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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936405/identification-of-lipopolysaccharide-interacting-plasma-membrane-type-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Cornelius S Vilakazi, Ian A Dubery, Lizelle A Piater
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphiphatic bacterial glycoconjugate found on the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. This endotoxin is considered as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule and has been shown to elicit defense responses in plants. Here, LPS-interacting proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane (PM)-type fractions were captured and identified in order to investigate those involved in LPS perception and linked to triggering of innate immune responses. A novel proteomics-based affinity-capture strategy coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the enrichment and identification of LPS-interacting proteins...
November 30, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935834/viral-dna-sensors-ifi16-and-cyclic-gmp-amp-synthase-possess-distinct-functions-in-regulating-viral-gene-expression-immune-defenses-and-apoptotic-responses-during-herpesvirus-infection
#2
Benjamin A Diner, Krystal K Lum, Jared E Toettcher, Ileana M Cristea
: The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935673/cell-density-dependence-of-host-defense-peptide-activity-and-selectivity-in-the-presence-of-host-cells
#3
Filippo Savini, Vincenzo Luca, Alessio Bocedi, Renato Massoud, Yoonkyung Park, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Lorenzo Stella
Host-defense peptides (HDPs) are promising compounds against multidrug-resistant microbes. In vitro, their bactericidal and toxic concentrations are significantly different, but this might be due to the use of separate assays, with different cell densities. For experiments with a single cell type, the cell-density dependence of the active concentration of the DNS-PMAP23 HDP could be predicted based on the water/cell-membrane partition equilibrium and exhibited a lower bound at low cell counts. On the basis of these data, in the simultaneous presence of both bacteria and an excess of human cells, one would expect no significant toxicity, but also inhibition of the bactericidal activity due to peptide sequestration by host cells...
December 9, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935146/resilience-of-cyber-systems-with-over-and-underregulation
#4
Viktoria Gisladottir, Alexander A Ganin, Jeff M Keisler, Jeremy Kepner, Igor Linkov
Recent cyber attacks provide evidence of increased threats to our critical systems and infrastructure. A common reaction to a new threat is to harden the system by adding new rules and regulations. As federal and state governments request new procedures to follow, each of their organizations implements their own cyber defense strategies. This unintentionally increases time and effort that employees spend on training and policy implementation and decreases the time and latitude to perform critical job functions, thus raising overall levels of stress...
December 9, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935027/a-whole-plant-perspective-reveals-unexpected-impacts-of-above-and-belowground-herbivores-on-plant-growth-and-defense
#5
Fabiane M Mundim, Hans T Alborn, Ernane H M Vieira-Neto, Emilio M Bruna
Trade-offs between plant growth and defense are central to theoretical frameworks used to study the ecology and evolution of plant defense against herbivores. However, these frameworks, as well as the experiments designed to test them, rarely include belowground herbivores. We experimentally challenged seedlings of the tropical shrub Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) with either aboveground foliar herbivores (Spodoptera caterpillars) or belowground root herbivores (the nematode Meloidogyne incognita) and measured the resulting changes in plant growth rates, biomass allocation, and the concentration of defensive terpenoids in roots and leaves...
October 11, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934954/strap-acts-as-a-scaffolding-protein-in-controlling-the-tlr2-4-signaling-pathway
#6
Hyunbin D Huh, Eun A Ra, Taeyun A Lee, Sujin Kang, Areum Park, Eunhye Lee, Junhee L Choi, Eunji Jang, Ji Eun Lee, Sungwook Lee, Boyoun Park
The WD40-repeat protein serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) is involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, in response to various stresses. Here, we show that STRAP is a new scaffold protein that functions in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses. STRAP specifically binds transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) along with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, leading to enhanced association between TAK1, IKKα, and p65, and subsequent facilitation of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934695/overview-of-crispr-cas9-biology
#7
Hannah K Ratner, Timothy R Sampson, David S Weiss
Prokaryotes use diverse strategies to improve fitness in the face of different environmental threats and stresses, including those posed by mobile genetic elements (e.g., bacteriophages and plasmids). To defend against these elements, many bacteria and archaea use elegant, RNA-directed, nucleic acid-targeting adaptive restriction machineries called CRISPR -: Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems. While providing an effective defense against foreign genetic elements, these systems have also been observed to play critical roles in regulating bacterial physiology during environmental stress...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934294/label-free-proteomic-reveals-that-cowpea-severe-mosaic-virus-transiently-suppresses-the-host-leaf-protein-accumulation-during-the-compatible-interaction-with-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp
#8
Ana L S Paiva, Jose T A Oliveira, Gustavo A de Souza, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934278/gridded-national-inventory-of-u-s-methane-emissions
#9
Joannes D Maasakkers, Daniel J Jacob, Melissa P Sulprizio, Alexander J Turner, Melissa Weitz, Tom Wirth, Cate Hight, Mark DeFigueiredo, Mausami Desai, Rachel Schmeltz, Leif Hockstad, Anthony A Bloom, Kevin W Bowman, Seongeun Jeong, Marc L Fischer
We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale-dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a wide range of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934228/structural-response-of-human-serum-albumin-to-oxidation-biological-buffer-to-local-formation-of-hypochlorite
