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Valproate and oxcarbazepine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370224/do-antiepileptic-drugs-increase-the-risk-of-infectious-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-studies
#1
Gaetano Zaccara, Fabio Giovannelli, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Valentina Franco, Sara Gasparini, Francesco Mandò Tacconi
AIMS: Experimental studies show that some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may modify natural immune defenses, thus influencing the risk of developing infectious diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether AEDs as a class of drugs or singularly may increase risk of infectious diseases. METHODS: A meta-analysis of all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating any AED in any condition was performed. All terms which could be coded in the System Organ Classes (SOCs) of "infections and infestations" using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) were recorded...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324910/lacosamide-lowers-valproate-and-levetiracetam-levels
#2
Maria Tountopoulou, Bernhard Weschke, Angela M Kaindl
Lacosamide (LCM) due to no known drug interaction and the absence of metabolic enzyme induction is a good candidate for an add-on medication, especially in combination with lamotrigine, levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and valproic acid (VPA). Here we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that LCM can lower VPA and LEV serum levels. At present, there are no known explicable mechanisms of action of LCM, which lowers VPA and LEV. Here observed drug interaction of LCM is of clinical significance, which might be useful for other colleagues in the field...
March 21, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293110/efficacy-and-safety-of-oxcarbazepine-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Hua Geng, Chengzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in the treatment of children with epilepsy. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, China), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (China) database were systematically reviewed. Eligible studies were those that compared the efficacy and safety of OXC with other antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#4
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121917/clinical-features-of-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-in-chinese-children
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
Meng-Jia Liu, Xiao-Jun Su, Xiu-Yu Shi Md, Ge-Fei Wu, Yu-Qin Zhang, Li Gao, Wei Wang, Jian-Xiang Liao, Hua Wang, Jian-Ning Mai, Jing-Yun Gao, Xiao-Mei Shu, Shao-Ping Huang, Li Zhang, Li-Ping Zou
This multicenter clinical trial was conducted to examine current practice of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and especially address the question that in what circumstances 1 antiepileptic drug (AED) should be preferred.Twenty-five medical centers participate in this clinical trial. The general information, clinical information, and treatment status were collected under the guidance of clinicians and then analyzed. Difference between different treatment groups was compared, and usefulness of the most commonly used AEDs was evaluated...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104975/antiepileptic-drugs-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-a-case-series
#6
Bhavi S Trivedi, Nishita H Darji, Supriya D Malhotra, Pankaj R Patel
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute life-threatening mucocutaneous reaction, characterized by extensive necrosis and detachment of the epidermis from the skin. The overall incidence of SJS is seen in five cases per million people per year. SJS is typically caused by drugs and is a kind of idiosyncratic reaction. Adverse drug reactions such an SJS have a remarkable effect on patient's safety issues. We encountered nine cases of antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced SJS, specifically with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin...
December 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069620/prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs-and-use-of-primary-healthcare-during-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-denmark
#7
Anne Mette Würtz, Dorte Rytter, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Jakob Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide national registers in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010)...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779771/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analyses
#9
REVIEW
Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Manuela Roque Siane Morelo, Fabiana Angelo Marques, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Several newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been introduced into clinical practice, offering choices for individualizing the treatment of epilepsy since AEDs have different efficacy and tolerability profiles. In particular, questions exist regarding which AEDs are the best options for the monotherapy of focal epilepsy. Is carbamazepine (CBZ), which is considered the standard treatment for focal epilepsy, still the best option for monotherapy of focal epilepsy, despite the emergence of new AEDs? In this systematic review, we compared the relative tolerability of all available AEDs for monotherapy of all types of epilepsy as well as their efficacy in the monotherapy of focal epilepsy...
December 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756024/behavioral-effects-and-somnolence-due-to-levetiracetam-versus-oxcarbazepine-a-retrospective-comparison-study-of-north-indian-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#10
Garima Shukla, Anupama Gupta, Priya Agarwal, Shivani Poornima
PURPOSE: Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. METHOD: Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis...
