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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793202/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-earthworm-eisenia-fetida-response-to-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#1
Xing Wang, Xiaoqin Li, Zhenjun Sun
Soil environment contaminated by Escherichia coli O157:H7 which come from the waste of infected animals. Earthworms can live in the pathogens-polluted soil by their innate immunity. How the proteins of earthworms E. fetida will response to E. coli O157:H7-contaminated-soil still unclear? To identify the defense proteins under E. coli O157:H7 stress, we performed a proteomic analysis of earthworm under E. coli O157:H7 exposure through an iTRAQ technology. In total, we found 283 non-redundant proteins, including fibrinolytic protease 1, lombricine kinase, lysozyme, gelsolin, coelomic cytolytic factor-1, antimicrobial peptide lumbricin-l, lysenin, and et al...
May 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793076/porcine-circovirus-type-2-inhibits-inter-%C3%AE-expression-by-targeting-karyopherin-alpha-3-in-pk-15-cells
#2
Jiansheng Li, Mingqing Lu, Bei Huang, Yingjun Lv
Interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response is an important part of host defense. Previous studies reported that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) inhibits interferon production, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, PCV2 suppresses IFN-β and IRF3 promoters and mRNA level of IFN-β induced by ISD or Poly(I:C), but has no effect on the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Furthermore, PCV2 decreases the mRNA level of IFN-β and IFN-β promoter activity driven by STING, TBK1, IRF3, and IRF3/5D, and causes a reduction in the protein level of nuclear p-IRF3...
May 21, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792813/metabolomics-reveals-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-copper-induced-cucumber-leaf-cucumis-sativus-senescence
#3
Lijuan Zhao, Yuxiong Huang, Kelly Paglia, Arpana Vaniya, Benjamin Wancewicz, Arturo A Keller
Excess copper may disturb plant photosynthesis and induce leaf senescence. The underlying toxicity mechanism is not well understood. Here, 3-week-old cucumber plants were foliar exposed to different copper concentrations (10, 100 and 500 mg/L) for a final dose of 0.21, 2.1 and 10 mg/plant, using CuSO4 as the Cu ion source for seven days, three times per day. Metabolomics quantified 149 primary and 79 secondary metabolites. A number of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were significantly down-regulated 1...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792572/galnac-sirna-conjugates-leading-the-way-for-delivery-of-rnai-therapeutics
#4
Aaron D Springer, Steven F Dowdy
Short-interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced RNAi responses have great potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases from cancer to pandemic viral outbreaks to Parkinson's Disease. However, before siRNAs can become drugs, they must overcome a billion years of evolutionary defenses designed to keep invading RNAs on the outside cells from getting to the inside of cells. Not surprisingly, significant effort has been placed in developing a wide array of delivery technologies. Foremost of these has been the development of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver...
May 24, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792456/teamwork-situated-in-multiteam-systems-key-lessons-learned-and-future-opportunities
#5
Marissa L Shuffler, Dorothy R Carter
Many important contexts requiring teamwork, including health care, space exploration, national defense, and scientific discovery, present important challenges that cannot be addressed by a single team working independently. Instead, the complex goals these contexts present often require effectively coordinated efforts of multiple specialized teams working together as a multiteam system (MTS). For almost 2 decades, researchers have endeavored to understand the novelties and nuances for teamwork and collaboration that ensue when teams operate together as "component teams" in these interdependent systems...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792391/role-of-neutrophils-in-equine-asthma
#6
Benjamin Uberti, Gabriel Morán
Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
May 24, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791596/treatment-with-ilex-paraguariensis-yerba-mate-aqueous-solution-prevents-hepatic-redox-imbalance-elevated-triglycerides-and-microsteatosis-in-overweight-adult-rats-that-were-precociously-weaned
#7
E de Oliveira, N S Lima, E P S Conceição, N Peixoto-Silva, E G Moura, P C Lisboa
Early weaning (EW) leads to overweight, visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, and insulin resistance in adulthood. Treatment with Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) improves obesity and insulin resistance in these animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic treatment with yerba mate on the redox balance and liver morphology of overweight early-weaned rats. To induce EW, we wrapped the dams with bandages to interrupt milk access during the last 3 days of lactation. Control pups (C) had free access to maternal milk for the full 21 days of lactation...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791456/multi-species-suppression-of-herbivores-through-consumptive-and-non-consumptive-effects
#8
Kathryn S Ingerslew, Deborah L Finke
Most studies investigating the importance of non-consumptive interactions for herbivore suppression focus on pairwise interactions between one predator and one prey, ignoring any community context. Further, the potential for non-consumptive interactions to arise between herbivores and non-enemy organisms is commonly overlooked. We investigated the relative contributions of consumptive and non-consumptive effects to aphid suppression by a wasp assemblage containing both enemies and non-enemies. We examined the suppression of two aphid species with different defensive strategies, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which drop from their host plant to the ground, and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae), which remain on the plant and merely walk away...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790585/the-intracellular-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-slnrc4a-enhances-immune-signaling-elicited-by-extracellular-perception
#9
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Lorena Pizarro, Silvia Schuster, Z J Daniel Lin, Ofir Gershony, Maya Bar, Gitta Coaker, Adi Avni
Plant recognition and defense against pathogens employs a two-tiered perception system. Surface localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) act to recognize microbial features, while intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) directly or indirectly recognize pathogen effectors inside host cells. Employing the tomato PRR LeEIX2/EIX model system, we explored the molecular mechanism of signaling pathways. We identified an NLR that can associate with LeEIX2, termed SlNRC4a (NB-LRR Required for HR-associated Cell death-4)...
