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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532760/research-techniques-made-simple-high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor
#1
Tiago R Matos, Menno A de Rie, Marcel B M Teunissen
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) is a rapidly advancing technique that allows sensitive and accurate identification and quantification of every distinct T-cell clone present within any biological sample. The relative frequency of each individual clone within the full T-cell repertoire can also be studied. HTS is essential to expand our knowledge on the diversity of the TCR repertoire in homeostasis or under pathologic conditions, as well as to understand the kinetics of antigen-specific T-cell responses that lead to protective immunity (i...
June 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#3
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529551/history-and-current-state-of-immunotherapy-in-glioma-and-brain-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Tresa McGranahan, Gordon Li, Seema Nagpal
Malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM) and brain metastasis have poor prognosis despite conventional therapies. Successful use of vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors in systemic malignancy has increased the hope that immune therapies could improve survival in patients with brain tumors. Manipulating the immune system to fight malignancy has a long history of both modest breakthroughs and pitfalls that should be considered when applying the current immunotherapy approaches to patients with brain tumors...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526059/severe-polyserositis-induced-by-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-case-report
#5
Pierre Tawfik, Elie Gertner, Charlene E McEvoy
BACKGROUND: The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of pneumonia in the elderly. Reports of autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases as a result of pneumococcal vaccination, especially pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of severe serositis in a 75-year-old Caucasian woman complicated by pericardial and pleural effusions in the setting of recent 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine vaccination and no other obvious etiology...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521688/vasculitis-following-influenza-vaccination-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
Toru Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine is safe and effective for the general population as well as for patients with autoimmune diseases. However, although rare, vasculitis has been reported as an adverse event following influenza vaccination. OBJECT: The aims of this literature review were to identify patients who developed vasculitis following influenza vaccination and to clarify the clinical manifestations of vasculitis in these patients. METHODS: Using the PubMed database and search engine, we performed a search of the English-language literature by combining the term influenza vaccination with each term for a specific form of vasculitis from January 1966 through April 2016...
May 17, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518476/adult-onset-chronic-cyclic-thrombocytopenia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-after-dengue-virus-vaccination-and-viral-challenge
#7
Galit H Frydman, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Robert P Marini, Armelle M de Laforcade, Irene Bosch, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Alton G Swennes, Claire E Lyons, Ronald G Tompkins, James G Fox
An 8-year-old, male Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), previously used for dengue virus (DENV) vaccine research with viral challenge, was presented with adult-onset, chronic, cyclic thrombocytopenia. Platelet number, morphology, and function were evaluated by automated hematology, peripheral blood smears, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and impedance aggregometry. Bone marrow was evaluated by cytology. Both serum anti-dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibodies and anti-platelet antibodies were detected by ELISA...
May 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512072/lessons-learnt-in-japan-from-adverse-reactions-to-the-hpv-vaccine-a-medical-ethics-perspective
#8
Hirokuni Beppu, Masumi Minaguchi, Kiyoshi Uchide, Kunihiko Kumamoto, Masato Sekiguchi, Yukari Yaju
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been linked to a number of serious adverse reactions. The range of symptoms is diverse and they develop in a multi-layered manner over an extended period of time. The argument for the safety and effectiveness of the HPV vaccine overlooks the following flaws: (i) no consideration is given to the genetic basis of autoimmune diseases, and arguments that do not take this into account cannot assure the safety of the vaccine; (ii) the immune evasion mechanisms of HPV, which require the HPV vaccine to maintain an extraordinarily high antibody level for a long period of time for it to be effective, are disregarded; and (iii) the limitations of effectiveness of the vaccine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490724/infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-similarities-and-differences-with-lupus-flare
#9
REVIEW
Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations, and its pathogenesis is unclear and complicated. Infection and SLE are similar in that they both cause inf lammatory reactions in the immune system; however, one functions to protect the body, whereas the other is activated to damage the body. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE; there are a number of reports on infectious agents that provoke autoimmune response. Several viruses, bacteria, and protozoa were revealed to cause immune dysfunction by molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490574/early-emergence-of-cd19-negative-human-antibody-secreting-cells-at-the-plasmablast-to-plasma-cell-transition
#10
Gururaj Arumugakani, Sophie J Stephenson, Darren J Newton, Andy Rawstron, Paul Emery, Gina M Doody, Dennis McGonagle, Reuben M Tooze
Long-lived human plasma cells (PCs) play central roles in immunity and autoimmunity and are enriched among the subpopulation of CD19(neg) human PCs. However, whether human CD19(neg) PCs are necessarily aged cells that have gradually lost CD19 expression is not known. Assessing peripheral blood samples at steady-state and during the acute response to influenza vaccination in healthy donors, we identify the presence of phenotypic CD19(neg) plasmablasts, the proliferative precursor state to mature PCs, and demonstrate by ELISPOT that these are Ab-secreting cells (ASCs)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489886/bystander-activation-of-irrelevant-cd4-t-cells-following-antigen-specific-vaccination-occurs-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-adjuvant
#11
Susan van Aalst, Irene S Ludwig, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Autoimmune and other chronic inflammatory diseases (AID) are prevalent diseases which can severely impact the quality of life of those that suffer from the disease. In most cases, the etiology of these conditions have remained unclear. Immune responses that take place e.g. during natural infection or after vaccination are often linked with the development or exacerbation of AID. It is highly debated if vaccines induce or aggravate AID and in particular adjuvants are mentioned as potential cause. Since vaccines are given on a large scale to healthy individuals but also to elderly and immunocompromised individuals, more research is warranted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483543/vaccinations-and-risk-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Bin Wang, Xiaoqing Shao, Dan Wang, Donghua Xu, Jin-An Zhang
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, more and more studies proposed some concerns on the possibly increased risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals receiving vaccinations, but published studies on the associations of vaccinations with risks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reported conflicting findings. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between vaccinations and risk of SLE and RA. METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched for observational studies assessing the associations of vaccinations with risks of RA and SLE...