October 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737595/hyponatremia-induced-by-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Xi Lu, Xuefeng Wang
Hyponatremia induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has not received sufficient attention in patients with epilepsy. Areas covered: We reviewed articles between 1966 and 2015 about hyponatremia as an adverse effect of AEDs in patients with epilepsy. The incidence, clinical symptoms, onset times of AEDs-induced hyponatremia are discussed in detail, as are the risk factors associated with AEDs-induced hyponatremia and mechanisms underlying its development. We also briefly describe strategies for treating AED-induced hyponatremia...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732918/evidence-for-spared-attention-to-faces-in-7-month-old-infants-after-prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs
#12
Mari Videman, Susanna Stjerna, Reina Roivainen, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Eija Gaily, Jukka M Leppänen
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developmental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure could be detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n=56) with infants without drug exposures (n=62)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663280/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-influence-of-n-palmitoylethanolamine-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-and-win-55-212-2-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-antiepileptic-drugs-against-audiogenic-seizures-in-dba-2-mice
#13
Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Michele Navarra, Antonio Calignano, Giovambattista De Sarro
We evaluated the effects of ACEA (selective cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor agonist), WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN; non-selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA; an endogenous fatty acid of ethanolamide) in DBA/2 mice, a genetic model of reflex audiogenic epilepsy. PEA, ACEA or WIN intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration decreased the severity of tonic-clonic seizures. We also studied the effects of PEA, WIN or ACEA after co-administration with NIDA-41020 (CB1 receptor antagonist) or GW6471 (PPAR-α antagonist) and compared the effects of WIN, ACEA and PEA in order to clarify their mechanisms of action...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629998/myoclonus-and-seizures-in-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-trials
#14
REVIEW
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452623/comparative-study-of-antiepileptic-drug-use-during-pregnancy-over-a-period-of-12-years-in-spain-efficacy-of-the-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-lamotrigine-levetiracetam-and-oxcarbazepine
#15
M Martinez Ferri, P Peña Mayor, I Perez López-Fraile, A Escartin Siquier, M Martin Moro, M Forcadas Berdusan
INTRODUCTION: The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery...
July 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414974/the-impact-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate-versus-oxcarbazepine-and-carbamazepine-in-clinical-practice
#16
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Torleiv Svendsen, Jasmin Dinarevic, Ruben F Kufaas, Arne Reimers, Eylert Brodtkorb, Arton Baftiu, Margrete L Burns, Svein I Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new anti-epileptic drug (AED) chemically related to oxcarbazepine (OXC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and is increasingly used in clinical practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate 2-way pharmacokinetic interactions between ESL and other AEDs as compared to OXC and CBZ. METHODS: Anonymous data regarding age, gender, use of AEDs, daily doses and serum concentration measurements of ESL, OXC, CBZ and lamotrigine (LTG) and other AEDs were retrieved from 2 therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) databases in Norway...
August 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377653/does-the-choice-of-antiepileptic-drug-affect-survival-in-glioblastoma-patients
#17
Kristin M Knudsen-Baas, Anders Engeland, Nils Erik Gilhus, Anette M Storstein, Jone F Owe
Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) often suffer from symptomatic epilepsy. Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which affect the enzyme system cytochrome P450 have been in extensive use, but there is an increasing focus on interactions with other drugs. This study investigated whether newer AEDs with little or no enzyme effect are increasingly preferred. Previous research has indicated that valproate improves survival in GBM. We investigated the impact of AEDs on overall survival in GBM patients. All GBM patients diagnosed in Norway 2004-2010 were included through a linkage of national registries, and follow-up data on the malignancy and drug usage were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297617/mood-stabilizers-during-breastfeeding-a-systematic-review-of-the-recent-literature
#18
REVIEW
Faruk Uguz, Verinder Sharma
OBJECTIVE: This review examined the safety of mood stabilizers in exposed breastfed infants. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English language reports between 1 January 1995 and 30 August 2015 by using combinations of key words breastfeeding, lactation, postpartum period, puerperium, mood stabilizers, lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine. Case reports, case series, and prospective or cross-sectional studies including relevant data such as relative infant dose, milk-to-plasma ratio, infant drug plasma levels, and adverse events were identified...
June 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264138/treatment-of-dravet-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation)...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226264/hypothyroidism-risk-compared-among-nine-common-bipolar-disorder-therapies-in-a-large-us-cohort
#20
Christophe G Lambert, Aurélien J Mazurie, Nicolas R Lauve, Nathaniel G Hurwitz, S Stanley Young, Robert L Obenchain, Nicolas W Hengartner, Douglas J Perkins, Mauricio Tohen, Berit Kerner
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have been linked to lithium treatment for decades, yet other drugs have been less well studied. Our objective was to compare hypothyroidism risk for lithium versus the anticonvulsants and second-generation antipsychotics commonly prescribed for BD. METHODS: Administrative claims data on 24,574 patients with BD were analyzed with competing risk survival analysis. Inclusion criteria were (i) one year of no prior hypothyroid diagnosis nor BD drug treatment, (ii) followed by at least one thyroid test during BD monotherapy on lithium carbonate, mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, valproate, oxcarbazepine, or carbamazepine) or antipsychotics (aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine)...
May 2016: Bipolar Disorders
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