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Urgent starts

Eugenio Zoni, Gabri van der Pluijm
The skeleton represents a common site of metastases for osteotropic cancers such as prostate and breast tumors and novel therapeutic targets and new markers for the monitoring of bone lesions are urgently needed. The formation of bone metastases is a complex process that starts at the level of the confined tumor and that is characterized by a dynamic crosstalk between the primary cancer and the future metastatic site, the bone. Factors released by the primary tumor contribute to prepare a fertile "soil", where a "pre-metastatic niche" is established prior to future colonization by cancer cells...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
M Schrappe, H Pfaff
In Germany, Health Services Research (HSR) is undergoing rapid and impressive development. Starting from the translation of methods in individual health care (efficacy-effectiveness gap) and the social-scientific description as well as analysis of health care structures and processes, now it is the implementation of complex interventions on the organizational and system level that is the center of interest. This development is mainly triggered by the establishment of the so-called innovation funds by means of legislation in 2015, which has the task to evaluate structural changes and reforms in outpatient and integrated health care...
October 18, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yasunori Iida, Tsutomu Ito, Yu Inaba, Sachiko Hayashi, Takahiko Misumi, Hideyuki Shimizu
A 43-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain during childbirth consulted us 1 day postdelivery. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed partially thrombosed type A aortic dissection with intimal tear in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. Conservative antihypertensive treatment was started. However, her abdominal pain progressively deteriorated. Repeat CT revealed narrowing of the descending aorta true lumen and progressive bowel malperfusion. Total arch replacement was urgently performed using the frozen elephant trunk technique...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Pierre-Antoine Moulin, Anne Dutour, Patricia Ancel, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Thierry Bege, Olivier Ziegler, Stéphane Berdah, Corinne Frère, Bénédicte Gaborit
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS), but there is neither consensus nor high-level guidelines yet on VTE prophylaxis in this specific population. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate patterns of BS perioperative thromboprophylaxis practices. SETTING: French obesity specialized care centers (CSO), which are tertiary care referral hospitals for the most severe cases of obesity METHODS: A detailed questionnaire survey (11 opened, 15 closed questions) investigating their prophylactic schemes of anticoagulation (molecule, dose, weight-adjustment, duration, associated measures, follow-up) was sent to the 37 CSO...
September 1, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Raphaële Nové-Josserand, Soazic Grard, Lila Auzou, Philippe Reix, Marlène Murris-Espin, François Brémont, Benyebka Mammar, Laurent Mely, Dominique Hubert, Isabelle Durieu, Pierre-Régis Burgel
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects up to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Corticosteroids are used as first-line therapy, but relapse and adverse effects commonly occur. Case reports have suggested the efficacy of the anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody omalizumab. A retrospective multicenter observational French study retrieved 32 CF patients (11 children and 21 adults) who have received omalizumab for more than 3 months in the context of ABPA. Clinical characteristics, concomitant medications (inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antifungal drugs), lung function, body mass index (BMI), and serum IgE were compared at the start and during the first year of omalizumab therapy...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Adrienne Lynne White, Thaw Htwe Min, Mechthild M Gross, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Hla Hla Than, Thet Wai Zin, Marcus J Rijken, Gabie Hoogenboom, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: To evaluate a skilled birth attendant (SBA) training program in a neglected population on the Thai-Myanmar border, we used multiple methods to show that refugee and migrant health workers can be given effective training in their own environment to become SBAs and teachers of SBAs. The loss of SBAs through resettlement to third countries necessitated urgent training of available workers to meet local needs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All results were obtained from student records of theory grades and clinical log books...