May 5, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482788/defensive-and-offensive-cross-reactive-antibodies-elicited-by-pathogens-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#13
Daria Augustyniak, Grażyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Justyna Roszkowiak, Agata Dorotkiewicz-Jach
Understanding how immunity to pathogens develops is crucial for progress in the quest for effective vaccines. Intraspecies and interspecies cross-reacting antibodies are produced in high frequency against immune-relevant and shared microbial epitopes. It has been confirmed that cross-reactive antigens may have a crucial role in natural epidemiology to a particular infection and that cross-protection may influence the outcome of natural infections. On the other hand, the action of cross-reactive antibodies may be very harmful for the host...
May 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479174/identification-of-a-defined-linear-epitope-in-the-ospa-protein-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochetes-that-elicits-bactericidal-antibody-responses-implications-for-vaccine-development
#14
Jerilyn R Izac, Lee D Oliver, Christopher G Earnhart, Richard T Marconi
The lipoprotein OspA is produced by the Lyme disease spirochetes primarily in unfed ticks. OspA production is down-regulated by the blood meal and it is not produced in mammals except for possible transient production during late stage infection in patients with Lyme arthritis. Vaccination with OspA elicits antibody (Ab) that can target spirochetes in the tick midgut during feeding and inhibit transmission to mammals. OspA was the primary component of the human LYMErix™ vaccine. LYMErix™ was available from 1998 to 2002 but then pulled from the market due to declining sales as a result of unsubstantiated concerns about vaccination induced adverse events and poor efficacy...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472507/a-case-report-of-hypoglycemia-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-david-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-nfkb2-mutation
#15
Rayhan A Lal, Laura K Bachrach, Andrew R Hoffman, Jingga Inlora, Shannon Rego, Michael P Snyder, David B Lewis
Context: DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463636/evaluation-of-optic-neuritis-following-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#16
Gayathri Sridhar, Fang Tian, Richard Forshee, Martin Kulldorff, Nandini Selvam, Andrea Sutherland, Wilson Bryan, Samuel Barone, Lei Xu, Hector S Izurieta
To assess the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and occurrence of optic neuritis (ON) and to evaluate a claims-based algorithm for identification of ON. Females of 9-26 year olds in the HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM)) with and without claims evidence of HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Potential ON cases were identified using the claims-based algorithm, positive predictive value (PPV) was determined using medical chart review...
May 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462527/dying-to-protect-cell-death-and-the-control-of-t-cell-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Kun-Po Li, Sharmila Shanmuganad, Kaitlin Carroll, Jonathan D Katz, Michael B Jordan, David A Hildeman
T cells play a critical role in immune responses as they specifically recognize peptide/MHC complexes with their T-cell receptors and initiate adaptive immune responses. While T cells are critical for performing appropriate effector functions and maintaining immune memory, they also can cause autoimmunity or neoplasia if misdirected or dysregulated. Thus, T cells must be tightly regulated from their development onward. Maintenance of appropriate T-cell homeostasis is essential to promote protective immunity and limit autoimmunity and neoplasia...
May 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455189/biomaterial-strategies-for-generating-therapeutic-immune-responses
#18
REVIEW
Sean H Kelly, Lucas S Shores, Nicole L Votaw, Joel H Collier
Biomaterials employed to raise therapeutic immune responses have become a complex and active field. Historically, vaccines have been developed primarily to fight infectious diseases, but recent years have seen the development of immunologically active biomaterials towards an expanding list of non-infectious diseases and conditions including inflammation, autoimmunity, wounds, cancer, and others. This review structures its discussion of these approaches around a progression from single-target strategies to those that engage increasingly complex and multifactorial immune responses...
April 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446061/signaling-by-antibodies-recent-progress
#19
Stylianos Bournazos, Taia T Wang, Rony Dahan, Jad Maamary, Jeffrey V Ravetch
IgG antibodies mediate a diversity of immune functions by coupling of antigen specificity through the Fab domain to signal transduction via Fc-Fc receptor interactions. Indeed, balanced IgG signaling through type I and type II Fc receptors is required for the control of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that govern IgG-Fc receptor interactions, highlighting the diversity of Fc receptor-mediated effector functions that regulate immunity and inflammation as well as determine susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity and responsiveness to antibody-based therapeutics and vaccines...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444127/hla-class-i-binding-prediction-via-convolutional-neural-networks
#20
Yeeleng S Vang, Xiaohui Xie
Motivation: Many biological processes are governed by protein-ligand interactions. One such example is the recognition of self and nonself cells by the immune system. This immune response process is regulated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein which is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Understanding the binding potential between MHC and peptides can lead to the design of more potent, peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious autoimmune diseases...
April 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
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