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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222095/delays-and-loss-to-follow-up-before-treatment-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-following-implementation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Helen Cox, Lindy Dickson-Hall, Norbert Ndjeka, Anja Van't Hoog, Alison Grant, Frank Cobelens, Wendy Stevens, Mark Nicol
BACKGROUND: South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large treatment gap (pre-treatment loss to follow-up) between the numbers of patients with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB and those reported to have started second-line treatment...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220334/future-directions-in-personality-occupational-and-medical-selection-myths-misunderstandings-measurement-and-suggestions
#2
Eamonn Ferguson, Filip Lievens
This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219333/uk-national-clinical-audit-management-of-pregnancies-in-women-with-hiv
#3
S Raffe, H Curtis, P Tookey, H Peters, A Freedman, Y Gilleece
BACKGROUND: The potential for HIV transmission between a pregnant woman and her unborn child was first recognized in 1982. Since then a complex package of measures to reduce risk has been developed. This project aims to review UK management of HIV in pregnancy as part of the British HIV Association (BHIVA) audit programme. METHODS: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a population-based surveillance study, provided data for pregnancies with an expected delivery date from 1/1/13 - 30/6/14...
February 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215975/physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-prevention-is-healthy-urban-living-a-possible-reality-or-utopia
#4
REVIEW
Silvio Buscemi, Carla Giordano
Favoring correct lifestyles is the most important measure to contrast cardiovascular diseases and the epidemic of high cardiovascular risk conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Lifestyle is a broad expression that includes diet, physical exercise, and psychological and socio-economic factors, each of which must be taken into due consideration because of their intertwining influences, which may be a barrier to healthy changes at both the individual and population levels. While physical activity has probably received less attention in the last decades, it is likely the most important among the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215917/onchocerciasis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-survey-of-knowledge-attitude-and-perception-in-bandundu-province
#5
Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Dieudonne Mpunga, Emery N Soa, Fortunat Ntumba, Didier Bakajika, Michele E Murdoch, Yves Coppieters
A community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for fighting onchocerciasis was started in 2003 in the hyperendemic province of Bandundu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); such initiative was supported by the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). As the APOC stopped at the end of 2015, there was an urgent need to assess the sustainability of an ivermectin treatment. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and perception was conducted to determine the awareness level of local population regarding the disease...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215696/recurrent-venous-thrombosis-under-rivaroxaban-and-carbamazepine-for-symptomatic-epilepsy
#6
Claudia Stöllberger, Josef Finsterer
BACKGROUND: The direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) rivaroxaban, an oral Factor Xa inhibitor, is increasingly used as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists (VKAs). Absorption and elimination of DOACs are dependent on the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protein system, and DOACs are substrates of the hepatic cytochrome P 450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes. Therefore, drug-interactions may occur when DOACs are administered with drugs affecting the activity of P-gp or CYP3A4 systems...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215164/innovative-opioid-peptides-and-biased-agonism-novel-avenues-for-more-effective-and-safer-analgesics-to-treat-chronic-pain
#7
Andrea Bedini, Santi Mario Spampinato
Chronic pain is a clinically relevant and yet unsolved conditions that is poorly treated with the currently available drugs, thus highlighting the urgent need of innovative analgesics. Although opiates are not very effective in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, developing novel opioid receptor peptide agonists, as well as modulating the opioid receptor-mediated responses in a ligand-specific fashion, may represent an innovative and promising strategy to identify more efficacious and safer antalgic drugs...
February 15, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214142/-a-case-of-rhinofacial-entomophthoromycosis-in-soudano-sahelian-tropical-climate-in-burkina-faso
#8
S Bamba, V Konsegré, A Zida, I Sangaré, M Cissé, R Beogo, B Diallo, J B Andonaba, R T Guiguemdé
We describe a rhinofacial entomophthoramycosis case in a sexagenarian (65 years old) housewife. She was immunocompetent and resident of Burkina Faso. She consulted both the service of dermatology and the service of stomatology of the Teaching Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso in February 2016 for a diffuse facial tumefaction evolving over six months. This tumefaction was associated with headaches and a left nasal obstruction. Histological examination of the lesion showed an important and polymorphic inflammatory reaction...
