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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#1
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210717/the-molecular-mechanism-of-the-ligand-exchange-reaction-of-an-antibody-against-a-glutathione-coated-gold-cluster
#2
Víctor Rojas-Cervellera, Lluís Raich, Jaakko Akola, Carme Rovira
The labeling of proteins with heavy atom clusters is of paramount importance in biomedical research, but its detailed molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we uncover it for the particular case of the anti-influenza N9 neuraminidase NC10 antibody against a glutathione-coated gold cluster by means of ab initio QM/MM calculations. We show that the labeling reaction follows an associative double SN2-like reaction mechanism, involving a proton transfer, with low activation barriers only if one of the two distinct peptide/peptidic ligands (the one that occupies the side position) is substituted...
February 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210004/monoclonal-antibody-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau, Charles Dumontet
The therapeutic landscape of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved spectacularly over the past decade with the discovery and validation of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents as highly active agents, both in front-line therapy as well as in the relapse and maintenance settings. While previous attempts to apply available monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to the treatment of patients with MM has until recently been disappointing, novel targets specifically explored in the context of MM have recently lead to the first approvals of Mabs for the treatment of patients with MM...
February 17, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203342/optimizing-current-and-emerging-therapies-in-multiple-myeloma-a-guide-for-the-hematologist
#4
REVIEW
Shahzad Raza, Rachael A Safyan, Evan Rosenbaum, Alex S Bowman, Suzanne Lentzsch
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy. The diagnosis of MM requires ⩾10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow or biopsy-proven plasmacytoma, plus evidence of end-organ damage (hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions). The definition of MM has recently been expanded to include a ⩾60% clonal plasma cell burden in the bone marrow, serum involved/uninvolved light chain ratio of ⩾100, or more than one focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging ⩾5 mm in the absence of end-organ damage...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203341/new-monoclonal-antibodies-on-the-horizon-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth K O'Donnell, Noopur S Raje
Across all cancers, monoclonal antibodies have emerged as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Monoclonal antibodies target antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells and accessory cells. This targeted approach uses the host's immune system to promote the killing of cancer cells. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy that remains incurable in the majority of patients. The treatment of MM has evolved dramatically over the past decade and continues to evolve with the approval of four new drugs in 2015...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202404/recombinant-human-c1-esterase-inhibitor-to-treat-acute-hereditary-angioedema-attacks-in-adolescents
#6
James W Baker, Avner Reshef, Dumitru Moldovan, Joseph R Harper, Anurag Relan, Marc A Riedl
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is efficacious and well tolerated for managing hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in adults. However, there are insufficient data on its efficacy and safety in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of rhC1-INH for acute HAE attacks in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents (aged 12-18 y) with HAE enrolled in 2 randomized controlled trials and 2 open-label extension trials were included and received intravenous rhC1-INH for acute attacks...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202082/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-myostatin-pathways-key-mediator-of-human-sarcopenia
#7
Manuel Scimeca, Eleonora Piccirilli, Francesca Mastrangeli, Cecilia Rao, Maurizio Feola, Augusto Orlandi, Elena Gasbarra, Elena Bonanno, Umberto Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201977/targeting-the-immune-niche-within-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-the-rise-of-immunotherapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#8
Klaus Podar, D Jäger
Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells inhibit the development of an effective anti-MM immune response via defects in T cell function, ineffective antigen presentation; reduced phagocytic capacity; natural killer and dendritic cell dysfunction; decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and defects in B cell immunity; upregulation of inhibitory pathways; and production of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, immune cells including plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages trigger tumor cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance...