2016: PloS One
Dayong Lee, Chris W Chronister, Wilson A Broussard, Suzanne R Utley-Bobak, Daniel L Schultz, Russell S Vega, Bruce A Goldberger
Fentanyl induces pharmacological effects and abuse liability comparable to other prescription opioids and heroin. A surge in fentanyl-related fatalities has been periodically reported throughout the USA. The University of Florida Forensic Toxicology Laboratory observed a significant increase in fentanyl-related deaths starting in mid-2014. The present report evaluated toxicological findings, demographics of the decedents and circumstances of death in the postmortem cases that were submitted to the laboratory for toxicological analysis from July 2014 to January 2015 and that were tested for fentanyl in biological specimens...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Maximilian Y Emmert, Simon P Hoerstrup
Heart valve replacement is often the only solution for patients suffering from valvular heart disease. However, currently available valve replacements require either life-long anti-coagulation or are associated with valve degeneration and calcification. Moreover, they are suboptimal for young patients, because they do not adapt to the somatic growth. Tissue-engineering has been proposed as a promising approach to fulfill the urgent need for heart valve replacements with regenerative and growth capacity. This review will start with an overview on the currently available valve substitutes and the techniques for heart valve replacement...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Matthias Claus, Renate Kimbel, Klaus Schöne, Stephan Letzel, Dirk-Matthias Rose
This study aims to assess serostatus and vaccination status of hepatitis A and B among staff at schools for the handicapped. We also wanted to investigate factors associated with serostatus, number of infections with hepatitis A/hepatitis B at work, and factors influencing being vaccinated or not. The cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 German schools for severely handicapped. Data were analyzed using blood samples, vaccination documents, and questionnaires. A total of 395 persons participated in our study (response: 59...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Mohamed El-Shazly, Mohamed Aziz, Hamdy Aboutaleb, Shady Salem, Eid El-Sherif, Mohamed Selim, Mohamed Sultan, Mohamed Omar, Tarek Abd Elbaky, Fouad Zanaty, Talal Alenezi, Abdelazeem Ghobashi, Adel Allam
BACKGROUND: Fournier's gangrene (FG) is an acute progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the genital area and perineum with possible extension to the abdominal wall. Surgical debridement is the gold standard management modality of established patients. Equivocal (early) FG represents a challenge in diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare conservative management and early exploration in cases of equivocal (early) FG. METHODS: This was an observational study where data of all patients diagnosed as early FG in our departments over 4 years (2011-2015) were enrolled...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
Elvira Singh, Gita Naidu, Mary-Ann Davies, Julia Bohlius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected children are at an increased risk of developing cancer. Many of the cancers in HIV-infected children are linked to immunosuppression and oncogenic coinfections. Worldwide most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, but cancer data for this population are scarce. In this article, we review the current literature on the epidemiology and prevention of cancer in HIV-infected children. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of developing cancer in HIV-infected children...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rachel Flynn, Shannon D Scott, Thomas Rotter, Dawn Hartfield
AIM: A discussion of how nurses can contribute to and lead improvement science activities in health care. BACKGROUND: Quality failures in health care have led to the urgent need for healthcare quality improvement. However, commonly quality improvement interventions proceed to practice implementation without rigorous methods or sufficient empirical evidence. This lack of evidence for quality improvement has led to the development of improvement science, which embodies quality improvement research and quality improvement practice...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Noeline Razanamihaja, Yuka Makino, Hiroshi Ogawa, Noriaki Ikeda, Hideo Miyazaki
The prevalence of tobacco smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 years old in Madagascar was previously reported to be higher than the average in other African regions. A preventive approach is urgently needed to avoid the initiation of early tobacco smoking. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the status of tobacco smoking among primary schoolchildren in Madagascar and explore the factors associated with initiation of tobacco smoking in the young. This study was conducted in the Mahajanga region of Madagascar...
September 22, 2016: Health Promotion International
Adam Di Palma, Herawaty Sebajang, Frank Schwenter
INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection typically affecting immunocompromised hosts. One form of the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of a 70-year old patient with no recognized risk factors that developed gastrointestinal mucormycosis after urgent abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. DISCUSSION: There are several risk factors for this infection, such as hematological malignancies, solid organ or stem cell transplants and diabetes...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Hagen Heinrich Scherb, Kuniyoshi Mori, Keiji Hayashi
Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shiwei Liu, Mei Zhang, Ling Yang, Yichong Li, Limin Wang, Zhengjing Huang, Linhong Wang, Zhengming Chen, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. METHODS: A nationally representative survey of smoking was conducted in 2010 among 100 000 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Information on smoking frequency, type, amount, age started and quitting was collected...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lin Liu, Lin Tang, Wen Dong, Shaowen Yao, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: With the rapid accumulation of biological datasets, machine learning methods designed to automate data analysis are urgently needed. In recent years, so-called topic models that originated from the field of natural language processing have been receiving much attention in bioinformatics because of their interpretability. Our aim was to review the application and development of topic models for bioinformatics. DESCRIPTION: This paper starts with the description of a topic model, with a focus on the understanding of topic modeling...
2016: SpringerPlus
Retha Arjadi, Maaike H Nauta, Willem F Scholte, Steven D Hollon, Neerja Chowdhary, Angela O Suryani, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading cause of disease burden across the world. However, in low-middle income countries (LMICs), access to mental health services is severely limited because of the insufficient number of mental health professionals available. The WHO initiated the Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) aiming to provide a coherent strategy for closing the gap between what is urgently needed and what is available in LMICs. Internet-based treatment is a promising strategy that can be made available to a large number of people now that Internet access is increasing rapidly throughout the world...
2016: Trials
Jiří Ehrmann, Květa Aiglová, Michal Konečný, Vlastimil Procházka, Drahomíra Vrzalová
UNLABELLED: There are 40 000-60 000 patients with cirrhosis in the Czech Republic. 2 000 die of this disease yearly. This group of patients needs a complex treatment and it is mostly an internist cooperating with other specialists. The most important for an ambulant internist is to diagnose the disease as soon as possible and start with treatment of chronic liver disease that could lead to a cirrhosis. It means especially chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis, auto-immune liver damage and metabolic disease...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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