May 23, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790090/enhancement-of-broodstock-health-and-maternal-immunity-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-using-excelmos%C3%A2
#10
N M AbouShabana, R AbdelKader, S Abdel-Rahman, H S Abdel-Gawad, A M Abdel-Galil
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of ExcelMOS® in enhancing the immune system of Sparus aurata broodstock and their impact on offspring health through displaying the maternal transfer of immunity. Broodstock were divided into two groups: one was injected intraperitoneally with ExcelMOS® 1 month before spawning, while the other group was used as a control (without injection). Comprehensive increase in survival rate was observed for larvae hatched from ExcelMOS®-injected broodstock than those of the control (P ≤ 0...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789892/-the-significance-of-climate-and-environment-protection-for-health-under-special-consideration-of-skin-barrier-damages-and-allergic-sequelae
#11
REVIEW
Clemens Heuson, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann
The skin, together with gut and respiratory tract, harbor a central epithelial barrier function in regards to the interaction of an individual with the environment. Continuing exposure to environmental influences can cause epithelial barrier damages and thus pave the way for atopy development. The latter describes the tendency for allergies, i. e. hypersensitivity of the skin, intestine, and respiratory tract towards per se unharmful environmental substances.Allergies are classified as non-communicable diseases (NCDs)...
May 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789867/map-kinase-signalling-interplays-between-plant-pamp-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Karen Thulasi Devendrakumar, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang
In plants, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in regulating many biological processes including immunity. They relay signals from membrane-residing immune receptors to downstream components for defense activation. Arabidopsis MPK3/6 and MPK4 are activated in two parallel MAPK cascades during PAMP-triggered immunity. MPK3/6 have been implicated in the activation of various immune responses and their inactivation leads to compromised defense against pathogens. On the other hand, the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade plays critical roles in basal resistance...
May 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789656/distribution-of-different-surface-modified-carbon-dots-in-pumpkin-seedlings
#13
Kun Qian, Huiyuan Guo, Guangcai Chen, Chuanxin Ma, Baoshan Xing
The distribution of surface modified carbon dots (CDs) in the pumpkin seedlings was studied by visualization techniques and their potential phytotoxicity was investigated at both the physiological and biochemical levels. The average size of carbon dots was approximately 4 nm. The fluorescent peaks of bared CDs, CD-PEI and CD-PAA were between 420 nm and 500 nm, indicating CDs could emit blue and green fluorescence. Fluorescent images showed that all three types of CDs could accumulate in the pumpkin roots and translocate to the shoots, although the distribution pattern of each CDs was obviously different...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789617/functional-analysis-of-eliciting-plant-response-protein-epl1-tas-from-trichoderma-asperellum-accc30536
#14
Wenjing Yu, Gulijimila Mijiti, Ying Huang, Haijuan Fan, Yucheng Wang, Zhihua Liu
Eliciting plant response protein (Epl) is a small Trichoderma secreted protein that acts as an elicitor to induce plant defense responses against pathogens. In the present study, the differential expression, promoter analysis, and phylogenetic tree analysis of Epl1-Tas (GenBank JN966996) from T. asperellum ACCC30536 were performed. The results showed Epl1-Tas could play an important role in the interaction between T. asperellum ACCC30536 and woody plant or woody plant pathogen. Furthermore, the effect of the Escherichia coli recombinant protein rEpl1-e and the Pichia pastoris recombinant protein rEpl1-p on Populus davidiana × P...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789416/macrophage-derived-granulin-drives-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Michael C Schmid, Valeria Quaranta, Carolyn Rainer, Sebastian Rune Nielsen, Meirion Llŷr Raymant, Muhammad S Ahmed, Dannielle D Engle, Arthur Taylor, Trish Murray, Fiona Campbell, Daniel H Palmer, David A Tuveson, Ainhoa Mielgo
The ability of disseminated cancer cells to evade the immune response is a critical step for efficient metastatic progression. Protection against an immune attack is often provided by the tumor microenvironment that suppresses and excludes cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive metastatic disease with unmet needs, yet the immunoprotective role of the metastatic tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer is not completely understood. In this study we find that macrophage-derived granulin contributes to cytotoxic CD8+ T cell exclusion in metastatic livers...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789386/antagonistic-interactions-between-two-map-kinase-cascades-in-plant-development-and-immune-signaling
