling the multifaceted molecular mechanisms underlying remarkably rapid cell renewal, which is exclusively fueled by a small number of long-lived stem cells and their progeny. Stem cell activity is the best-characterized aspect of mucosal homeostasis in mitotically active tissues, and the dysregulation of regenerative capacity is a hallmark of epithelial immune defects. This dysregulation is frequently associated with pathologies ranging from chronic enteritis to malignancies in humans...
September 18, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922750/identification-of-iridoid-glucoside-transporters-in-catharanthus-roseus
#20
Bo Larsen, Victoria L Fuller, Jacob Pollier, Alex Van Moerkercke, Fabian Schweizer, Richard Payne, Maite Colinas, Sarah E O'Connor, Alain Goossens, Barbara A Halkier
Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) are plant defense compounds and high-value pharmaceuticals. Biosynthesis of the universal MIA precursor, secologanin, is organized between internal phloem-associated parenchyma (IPAP) and epidermis cells. Transporters for intercellular transport of proposed mobile pathway intermediates have remained elusive. Screening of an Arabidopsis thaliana transporter library expressed in Xenopus oocytes identified AtNPF2.9 as a putative iridoid glucoside importer. Eight orthologs were identified in Catharanthus roseus, of which three, CrNPF2...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
keyword
keyword
67264
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"