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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#1
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212093/predicting-antimicrobial-peptides-by-using-increment-of-diversity-with-quadratic-discriminant-analysis-method
#2
Pengmian Feng, Zhenyi Wang, Xiaoyu Yu
Antimicrobial peptides are crucial components of the innate host defense system of most living organisms and promising candidates for antimicrobial agents. Accurate classification of antimicrobial peptides will be helpful to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In this work, the Increment of Diversity with Quadratic Discriminant analysis (IDQD) was presented to classify antifungal and antibacterial peptides based on primary sequence information. In the jackknife test, the proposed IDQD model yields an accuracy of 86...
February 14, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211478/ecology-and-genetics-affect-relative-invasion-success-of-two-echium-species-in-southern-australia
#3
Xiaocheng Zhu, Paul A Weston, Dominik Skoneczny, David Gopurenko, Lucie Meyer, Brendan J Lepschi, Ragan M Callaway, Geoff M Gurr, Leslie A Weston
Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare are congeneric exotics first introduced to Australia in the early 1800 s. There, E. plantagineum is now highly invasive, whereas E. vulgare has a limited distribution. Studies were conducted to evaluate distribution, ecology, genetics and secondary chemistry to shed light on factors associated with their respective invasive success. When sampled across geographically diverse locales, E. plantagineum was widespread and exhibited a small genome size (1 C = 0.34 pg), an annual life cycle, and greater genetic diversity as assessed by DNA sequence analysis...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211036/unconscious-phantasy-as-a-structural-principle-and-organizer-of-mental-life-the-evolution-of-a-concept-from-freud-to-klein-and-some-of-her-successors
#4
Heinz Weiss
Starting with Freud's discovery of unconscious phantasy as a means of accessing his patients' internal world, the author discusses the evolution of the concept in the work of Melanie Klein and some of her successors. Whereas Freud sees phantasy as a wish fulfilling imagination, dominated by primary process functioning and kept apart from reality testing, Klein understands phantasies as a structural function and organizer of mental life. From their very beginnings they involve object relations and gradually evolve from primitive body-near experiences to images and symbolic representations...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#5
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210345/the-dutch-technical-tactical-tennis-test-d4t-for-talent-identification-and-development-psychometric-characteristics
#6
Nikki Kolman, Barbara Huijgen, Tamara Kramer, Marije Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher
This study examined the test-retest reliability, validity and feasibility of the newly developed Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test (D4T). This new test is relevant for talent identification and development in tennis. Thirty-two youth male tennis players (age 13.4 ± 0.5) were classified as elite (n = 15) or sub-elite (n = 17) according to their position on the national youth ranking list under 15 years (cut-off rank 50) in the Netherlands. Games, rallies and different tactical situations (i.e. offensive, neutral and defensive) were simulated with a ball machine...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210262/morphoproteomic-guided-host-directed-therapy-for-tuberculosis
#7
Robert E Brown, Robert L Hunter, Shen-An Hwang
In an effort to develop more effective therapy for tuberculosis (TB), research efforts are looking toward host-directed therapy, reprograming the body's natural defenses to better control the infection. While significant progress is being made, the efforts are limited by lack of understanding of the pathology and pathogenesis of adult type TB disease. We have recently published evidence that the developing lesions in human lungs are focal endogenous lipid pneumonia that constitutes a region of local susceptibility in a person with strong systemic immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209191/knowledge-of-caries-risk-factors-indicators-among-japanese-and-irish-adult-patients-with-different-socio-economic-profiles-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Makiko Nishi, Máiréad Harding, Virginia Kelleher, Helen Whelton, Finbarr Allen
BACKGROUND: A previous study has shown deficient knowledge of caries risk factors/indicators in a Japanese adult population regarded to have a high interest in preventive dentistry. No prior research has investigated caries risk knowledge in an Irish adult population. We hypothesise there may be unexpected differences or similarities in knowledge across countries with similar levels of economic development when comparing groups with different socio-economic and cultural profiles. Understanding what influences knowledge is important for the development of effective and efficient caries prevention strategies...
