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Valproate and oxcarbazepine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779771/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analyses
#2
Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Manuela Roque Siane Morelo, Fabiana Angelo Marques, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Several newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been introduced into clinical practice, offering choices for individualizing the treatment of epilepsy since AEDs have different efficacy and tolerability profiles. In particular, questions exist regarding which AEDs are the best options for the monotherapy of focal epilepsy. Is carbamazepine (CBZ), which is considered the standard treatment for focal epilepsy, still the best option for monotherapy of focal epilepsy, despite the emergence of new AEDs? In this systematic review, we compared the relative tolerability of all available AEDs for monotherapy of all types of epilepsy as well as their efficacy in the monotherapy of focal epilepsy...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756024/behavioral-effects-and-somnolence-due-to-levetiracetam-versus-oxcarbazepine-a-retrospective-comparison-study-of-north-indian-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#3
Garima Shukla, Anupama Gupta, Priya Agarwal, Shivani Poornima
PURPOSE: Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. METHOD: Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis...
October 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737595/hyponatremia-induced-by-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#4
Xi Lu, Xuefeng Wang
Hyponatremia induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has not received sufficient attention in patients with epilepsy. Areas covered: We reviewed articles between 1966 and 2015 about hyponatremia as an adverse effect of AEDs in patients with epilepsy. The incidence, clinical symptoms, onset times of AEDs-induced hyponatremia are discussed in detail, as are the risk factors associated with AEDs-induced hyponatremia and mechanisms underlying its development. We also briefly describe strategies for treating AED-induced hyponatremia...
October 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732918/evidence-for-spared-attention-to-faces-in-7-month-old-infants-after-prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs
#5
Mari Videman, Susanna Stjerna, Reina Roivainen, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Eija Gaily, Jukka M Leppänen
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developmental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure could be detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n=56) with infants without drug exposures (n=62)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663280/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-influence-of-n-palmitoylethanolamine-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-and-win-55-212-2-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-antiepileptic-drugs-against-audiogenic-seizures-in-dba-2-mice
#6
Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Michele Navarra, Antonio Calignano, Giovambattista De Sarro
We evaluated the effects of ACEA (selective cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor agonist), WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN; non-selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA; an endogenous fatty acid of ethanolamide) in DBA/2 mice, a genetic model of reflex audiogenic epilepsy. PEA, ACEA or WIN intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration decreased the severity of tonic-clonic seizures. We also studied the effects of PEA, WIN or ACEA after co-administration with NIDA-41020 (CB1 receptor antagonist) or GW6471 (PPAR-α antagonist) and compared the effects of WIN, ACEA and PEA in order to clarify their mechanisms of action...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629998/myoclonus-and-seizures-in-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-trials
#7
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452623/comparative-study-of-antiepileptic-drug-use-during-pregnancy-over-a-period-of-12-years-in-spain-efficacy-of-the-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-lamotrigine-levetiracetam-and-oxcarbazepine
#8
M Martinez Ferri, P Peña Mayor, I Perez López-Fraile, A Escartin Siquier, M Martin Moro, M Forcadas Berdusan
INTRODUCTION: The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery...
July 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414974/the-impact-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate-versus-oxcarbazepine-and-carbamazepine-in-clinical-practice
#9
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Torleiv Svendsen, Jasmin Dinarevic, Ruben F Kufaas, Arne Reimers, Eylert Brodtkorb, Arton Baftiu, Margrete L Burns, Svein I Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new anti-epileptic drug (AED) chemically related to oxcarbazepine (OXC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and is increasingly used in clinical practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate 2-way pharmacokinetic interactions between ESL and other AEDs as compared to OXC and CBZ. METHODS: Anonymous data regarding age, gender, use of AEDs, daily doses and serum concentration measurements of ESL, OXC, CBZ and lamotrigine (LTG) and other AEDs were retrieved from 2 therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) databases in Norway...
August 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377653/does-the-choice-of-antiepileptic-drug-affect-survival-in-glioblastoma-patients
#10
Kristin M Knudsen-Baas, Anders Engeland, Nils Erik Gilhus, Anette M Storstein, Jone F Owe
Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) often suffer from symptomatic epilepsy. Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which affect the enzyme system cytochrome P450 have been in extensive use, but there is an increasing focus on interactions with other drugs. This study investigated whether newer AEDs with little or no enzyme effect are increasingly preferred. Previous research has indicated that valproate improves survival in GBM. We investigated the impact of AEDs on overall survival in GBM patients. All GBM patients diagnosed in Norway 2004-2010 were included through a linkage of national registries, and follow-up data on the malignancy and drug usage were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297617/mood-stabilizers-during-breastfeeding-a-systematic-review-of-the-recent-literature
#11
REVIEW
Faruk Uguz, Verinder Sharma
OBJECTIVE: This review examined the safety of mood stabilizers in exposed breastfed infants. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English language reports between 1 January 1995 and 30 August 2015 by using combinations of key words breastfeeding, lactation, postpartum period, puerperium, mood stabilizers, lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine. Case reports, case series, and prospective or cross-sectional studies including relevant data such as relative infant dose, milk-to-plasma ratio, infant drug plasma levels, and adverse events were identified...
