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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933060/regulators-of-tfh-cell-differentiation
#1
REVIEW
Gajendra M Jogdand, Suchitra Mohanty, Satish Devadas
The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching, and germinal center (GC) formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), ICOS, programed death 1 (PD-1), B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. On the one hand, Tfh cells are generated from naive CD4(+) T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A), migration, and positioning in the GC by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein/signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) as well as transcription factor (BCL-6, c-Maf, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling and repressor miR155...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931862/new-recommendations-for-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#2
Diana Hernández-Flórez, Roberto González-Benítez, Lara Valor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929101/hookworm-infection
#3
Alex Loukas, Peter J Hotez, David Diemert, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James S McCarthy, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, John Croese, Jeffrey M Bethony
Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually...
December 8, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919236/the-psoriasis-associated-deletion-of-late-cornified-envelope-genes-lce3b-and-lce3c-has-been-maintained-under-balancing-selection-since-human-denisovan-divergence
#4
Petar Pajic, Yen-Lung Lin, Duo Xu, Omer Gokcumen
BACKGROUND: A common, 32kb deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C genes is strongly associated with psoriasis. We recently found that this deletion is ancient, predating Human-Denisovan divergence. However, it was not clear why negative selection has not removed this deletion from the population. RESULTS: Here, we show that the haplotype block that harbors the deletion (i) retains high allele frequency among extant and ancient human populations; (ii) harbors unusually high nucleotide variation (π, P < 4...
December 5, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#5
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906864/potential-for-treatment-and-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#6
Natalie Quanquin, Lulan Wang, Genhong Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) has only recently been exposed as a significant public health threat, and much of our limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and triggered immune responses were discovered in only the last few years. There are currently no ZIKV-specific therapeutics or vaccines available. This review seeks to bring the reader up-to-date with the latest developments in finding a way to combat this emerging infectious disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Current strategies used for developing ZIKV vaccines or treatments follow proven methods used against other flaviviruses...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#7
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900387/a-modification-specific-peptide-based-immunization-approach-using-crm197-carrier-protein-development-of-a-selective-vaccine-against-pyroglutamate-a%C3%AE-peptides
#8
Valérie Vingtdeux, Haitian Zhao, Pallavi Chandakkar, Christopher M Acker, Peter Davies, Philippe Marambaud
Strategies aimed at reducing cerebral accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ immunization has proven to be effective at promoting Aβ clearance in animal models but adverse effects have hampered its clinical evaluation. The first anti-Aβ immunization clinical trial, which assessed a full-length Aβ1-42 vaccine, increased the risk of encephalitis most likely because of autoimmune pro-inflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) response against all forms of Aβ...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900264/a-genomic-study-on-distribution-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-a-and-hla-b-alleles-in-lak-population-of-iran
#9
Farhad Shahsavar, Ali-Mohammad Varzi, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi
Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896747/studying-antibody-repertoires-with-next-generation-sequencing
#10
William D Lees, Adrian J Shepherd
Next-generation sequencing is making it possible to study the antibody repertoire of an organism in unprecedented detail, and, by so doing, to characterize its behavior in the response to infection and in pathological conditions such as autoimmunity and cancer. The polymorphic nature of the repertoire poses unique challenges that rule out the use of many commonly used NGS methods and require tradeoffs to be made when considering experimental design.We outline the main contexts in which antibody repertoire analysis has been used, and summarize the key tools that are available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895641/pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-elicits-igg-anti-a-b-blood-group-antibodies-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Wendelin Wolfram, Kai M T Sauerwein, Christoph J Binder, Nicole Eibl-Musil, Hermann M Wolf, Michael B Fischer
HYPOTHESIS: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype, and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We addressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) vaccine Pneumo 23 Vaccine "Pasteur Merieux" (Pn23) could have such an effect in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I), an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895620/excessive-cytosolic-dna-fragments-as-a-potential-trigger-of-graves-disease-an-encrypted-message-sent-by-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Yuqian Luo, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Yuko Ishido, Koichi Suzuki
Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by autoantibodies directed against the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) that mimic the action of TSH. The establishment of Graves' hyperthyroidism in experimental animals has proven to be an important approach to dissect the mechanisms of self-tolerance breakdown that lead to the production of thyroid-stimulating TSHR autoantibodies (TSAbs). "Shimojo's model" was the first successful Graves' animal model, wherein immunization with fibroblasts cells expressing TSHR and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, but not either alone, induced TSAb production in AKR/N (H-2(k)) mice...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#13
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890874/development-of-a-lipopolysaccharide-lps-supplemented-adjuvant-and-its-effects-on-cell-mediated-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-male-rats-immunized-against-sperm
#14
Junko Noguchi, Shinya Watanabe, Thanh Q Dang Nguyen, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Kaneko
Supplementation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was found to enhance the adjuvant effects of a veterinary vaccine adjuvant (ISA 71VG(®)). Sperm immunization using 71VG as an adjuvant in the immature period induced infertility in 25% of male rats, whereas this increased to 62.5% after immunization with 71VG + LPS or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Mean testicular weight of non-sterile males in the 71VG + LPS group was significantly lower than that in the 71VG or FCA group...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890168/incidence-and-prevention-of-herpes-zoster-reactivation-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Eliza F Chakravarty
Herpes zoster is the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus usually occurring decades after initial exposure, and manifesting as a painful vesicular rash occurring along one or more dermatomes. Zoster incidence increases with age as cell mediated immunity against latent virus wanes. Epidemiological evidence suggests that individuals with underlying rheumatic diseases are at increased risk for zoster. It remains unclear whether this is due to immunosuppressive medications or from immune dysregulation of the underlying disease...