February 14, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214111/remediation-of-contaminated-lands-in-the-niger-delta-nigeria-prospects-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Nenibarini Zabbey, Kabari Sam, Adaugo Trinitas Onyebuchi
Contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota) by crude oil has become a paramount interest in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Studies have revealed variable impacts of oil toxicity on the environment and exposed populations. The revelation gained much international attention in 2011 with the release of Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This has up scaled local and international pressures for urgent clean-up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213587/emergency-extracorporeal-life-support-and-ongoing-resuscitation-a-retrospective-comparison-for-refractory-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#10
A Schober, F Sterz, H Herkner, C Wallmueller, C Weiser, P Hubner, C Testori
BACKGROUND: In refractory cardiac arrest, with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 30 min, chances of survival are small. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an option for certain patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of patients selected for ECPR. METHODS: Anonymised data of adult patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest, transported with ongoing CPR to an ED of a tertiary care centre between 2002 and 2012 were analysed...
February 17, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202792/towards-a-new-strategy-for-the-diagnosis-of-congenital-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#11
Alba Abras, Carmen Muñoz, Cristina Ballart, Pere Berenguer, Teresa Llovet, Mercedes Herrero, Silvia Tebar, María-Jesús Pinazo, Elizabeth Posada, Carmen Martí, Victoria Fumadó, Jordi Bosch, Oriol Coll, Teresa Juncosa, Gemma Ginovart, Josep Armengol, Joaquim Gascón, Montserrat Portús, Montserrat Gállego
The immigration of Latin American women of childbearing age has spread the congenital transmission of Chagas disease to non-endemic areas, and the disease is now a worldwide problem. Some European health authorities have implemented screening programs to prevent vertical transmission, but the lack of a uniform protocol calls for the urgent establishment of a new strategy, common for all laboratories. Our aims were (i) to analyze the trend of passive IgG antibodies in the newborn by means of five serological tests for the diagnosis and follow-up of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, (ii) to assess the utility of these techniques for diagnosing a congenital transmission, and (iii) to propose a strategy for a prompt, efficient and cost-effective diagnosis of T...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195704/highly-potent-cell-permeable-and-impermeable-nanoluc-luciferase-inhibitors
#12
Joel R Walker, Mary P Hall, Chad A Zimprich, Matt B Robers, Sarah J Duellman, Thomas Machleidt, Jacquelynn Rodriguez, Wenhui Zhou
Novel engineered NanoLuc® (Nluc) luciferase being smaller, brighter, and superior to traditional firefly (Fluc) or Renilla (Rluc) provides a great opportunity for the development of numerous biological, biomedical, clinical, and food and environmental safety applications. This new platform created an urgent need for Nluc inhibitors that could allow selective bioluminescent suppression and multiplexing compatibility with existing luminescence or fluorescence assays. Starting from thienopyrrole carboxylate 1, a hit from a 42k PubChem compound library with low μM IC50 against Nluc, we derivatized four different structural fragments to discover a family of potent, single digit nM, cell permeable inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193297/pre-hospital-transfusion-of-packed-red-blood-cells-in-147-patients-from-a-uk-helicopter-emergency-medical-service
#13
Richard M Lyon, Eleanor de Sausmarez, Emily McWhirter, Gary Wareham, Magnus Nelson, Ashley Matthies, Anthony Hudson, Leigh Curtis, Malcolm Q Russell
BACKGROUND: Early transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) has been associated with improved survival in patients with haemorrhagic shock. This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients receiving pre-hospital blood transfusion and evaluate their subsequent need for in-hospital transfusion and surgery. METHODS: The decision to administer a pre-hospital PRBC transfusion was based on clinical judgment. All patients transfused pre-hospital PRBC between February 2013 and December 2014 were included...