February 13, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197351/a-case-of-malignant-melanoma-of-the-uterine-cervix-with-disseminated-metastases-throughout-the-vaginal-wall
#9
Tomoko Noguchi, Nami Ota, Yasushi Mabuchi, Shigetaka Yagi, Sawako Minami, Hisako Okuhira, Yuki Yamamoto, Yasushi Nakamura, Kazuhiko Ino
Malignant melanoma (MM) in the female genital tract accounts for less than 2% of all melanomas, and the vast majority associated occur in the vulva and vagina. Primary MM of the uterine cervix is extremely rare and its prognosis is very poor. We report a case of primary MM of the cervix with dissemination throughout the vaginal wall. A 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a 2 cm polypoid blackish-pigmented tumor on the cervix with multiple small blackish-pigmented lesions throughout the vaginal wall...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196967/coxsackie-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-with-reactivated-epstein-bar-virus-ebv-a-case-report
#10
Varunsiri Atti, Nathan M Anderson, Mathew B Day
BACKGROUND Myocarditis, defined as inflammation of myocardial tissue of the heart, is an uncommon cardiac presentation and is due to a variety of causes. It affects 1% of the US population, 50% of which is caused by coxsackie B virus. Cardiac tissue is the prime target, and destruction of myocardium results in cardiac failure with fluid overload. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 57-year-old woman with fever, headache, neck pain, and generalized malaise. Her white blood cell count was 13×10³ cells/mm³. Interestingly, lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181228/thyrotropin-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-association-between-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-and-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#11
Maria R C Silvares, Maria R P Fortes, Renata de A M L Nascimento, Carlos R Padovani, Hélio A Miot, Célia R Nogueira, Gláucia M F da S Mazeto
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) may be associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and the Autologous Serum Skin Test (ASST) is an autoreactivity marker. The thyrotropin (TSH) and TSH receptor (TSHR) could play a role in the pathogenesis of CSU. The aim of this study was to evaluate ASST positivity and TSHR gene expression in healthy skin and ASST wheals in euthyroid women with CSU, with (14 patients) and without (15 patients) Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). METHODS: ASST was performed and TSHR gene expression studied in wheals induced by ASST and in healthy skin...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168662/multicentric-castleman-s-disease-associated-with-iga-vasculitis-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-responding-well-to-tocilizumab-a-case-report
#12
REVIEW
Yoichi Oshima, Junichi Hoshino, Tatsuya Suwabe, Noriko Hayami, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Akinari Sekine, Toshiharu Ueno, Hiroki Mizuno, Junko Yabuuchi, Aya Imafuku, Masahiro Kawada, Rikako Hiramatsu, Eiko Hasegawa, Naoki Sawa, Kenmei Takaichi, Nobukazu Hayashi, Takeshi Fujii, Yoshifumi Ubara
A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG 2898 mg/dL and IgA 587 mg/dL), inflammation (CRP 6.7 mg/dL and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) 15.1 ng/L), and anemia (Hb 10.9 mg/dL). Castleman's disease (CD) was diagnosed by axillary lymph node biopsy. Five months later, painful purpura (multiple palpable 5 mm lesions) developed on his legs, gradually spreading to the upper limbs, thighs, and trunk, accompanied by arthralgia of the wrists, ankles, and knees...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164324/rituximab-treatment-of-myasthenia-gravis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Rup Tandan, Michael K Hehir, Waqar Waheed, Diantha B Howard
Rituximab is a chimeric mouse/human anti-CD20 monoclonal immunoglobulin. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of rituximab in 169 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients from case reports and series. Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) were present in 59% and muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) in 34%. Modified Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America post-intervention scale of minimal manifestations (MM) occurred in 44%, and combined pharmacological and chronic stable remission in 27% overall; MM or better was achieved in 72% of MuSK MG and 30% of AChR MG (P<0...