#16
Tongjun Sun, Yukino Nitta, Qian Zhang, Di Wu, Hainan Tian, Jin Suk Lee, Yuelin Zhang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling plays important roles in diverse biological processes. In Arabidopsis , MPK3/MPK6, MKK4/MKK5, and the MAPKKK YODA (YDA) form a MAPK pathway that negatively regulates stomatal development. Brassinosteroid (BR) stimulates this pathway to inhibit stomata production. In addition, MPK3/MPK6 and MKK4/MKK5 also serve as critical signaling components in plant immunity. Here, we report that MAPKKK3/MAPKKK5 form a kinase cascade with MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6 to transduce defense signals downstream of multiple plant receptor kinases...
May 22, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789252/a-history-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-at-the-national-football-league-combine-results-in-inferior-early-national-football-league-career-participation
#17
Matthew T Provencher, James P Bradley, Jorge Chahla, Anthony Sanchez, Brendin R Beaulieu-Jones, Justin W Arner, Nicholas I Kennedy, George Sanchez, Mitchell I Kennedy, Gilbert Moatshe, Mark E Cinque, Robert F LaPrade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether players with a history of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) before the National Football League (NFL) Combine played or started fewer games and/or participated in fewer eligible snaps compared with NFL Combine participants without a history of knee injury or surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all players who participated in the NFL Combine between 2009 and 2015 and who had a history of an ACLR...
May 19, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788446/differential-response-to-heat-stress-in-outer-and-inner-onion-bulb-scales
#18
Ortal Galsurker, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Paula Teper-Bamnolker, Avinoam Daus, Amnon Lers, Dani Eshel
Brown protective skin formation in onion bulbs can be induced by rapid postharvest heat treatment. Onions that were peeled to different depths and were exposed to heat stress showed that only the outer scale formed dry brown skin, whereas the inner scales maintained high water content and did not change color. Our results reveal that browning of the outer scale during heat treatment is due to an enzymatic process that is associated with high levels of oxidation components, such as peroxidase and quercetin glucoside...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788209/musculoskeletal-injuries-among-female-soldiers-working-with-dogs
#19
Haggai Schermann, Isabella Karakis, Ran Ankory, Assaf Kadar, Victoria Yoffe, Amir Shlaifer, Ran Yanovich
Introduction: Female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Forces canine unit may be at increased risk of overuse injuries related to working with military dogs. We hypothesized that this particular type of occupational exposure may lead to an increased strain of the upper extremity due to such non-physiologic motions as pulling the dog's strap or resisting the sudden pulling by the dog, and may result in an increased rate of overuse injuries. Materials and Methods: We compared incidence of overuse injuries in a retrospective cohort of female soldiers who served either in the military working dogs' unit (MWD), or in the light infantry battalions (Infantry) from 2005 to 2015...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788052/fast-evolution-and-lineage-specific-gene-family-expansions-of-aphid-salivary-effectors-driven-by-interactions-with-host-plants
#20
Hélène Boulain, Fabrice Legeai, Endrick Guy, Stéphanie Morlière, Nadine E Douglas, Jonghee Oh, Marimuthu Murugan, Michael Smith, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean Peccoud, Frank F White, James C Carolan, Jean-Christophe Simon, Akiko Sugio
Effector proteins play crucial roles in plant-parasite interactions by suppressing plant defenses and hijacking plant physiological responses to facilitate parasite invasion and propagation. Although effector proteins have been characterized in many microbial plant pathogens, their nature and role in adaptation to host plants are largely unknown in insect herbivores. Aphids rely on salivary effector proteins injected into the host plants to promote phloem sap uptake. Therefore, gaining insight into the repertoire and evolution of aphid effectors is key to unveiling the mechanisms responsible for aphid virulence and host plant specialization...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
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