June 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264138/treatment-of-dravet-syndrome
#12
Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation)...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226264/hypothyroidism-risk-compared-among-nine-common-bipolar-disorder-therapies-in-a-large-us-cohort
#13
Christophe G Lambert, Aurélien J Mazurie, Nicolas R Lauve, Nathaniel G Hurwitz, S Stanley Young, Robert L Obenchain, Nicolas W Hengartner, Douglas J Perkins, Mauricio Tohen, Berit Kerner
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have been linked to lithium treatment for decades, yet other drugs have been less well studied. Our objective was to compare hypothyroidism risk for lithium versus the anticonvulsants and second-generation antipsychotics commonly prescribed for BD. METHODS: Administrative claims data on 24,574 patients with BD were analyzed with competing risk survival analysis. Inclusion criteria were (i) one year of no prior hypothyroid diagnosis nor BD drug treatment, (ii) followed by at least one thyroid test during BD monotherapy on lithium carbonate, mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, valproate, oxcarbazepine, or carbamazepine) or antipsychotics (aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine)...
May 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184878/psychiatric-and-behavioural-disorders-in-children-with-epilepsy-ilae-task-force-report-adverse-cognitive-and-behavioural-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children
#14
Albert Aldenkamp, Frank Besag, Giuseppe Gobbi, Rochelle Caplan, David W Dunn, Matti Sillanpää
The literature was evaluated for cognitive and more general behavioural effects. We distinguished the older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), from the newer and newest AEDs. The striking finding was the lack of information on children. From the available evidence it would appear that there may be negative cognitive effects with phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate and zonisamide, and adverse behavioural effects with phenobarbital, valproate, gabapentin, topiramate, levetiracetam and zonisamide. There is inconclusive data on ethosuximide, clobazam, vigabatrin, felbamate, pregabalin, stiripentol, rufinamide, lacosamide and retigabine...
May 16, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142370/potential-effects-of-valproate-and-oxcarbazepine-on-growth-velocity-and-bone-metabolism-in-epileptic-children-a-medical-center-experience
#15
Chien-Ming Lin, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Tsu-Yi Chao, Der-Ming Chu, Chi-Chieh Lai, Chih-Chien Wang, Shyi-Jou Chen
BACKGROUND: Children with longstanding use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are susceptible to developing low bone mineral density and an increased fracture risk. However, the literature regarding the effects of AEDs on growth in epileptic children is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of valproate (VPA) and/or oxcarbazepine (OXC) therapy on growth velocity and bone metabolism. METHODS: Seventy-three ambulatory children (40 boys and 33 girls) with epilepsy, aged between 1 and 18 years (mean age 9...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096699/coupling-genotyping-and-computational-modeling-in-prediction-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-that-cause-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-for-carrier-of-hla-b-15-02
#16
Lay Kek Teh, Manikandan Selvaraj, Zakaria Bannur, Mohd Ikhwan Mohd Ismail, Hanip Rafia, Wan Chung Law, Sapiah Sapuan, Santhi Puvanarajah, Pakeer Shaik Syed Ali, Mohd Zaki Salleh
PURPOSE: The importance of HLA-B*15:02 genotyping to avoid carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN and molecular modeling to predict the role of HLA-B*15:0 and AEDs induced SJS/TEN are investigated. METHODS: DNA was extracted from eighty-six patients. The patients were genotyped by AS-PCR. Computational modeling of the HLA-B*15:02 followed by docking studies were performed to screen 26 AEDs that may induce ADR among HLA-B*15:02 carriers. RESULTS: Odd ratio for CBZ induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*15:02 was 609...
2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010568/weight-gain-in-children-on-oxcarbazepine-monotherapy
#17
Anastasia Garoufi, George Vartzelis, Charalambos Tsentidis, Achilleas Attilakos, Evangelia Koemtzidou, Lydia Kossiva, Eustathia Katsarou, Alexandra Soldatou
BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on body growth of children with epilepsy are rare and their results are controversial. To the contrary, many studies have shown significant weight gain following valproate (VPA) treatment. PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the effect of OXC monotherapy on growth patterns of children with epilepsy and compare it with the effect of VPA monotherapy. METHOD: Fifty-nine otherwise healthy children, aged 3...
May 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830290/effect-of-the-anti-depressant-sertraline-the-novel-anti-seizure-drug-vinpocetine-and-several-conventional-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-epileptiform-eeg-activity-induced-by-4-aminopyridine
#18
Maria Sitges, Blanca Irene Aldana, Ronald Charles Reed
Seizures are accompanied by an exacerbated activation of cerebral ion channels. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is a pro-convulsive agent which mechanism of action involves activation of Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, and several antiepileptic drugs control seizures by reducing these channels permeability. The antidepressant, sertraline, and the anti-seizure drug vinpocetine are effective inhibitors of cerebral presynaptic Na(+) channels. Here the effectiveness of these compounds to prevent the epileptiform EEG activity induced by 4-AP was compared with the effectiveness of seven conventional antiepileptic drugs...
June 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608980/long-term-effectiveness-of-antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-in-partial-epileptic-patients-a-7-year-study-in-an-epilepsy-center-in-china
#19
Fei Zhu, Sen-Yang Lang, Xiang-Qing Wang, Xiao-Bing Shi, Yun-Feng Ma, Xu Zhang, Ya-Nan Chen, Jia-Tang Zhang
BACKGROUND: It is important to choose an appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) to manage partial epilepsy. Traditional AEDs, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA), have been proven to have good therapeutic effects. However, in recent years, a variety of new AEDs have increasingly been used as first-line treatments for partial epilepsy. As the studies regarding the effectiveness of new drugs and comparisons between new AEDs and traditional AEDs are few, it is determined that these are areas in need of further research...
November 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559937/sexual-dysfunction-related-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
Yong Yang, Xuefeng Wang
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a common disease that is mostly treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the sexual dysfunction (SD) side effects related to the use of AEDs have not received sufficient attention. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review is to examine the current evidence on SD-related side effects of AEDs. The incidence, clinical features and major types of SD are summarized. Furthermore, various AEDs that may cause SDs are addressed in detail...
January 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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