February 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160541/accuracy-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-1-42-measurements-evaluation-of-pre-analytical-factors-using-a-novel-elecsys-immunosassay
#14
Malgorzata Rozga, Tobias Bittner, Kina Höglund, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: A decreased level of Aβ1-42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is characteristic of Alzheimer disease and often used to support clinical diagnosis. The measured concentration of CSF Aβ1-42, however, depends strongly on several pre-analytical and analytical "confounding" factors such as sample collection, material of testing tube, CSF handling and storage procedures (e.g. transfer to new tubes after centrifugation, freeze-thaw effects). As a consequence, substantial variations in the measured levels of this biomarker are observed even for the same sample...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158311/a-single-arm-open-label-phase-2-clinical-trial-evaluating-disease-response-following-treatment-with-bi-505-a-human-anti-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-monoclonal-antibody-in-patients-with-smoldering-multiple-myeloma
#15
Stina Wichert, Gunnar Juliusson, Åsa Johansson, Elisabeth Sonesson, Ingrid Teige, Anna Teige Wickenberg, Björn Frendeus, Magnus Korsgren, Markus Hansson
BACKGROUND: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155072/challenges-in-determining-intrinsic-viscosity-under-low-ionic-strength-solution-conditions
#16
Mariya A Pindrus, Steven J Shire, Sandeep Yadav, Devendra S Kalonia
PURPOSE: To determine the intrinsic viscosity of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under varying pH and ionic strength solution conditions. METHODS: An online viscosity detector attached to HPLC (Viscotek®) was used to determine the intrinsic viscosity of mAbs. The Ross and Minton equation was used for viscosity prediction at high protein concentrations. Bulk viscosity was determined by a Cambridge viscometer. RESULTS: At 15 mM ionic strength, intrinsic viscosity of the mAbs determined by the single-point approach varied from 5...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154562/indian-long-term-non-progressors-show-broad-adcc-responses-with-preferential-recognition-of-v3-region-of-envelope-and-a-region-from-tat-protein
#17
Archana Kulkarni, Swarali Kurle, Ashwini Shete, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Vijaya Madhavi, Stephen J Kent, Ramesh Paranjape, Madhuri Thakar
HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is likely to be important in governing protection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and slowing disease progression. Little is known about the ADCC responses to HIV-1 subtype C. We characterized ADCC responses in HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian subjects with slow disease progression and identified the dominant antigenic regions recognized by these antibodies. ADCC responses were measured in plasma from 34 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), who were asymptomatic and maintained CD4 count above 500 cells/mm(3) for the last 7 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 58 ART naïve progressors with CD4 count <500 cells/mm(3) against overlapping HIV-1 peptides using a flow cytometry-based antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assay...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154173/autocrine-and-paracrine-interactions-between-multiple-myeloma-cells-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-by-growth-arrest-specific-gene-6-crosstalk-with-interleukin-6
#18
Miki Furukawa, Hiroshi Ohkawara, Kazuei Ogawa, Kazuhiko Ikeda, Koki Ueda, Akiko Shichishima-Nakamura, Emi Ito, Jun-Ichi Imai, Yuka Yanagisawa, Reiko Honma, Shinya Watanabe, Satoshi Waguri, Takayuki Ikezoe, Yasuchika Takeishi
The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) has not yet been fully elucidated. Our microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed significant upregulation of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), a vitamin K-dependent protein with a structural homology with protein S, in bone marrow (BM) cells of MM patients. ELISA showed that the serum levels of soluble Gas6 were significantly increased in the MM patients when compared with healthy controls. Gas6 was overexpressed in the human CD138-positive MM cell line RPMI-8226...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143992/an-east-asian-type-caga-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patient-with-clinical-manifestation-of-gastric-ulcer
#19
Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Iswan A Nusi, Ummi Maimunah, Pangestu Adi, Yoshio Yamaoka
We reported a male, 72 yo, Chinese ethnic with chief complaint black mushy defecation. Physical examination revealed pale on conjunctival palpebra which confirmed as anemia on complete blood count. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed a 3 mm ulcer at the antrum (Forrest stage III). H. pylori infection was positive based on five different test methods (urinary antibody tests, rapid urease test, culture, histology ad immunohistochemistry). Used polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing, we found the patient infected by CagA producing, East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1m1-strain...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138440/inverse-correlation-between-cd8-inflammatory-cells-and-e-cadherin-expression-in-gallbladder-cancer-tissue-microarray-and-imaging-analysis
#20
Keita Kai, Masanori Masuda, Shinichi Aishima
AIM: To investigated the association between the tumor cells' expression of E-cadherin and the numbers of several types of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the invasive portion of gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS: We analyzed 50 GBC cases for which a sufficient amount of tumor tissues for tissue microarray (TMA) had been saved. Three tissue cores (3.0 mm) of invasive lesion from each case were used for the TMA. The 4-μm cut sections on slides were immunostained using primary antibodies including E-cadherin for cancer cells, leukocyte common antigen for leukocyte, myeloperoxidase for neutrophils, CD3 for T cells, CD4 for helper T cells, CD8 for killer T cells, CD20 for B cells and CD68 for macrophages...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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