February 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187795/management-of-the-comatose-patient
#14
E F M Wijdicks
Coma has many causes but there are a few urgent ones in clinical practice. Management must start with establishing the cause and an attempt to reverse or attenuate some of the damage. This may include early neurosurgical intervention, efforts to reduce brain tissue shift and raised intracranial pressure, correction of markedly abnormal laboratory abnormalities, and administration of available antidotes. Supporting the patient's vital signs, susceptible to major fluctuations in a changing situation, remains the most crucial aspect of management...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186337/impaired-intestinal-cholecystokinin-secretion-a-fascinating-but-overlooked-link-between-celiac-disease-and-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#15
REVIEW
Helen H Wang, Min Liu, Xiaodan Li, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic, small intestinal, immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical studies have found that intestinal cholecystokinin secretion and gallbladder emptying in response to a fatty meal are impaired before celiac patients start the gluten-free diet (GFD). DESIGN: However, it was never really appreciated whether celiac disease is associated with gallstones because there were very few studies investigating the mechanism underlying the impact of celiac disease on the pathogenesis of gallstones...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186155/a-small-subset-of-protected-areas-are-a-highly-significant-source-of-carbon-emissions
#16
Murray B Collins, Edward T A Mitchard
Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr(-1) from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr(-1) in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174375/-characteristics-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer
#17
Keizo Horibe
In adolescent and young adult(AYA)population, cancer is the leading cause of death due to illness with the lowest mortality rate as well as children, and national measures for cancer was left behind. Leukemia, lymphomas, brain tumors, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer and bone and soft tissue sarcomas account for majority of the cancers in this age group. There has been no significant improvement in AYA patients in contrast to other age groups. AYA patients with cancer are under growing independency, starting in life to the community, and reproductive age...
January 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161373/post-onset-oral-rapamycin-treatment-delays-development-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-only-at-supramaximal-doses
#18
Roberta Felici, Daniela Buonvicino, Mirko Muzzi, Leonardo Cavone, Daniele Guasti, Andrea Lapucci, Sara Pratesi, Francesco De Cesaris, Francesca Luceri, Alberto Chiarugi
Mitochondrial encephalopathies are fatal, infantile neurodegenerative disorders caused by a deficit of mitochondrial functioning, for which there is urgent need to identify efficacious pharmacological treatments. Recent evidence shows that rapamycin administered both intraperitoneally or in the diet delays disease onset and enhances survival in the Ndufs4 null mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. To delineate the clinical translatability of rapamycin in treatment of mitochondrial encephalopathy, we evaluated the drug's effects on disease evolution and mitochondrial parameters adopting treatment paradigms with fixed daily, oral doses starting at symptom onset in Ndufs4 knockout mice...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155097/gene-editing-enhancing-and-women-s-role
#19
Frida Simonstein
A recent article on the front page of The Independent (September 18, 2015) reported that the genetic 'manipulation' of IVF embryos is to start in Britain, using a new revolutionary gene-editing technique, called Crispr/Cas9. About three weeks later (Saturday 10, October 2015), on the front page of the same newspaper, it was reported that the National Health Service (NHS) faces a one billion pound deficit only 3 months into the new year. The hidden connection between these reports is that gene editing could be used to solve issues related to health care allocation...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152927/reducing-wait-time-wt-in-the-infusion-center-ic
#20
Lianne Lopez, Angela Aschian, Betty Chan, Martha Inofuentes, Zoraida Truax, Sally Golingay, Gwendoyn Lynch, Peggy Matsuura, Afsaneh Barzi
: 249 Background: Lengthy WT is the primary source of dis-satisfaction with IC services. We created a patient (PT) flow diagram outlining each step beginning from PT check-in to discharge and plotted the impact of multiple disciplines on the WT. A team of nurses, pharmacists, physicians, and administrators, analyzed the flow and identified ways to improve efficiencies. METHODS: First attempt was to improve communications between pharmacy and nursing, coordinating the preparation of medications with patient's check-in time; use of a simple clipboard facilitated this task and improved the efficiency of the system...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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