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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#1
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335409/the-formyl-peptide-receptors-diversity-of-ligands-and-mechanism-for-recognition
#2
REVIEW
Hui-Qiong He, Richard D Ye
The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that transduce chemotactic signals in phagocytes and mediate host-defense as well as inflammatory responses including cell adhesion, directed migration, granule release and superoxide production. In recent years, the cellular distribution and biological functions of FPRs have expanded to include additional roles in homeostasis of organ functions and modulation of inflammation. In a prototype, FPRs recognize peptides containing N-formylated methionine such as those produced in bacteria and mitochondria, thereby serving as pattern recognition receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334774/high-tolerance-to-self-targeting-of-the-genome-by-the-endogenous-crispr-cas-system-in-an-archaeon
#3
Aris-Edda Stachler, Israela Turgeman-Grott, Ella Shtifman-Segal, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder, Uri Gophna
CRISPR-Cas systems allow bacteria and archaea to acquire sequence-specific immunity against selfish genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids, by specific degradation of invader DNA or RNA. However, this involves the risk of autoimmunity if immune memory against host DNA is mistakenly acquired. Such autoimmunity has been shown to be highly toxic in several bacteria and is believed to be one of the major costs of maintaining these defense systems. Here we generated an experimental system in which a non-essential gene, required for pigment production and the reddish colony color, is targeted by the CRISPR-Cas I-B system of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii...
March 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334410/pretty-picky-for-a-generalist-impacts-of-toxicity-and-nutritional-quality-on-mantid-prey-processing
#4
Jamie L Rafter, Justin F Vendettuoli, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Prey have evolved a number of defenses against predation, and predators have developed means of countering these protective measures. Although caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., are defended by cardenolides sequestered from their host plants, the Chinese mantid Tenodera sinensis Saussure guts the caterpillar before consuming the rest of the body. We hypothesized that this gutting behavior might be driven by the heterogeneous quality of prey tissue with respect to toxicity and/or nutrients...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334389/profiling-diuraphis-noxia-hemiptera-aphididae-transcript-expression-of-the-biotypes-sa1-and-sam-feeding-on-various-triticum-aestivum-varieties
#5
N F V Burger, E Venter, A-M Botha
The intimate relationship between an aphid and its host is mediated by the composition of the secreted saliva. In the present study, aphid heads were sampled and transcript profiling conducted after aphids were fed on their preference host and transferred to a variety of preference and nonpreference hosts. It was found that the virulent Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype SAM was able to selectively up-regulate more transcripts when confronted with feeding on a variety of hosts, than was the case with the less virulent D...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334388/bacterial-endosymbionts-of-the-psyllid-cacopsylla-pyricola-hemiptera-psyllidae-in-the-pacific-northwestern-united-states
#6
W Rodney Cooper, Stephen F Garczynski, David R Horton, Thomas R Unruh, Elizabeth H Beers, W Shearer Peter, Richard J Hilton
Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in Washington and Oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. Adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer ("summerform") and the overwintering ("winterform") morphotypes...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334339/insecticidal-effects-on-the-spatial-progression-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-and-movement-of-its-whitefly-vector-in-tomato
#7
M Dempsey, D G Riley, R Srinivasan
Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334335/antagonism-between-two-root-associated-beneficial-pseudomonas-strains-does-not-affect-plant-growth-promotion-and-induced-resistance-against-a-leaf-chewing-herbivore
#8
Nurmi Pangesti, Simon Vandenbrande, Ana Pineda, Marcel Dicke, Jos M Raaijmakers, Joop J A Van Loon
Plant growth-promoting microbes residing on the roots may cooperate or compete, thereby affecting their collective benefit to the host plant. Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r (formerly known as P. fluorescens WCS417r) and Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 are well known for their ability to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis. Here, we evaluate how these species interact on the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and how their co-inoculation affects plant defense to the leaf-chewing herbivore Mamestra brassicae and plant growth promotion...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334330/survivorship-of-z-pheromone-race-european-corn-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-on-a-range-of-host-plants-varying-in-defensive-chemistry
#9
Kelsey E Fisher, Charles E Mason, J Lindsey Flexner, Judith Hough-Goldstein, John H McDonald
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was introduced in North America in the early 1900s and became a major pest of corn. After its introduction, it was found on > 200 other plant hosts, but corn remained its primary host. Early life history studies indicated that European corn borer had the potential of a wide host range. For nearly 80 yr before the introduction of Bt corn, the European corn borer was a major pest of corn in North America. This study investigated the growth and survivorship of the Z-pheromone race European corn borer on a range of hosts that vary in defensive chemistries and historic degree of infestation to better understand the current host plant range of Z-pheromone race of O...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334323/interspecific-competition-between-ceratitis-capitata-and-two-bactrocera-spp-diptera-tephritidae-evaluated-via-adult-behavioral-interference-under-laboratory-conditions
#10
Hui Liu, Can Zhang, Bo-Hua Hou, Ge-Cheng Ou-Yang, Jun Ma
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334193/physiological-responses-induced-by-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae-feeding-in-maize-and-their-effects-on-o-furnacalis-performance