#10
Alessandra Del Giudice, Cedric Dicko, Luciano Galantini, Nicolae V Pavel
The most abundant plasma protein, human serum albumin (HSA), plays a key part in the body's antioxidant defense against reactive species. This study was aimed at correlating oxidant-induced chemical and structural effects on HSA. Despite the chemical modification induced by the oxidant hypochlorite, the native shape is preserved up to oxidant/HSA molar ratio <80, above which a structural transition occurs in the critical range 80-120. This conformational variation involves the drifting of one of the end-domains from the rest of the protein and corresponds to the loss of one-third of the α-helix and a net increase of the protein negative charge...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934095/biomimetic-optical-filter-detection-system-for-discrimination-of-infrared-chemical-signatures
#11
Kevin J Major, Menelaos K Poutous, Kevin F Dunnill, Panfilo C Deguzman, Jasbinder S Sanghera, Ishwar D Aggarwal, Kenneth James Ewing
Optical-filter-based chemical sensors have the potential to dramatically alter the field of hazardous materials sensing. Such devices could be constructed using inexpensive components, in a small and lightweight package, for sensing hazardous chemicals in defense, industrial, and environmental applications. Filter-based sensors can be designed to mimic human color vision. Recent developments in this field have used this approach to discriminate between strongly overlapping chemical signatures in the mid-infrared...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934080/remote-control-of-light-triggered-virotherapy
#12
S-Ja Tseng, Kuo-Yen Huang, Ivan M Kempson, Shih-Han Kao, Meng-Chia Liu, Shuenn-Chen Yang, Zi-Xian Liao, Pan-Chyr Yang
Clinical virotherapy has been successfully approved for use in cancer treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; however, a number of improvements are still sought to more broadly develop virotherapy. A particular challenge is to administer viral therapy systemically and overcome limitations in intratumoral injection, especially for complex tumors within sensitive organs. To achieve this, however, a technique is required that delivers the virus to the tumor before the body's natural self-defense eradicates the virus prematurely...
November 22, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933900/-13-c-nmr-and-lc-ms-profiling-of-stilbenes-from-elicited-grapevine-hairy-root-cultures
#13
Leo-Paul Tisserant, Jane Hubert, Michelle Lequart, Nicolas Borie, Nicolas Maurin, Serge Pilard, Philippe Jeandet, Aziz Aziz, Jean-Hugues Renault, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Christophe Clément, Michèle Boitel-Conti, Eric Courot
Resveratrol and related oligostilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, these compounds have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmacological properties. The cost-effective production of resveratrol derivatives such as viniferins or more structurally complex stilbene oligomers remains a challenging task. In this study, the chemical diversity of stilbenes produced by Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir hairy roots was investigated after elicitation for 4 days with a mixture of methyl jasmonate (100 μM) and cyclodextrins (50 mM)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933610/resilience-mediates-impact-of-some-childhood-maltreatment-on-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-conscripted-marines-in-the-republic-of-korea
#14
Heejung Kim, Sun Ah Kim, Seongsook Kong
Although it is known that post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can result from military service, the variance in PTSS unexplained by military service warrants further investigation, and no researchers have investigated South Korean Marines' vulnerability during their 2-year conscripted service as the first line of national defense against threats from North Korea. This study was designed to examine whether resilience mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and PTSS in 169 Korean conscripts into the Marine Corps...
December 9, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933379/the-role-of-receptor-like-protein-kinases-rlks-in-abiotic-stress-response-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
Yaoyao Ye, Yanfei Ding, Qiong Jiang, Feijuan Wang, Junwei Sun, Cheng Zhu
We review and introduce recent studies on RLK s involved in the abiotic stress response and provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms for alleviating abiotic stress. Abiotic stresses are important factors affecting plant growth and development, resulting in crop production reduction and even plant death. To survive, plants utilize different mechanisms to respond and adapt to continuously changing environmental factors. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to various stresses will aid in improving tolerance of plants to abiotic stress through genetic engineering, which would greatly promote the development of modern agriculture...
December 8, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933087/revisiting-vitis-vinifera-subtilase-gene-family-a-possible-role-in-grapevine-resistance-against-plasmopara-viticola
#16
Joana Figueiredo, Gonçalo J Costa, Marisa Maia, Octávio S Paulo, Rui Malhó, Marta Sousa Silva, Andreia Figueiredo
Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defense mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933082/rna-seq-transcriptome-response-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-to-the-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lini
#17
Leonardo Galindo-González, Michael K Deyholos
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933080/identification-of-a-dolabellane-type-diterpene-synthase-and-other-root-expressed-diterpene-synthases-in-arabidopsis
#18
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933079/small-rnas-from-bemisia-tabaci-are-transferred-to-solanum-lycopersicum-phloem-during-feeding
#19
Paula J M van Kleeff, Marc Galland, Robert C Schuurink, Petra M Bleeker
The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933078/citrus-leprosis-virus-c-infection-results-in-hypersensitive-like-response-suppression-of-the-ja-et-plant-defense-pathway-and-promotion-of-the-colonization-of-its-mite-vector
#20
Gabriella D Arena, Pedro L Ramos-González, Maria A Nunes, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Luis E A Camargo, Elliot W Kitajima, Marcos A Machado, Juliana Freitas-Astúa
Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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