February 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867145/human-papillomavirus-vaccines-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome-and-autonomic-dysfunction-a-review-of-the-regulatory-evidence-from-the-european-medicines-agency
#16
Tom Jefferson, Lars Jørgensen
Recent concerns about a possible association between exposure of young women to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and two "dysautonomic syndromes" (a collection of signs and symptoms thought to be caused by autoimmunity) - complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) - led the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to review existing evidence. The review was announced by the EMA on July 13, 2015, and was completed on November 4, 2015.
October 17, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863662/surface-assembled-poly-i-c-on-pegylated-plga-microspheres-as-vaccine-adjuvant-apc-activation-and-bystander-cell-stimulation
#17
Annina M Hafner, Blaise Corthésy, Marcus Textor, Hans P Merkle
Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are potential vehicles to deliver antigens for vaccination. Because they lack the full capacity to activate professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), combination with an immunostimulatory adjuvant may be considered. A candidate is the synthetic TLR3 ligand polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), which drives cell-mediated immunity. However, poly(I:C) has also been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, as affected by widespread stimulation of non-hematopoietic bystander cells...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859048/%C3%AE-cell-specific-il-35-therapy-suppresses-ongoing-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#18
Fatima Manzoor, Mark C Johnson, Chengwen Li, R Jude Samulski, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
IL-35 is a recently identified cytokine exhibiting potent immunosuppressive properties. The therapeutic potential and effects of IL-35 on pathogenic T effector cells (Teff) and Foxp3(+) Treg, however, are ill defined. We tested the capacity of IL-35 to suppress ongoing autoimmunity in NOD mice. For this purpose, an adeno-associated virus vector in which IL-35 transgene expression is selectively targeted to β cells via an insulin promoter (AAV8mIP-IL35) was used. AAV8mIP-IL35 vaccination of NOD mice at a late preclinical stage of type 1 diabetes (T1D) suppressed β-cell autoimmunity and prevented diabetes onset...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853647/mini-intronic-plasmid-vaccination-elicits-tolerant-lag3-cd8-t-cells-and-inferior-antitumor-responses
#19
Viswa Teja Colluru, Christopher D Zahm, Douglas G McNeel
Increasing transgene expression has been a major focus of attempts to improve DNA vaccine-induced immunity in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Novel mini-intronic plasmids (MIPs) have been shown to cause elevated and sustained transgene expression in vivo. We sought to test the antitumor activity of a MIP, compared to standard DNA plasmid immunization, using the tumor-specific antigen SSX2 in an HLA-A2-restricted tumor model. We found that MIP vaccination elicited a greater frequency of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells when compared to conventional plasmid, and protected animals from subsequent tumor challenge...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849170/hiv-1-envelope-mimicry-of-host-enzyme-kynureninase-does-not-disrupt-tryptophan-metabolism
#20
Todd Bradley, Guang Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, T Matt Holl, Ruijun Zhang, Jinsong Zhang, Sampa Santra, Christopher B Fox, Steve G Reed, Robert Parks, Cindy M Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Nathan Vandergrift, Thomas B Kepler, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, S Munir Alam, Roger McLendon, Jeffrey I Everitt, Christopher B Newgard, Laurent Verkoczy, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has evolved to subvert the host immune system, hindering viral control by the host. The tryptophan metabolic enzyme kynureninase (KYNU) is mimicked by a portion of the HIV Env gp41 membrane proximal region (MPER) and is cross-reactive with the HIV broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) 2F5. Molecular mimicry of host proteins by pathogens can lead to autoimmune disease. In this article, we demonstrate that neither the 2F5 bnAb nor HIV MPER-KYNU cross-reactive Abs elicited by immunization with an MPER peptide-liposome vaccine in 2F5 bnAb VHDJH and VLJL knock-in mice and rhesus macaques modified KYNU activity or disrupted tissue tryptophan metabolism...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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