#11
Jingfei Guo, Jianqing Guo, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai, Tiantao Zhang, Jiuran Zhao, Zhenying Wang
Plants damaged by herbivorous insects often respond by mounting a series of defense responses that can inhibit the insect's fitness. Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major insect pest in maize throughout much of Asia, Australia, and the western Pacific islands. We examined the effects of O. furnacalis -induced maize defenses on O. furnacalis fitness, and explained the effects from biochemical changes that occur in maize leaves in response to O. furnacalis feeding. The results of the age-stage, two-sex life table showed that significantly longer larval and pupal life spans, and total preoviposition period (TPOP) occurred...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334040/macrophage-origin-limits-functional-plasticity-in-helminth-bacterial-co-infection
#12
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E Sutherland, Stephen J Jenkins, James P Hewitson, Tom A Barr, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Rick M Maizels, Judith E Allen
Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333700/intimate-partner-violence-a-rare-case-of-reciprocal-homicide
#13
Aurélie Cauchois, François Paraire, Geoffroy Lorin de la Grandmaison
We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333360/gammadelta-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease-a-new-player-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#14
Catalan-Serra Ignacio, Arne Kristian Sandvik, Torunn Bruland, Juan Carlos Andreu-Ballester
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing systemic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. An altered immune response to commensal intestinal bacteria takes place in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation in the gut. Several alterations in the innate immunity mechanisms have been described in recent years. Thus, the study of the immunological aspects of CD, specifically the role of lymphocytes, is a key element for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Gammadelta T cells (γδ T cells) constitute only a small proportion of the lymphocytes that circulate in the blood and peripheral organs and they are present mainly in the epithelia, where they can constitute up to 40% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the intestinal mucosa...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#15
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332603/the-arabidopsis-mir396-mediates-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-triggered-immune-responses-against-fungal-pathogens
#16
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression during plant development. Although a substantial fraction of plant miRNAs has proven responsive to pathogen infection, their role in disease resistance remains largely unknown, especially during fungal infections. In this study, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana lines in which miRNA activity has been reduced using artificial miRNA target mimics (MIM lines) for their response to fungal pathogens. Reduced activity of miR396 (MIM396 plants) was found to confer broad resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332241/toll-like-receptor-2-arg753gln-and-arg677trp-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-pulmonary-and-peritoneal-tuberculosis
#17
Mohammed A Saleh, Mahmoud M Ramadan, Eman O Arram
Recent evidence suggests that toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is important for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TLR2 polymorphisms have shown significant impact on susceptibility or resistance to tuberculosis (TB). This case-control study aims to determine the influence of TLR2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop pulmonary or peritoneal TB. Genotyping of TLR2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) polymorphisms was carried out on 52 patients with pulmonary TB, 44 patients with peritoneal TB, and 50 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
March 23, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331857/thrombosis-neuroinflammation-and-poststroke-infection-the-multifaceted-role-of-neutrophils-in-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Johanna Ruhnau, Juliane Schulze, Alexander Dressel, Antje Vogelgesang
Immune cells can significantly predict and affect the clinical outcome of stroke. In particular, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was shown to predict hemorrhagic transformation and the clinical outcome of stroke; however, the immunological mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Neutrophils are the first cells to invade injured tissue following focal brain ischemia. In these conditions, their proinflammatory properties enhance tissue damage and may promote ischemic incidences by inducing thrombus formation...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331586/how-to-induce-defense-responses-in-wild-plant-populations-using-bilberry-vaccinium-myrtillus-as-example
#19
Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Knut Rydgren, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joachim Paul Töpper
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical elicitors to induce defense responses. To investigate whether field ecologists could benefit from methods used in laboratory and greenhouse studies, we established a randomized block-design in a pine-bilberry forest in Western Norway...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331099/interferon-inducible-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-protein-acts-as-an-antiviral-effector-against-classical-swine-fever-virus-via-the-mda5-mediated-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathway
#20
Lian-Feng Li, Jiahui Yu, Yuexiu Zhang, Qian Yang, Yongfeng Li, Lingkai Zhang, Jinghan Wang, Su Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), which poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) play a key role in host antiviral defense. We have previously screened the porcine 2' -5' -oligoadenylate synthase-like protein (pOASL) as a potential anti-CSFV ISG using a reporter CSFV. This study aimed to clarify the underlying antiviral mechanism of pOASL against CSFV. We confirmed that CSFV replication was significantly suppressed in lentivirus-delivered, pOASL-overexpressing PK-15 cells, whereas silencing the expression of endogenous pOASL by small interfering RNAs markedly enhanced CSFV growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
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