February 16, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209137/transcriptional-analysis-of-defense-mechanisms-in-upland-tetraploid-switchgrass-to-greenbugs
#10
Teresa Donze-Reiner, Nathan A Palmer, Erin D Scully, Travis J Prochaska, Kyle G Koch, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Jeffrey D Bradshaw, Paul Twigg, Keenan Amundsen, Scott E Sattler, Gautam Sarath
BACKGROUND: Aphid infestation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has the potential to reduce yields and biomass quality. Although switchgrass-greenbug (Schizaphis graminum; GB) interactions have been studied at the whole plant level, little information is available on plant defense responses at the molecular level. RESULTS: The global transcriptomic response of switchgrass cv Summer to GB was monitored by RNA-Seq in infested and control (uninfested) plants harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days after infestation (DAI)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208805/defense-responses-in-grapevine-cv-mourv%C3%A3-dre-after-inoculation-with-the-botryosphaeria-dieback-pathogens-neofusicoccum-parvum-and-diplodia-seriata-and-their-relationship-with-flowering
#11
Alessandro Spagnolo, Vincenzo Mondello, Philippe Larignon, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Christophe Clément, Florence Fontaine
As a result of the increasing economic impact of grapevine trunk diseases on viticulture worldwide, efficient and viable control strategies are urgently needed. However, understanding both plant-pathogen interactions and plant physiological changes related to these diseases is fundamental to such an achievement. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inoculation with the Botryosphaeria dieback fungal agents, Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata, with and without inflorescence removal at the onset of G stage (separated clusters), I stage (flowering) and M stage (veraison)...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208765/synthesis-of-mono-and-di-glucosides-of-zearalenone-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-zearalenol-by-recombinant-barley-glucosyltransferase-hvugt14077
#12
Herbert Michlmayr, Elisabeth Varga, Francesca Lupi, Alexandra Malachová, Christian Hametner, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s(-1)·mM(-1)) with ZEN...
February 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208663/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-endocrine-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Daisuke Ariyasu, Hiderou Yoshida, Yukihiro Hasegawa
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208651/the-architecture-of-thiol-antioxidant-systems-among-invertebrate-parasites
#14
Alberto Guevara-Flores, José de Jesús Martínez-González, Juan Luis Rendón, Irene Patricia Del Arenal
The use of oxygen as the final electron acceptor in aerobic organisms results in an improvement in the energy metabolism. However, as a byproduct of the aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species are produced, leaving to the potential risk of an oxidative stress. To contend with such harmful compounds, living organisms have evolved antioxidant strategies. In this sense, the thiol-dependent antioxidant defense systems play a central role. In all cases, cysteine constitutes the major building block on which such systems are constructed, being present in redox substrates such as glutathione, thioredoxin, and trypanothione, as well as at the catalytic site of a variety of reductases and peroxidases...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#15
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207953/sgs1-a-neomorphic-nac52-allele-impairing-ptgs-through-sgs3-down-regulation
#16
Nicolas Butel, Ivan Le Masson, Nathalie Bouteiller, Hervé Vaucheret, Taline Elmayan
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a defense mechanism that targets invading nucleic acids from endogenous (transposons) or exogenous (pathogens, transgenes) origins. Genetic screens based on the reactivation of silenced transgenes have long been used to identify cellular PTGS components and regulators. Here we show that the first isolated PTGS-deficient mutant, sgs1, is impaired in the transcription factor NAC52. This mutant exhibits striking similarities with a mutant impaired in the H3K4me3 demethylase JMJ14 isolated from the same genetic screen...
February 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207847/microarray-analysis-of-arabidopsis-wrky33-mutants-in-response-to-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea
#17
Arjun Sham, Khaled Moustafa, Shamma Al-Shamisi, Sofyan Alyan, Rabah Iratni, Synan AbuQamar
The WRKY33 transcription factor was reported for resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Using microarray-based analysis, we compared Arabidopsis WRKY33 overexpressing lines and wrky33 mutant that showed altered susceptibility to B. cinerea with their corresponding wild-type plants. In the wild-type, about 1660 genes (7% of the transcriptome) were induced and 1054 genes (5% of the transcriptome) were repressed at least twofold at early stages of inoculation with B. cinerea, confirming previous data of the contribution of these genes in B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#18
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206787/self-affirmation-increases-defensiveness-toward-health-risk-information-among-those-experiencing-negative-emotions-results-from-two-national-samples
#19
Rebecca A Ferrer, William M P Klein, Kaitlin A Graff
OBJECTIVE: Self-affirmation can promote health behavior change and yield long-term improvements in health via its effect on receptiveness to risk information in behavior change interventions. Across 2 studies, we examined whether the emotional state of the person presented with health risk information moderates self-affirmation effectiveness. METHOD: Data were collected from 2 U.S. national samples (n = 652, n = 448) via GfK, an Internet-based survey company. Female alcohol consumers completed an emotion induction (fear, anger, or neutral)...
February 16, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206701/differential-responses-of-helicoverpa-armigera-c-type-immunlectin-genes-to-the-endoparasitoid-campoletis-chlorideae
#20
Xiong-Ya Wang, Su-Fen Bai, Xin Li, Shi-Heng An, Xin-Ming Yin, Xian-Chun Li
The C-type lectins mediate nonself recognition in insects. The previous studies focused on host immunlectin response to bacterial infection; however, the molecular basis of immunlectin reactions to endoparasitoids has not been elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of parasitization by Campoletis chlorideae on hemagglutination activity (HA; defined as the ability of lectin to agglutinate erythrocytes or other cells), and transcriptional expression of C-type immunlectin genes in the larval host, Helicoverpa armigera...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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