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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346287/development-of-zika-virus-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Huda Makhluf, Sujan Shresta
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged as a global threat following the most recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection of pregnant women is associated with fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly, and infection of adults can lead to Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease characterized by neurological deficits. Although there are currently licensed vaccines for other flaviviruses, there remains an urgent need for preventative vaccines against ZIKV infection. Herein we describe the current efforts to accelerate the development of ZIKV vaccines using various platforms, including live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, DNA and RNA, viral vectors, and in silico-predicted immunogenic viral epitopes...
January 18, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337134/acetylcholine-receptor-antibody-titers-and-clinical-course-after-influenza-vaccination-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-propatient-trial
#2
Björn Tackenberg, Maximilian Schneider, Franz Blaes, Christian Eienbröker, Carmen Schade-Brittinger, Anne Wellek, Marcus Deschauer, Markus Eickmann, Hans-Dieter Klenk, Hans-Helge Müller, Norbert Sommer
BACKGROUND: It is a continuous matter of discussion whether immune activation by vaccination in general and Influenza vaccination in particular increases the risk for clinical deterioration of autoimmune diseases. This prospective study investigated the serological and clinical course of autoimmune Myasthenia gravis (MG) after a seasonal influenza vaccination. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study enrolled MG patients with antibodies against acetylcholine-receptors (AChR-ab)...
January 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333935/association-between-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccination-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#3
Angela Meggiolaro, Giuseppe Migliara, Giuseppe La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The vaccination against Humanpapilloma Virus (HPV) is an effective strategy to prevent high-risk HPV infection and subsequent cervical carcinogenesis. Although the safety profile has been ascertained, the relation with the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders (AD) appears still controversial. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people, typically striking females. The main purpose of this review was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and MS...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322496/wt1-peptide-based-immunotherapy-for-advanced-thymic-epithelial-malignancies
#4
Yusuke Oji, Masayoshi Inoue, Yoshito Takeda, Naoki Hosen, Yasushi Shintani, Manabu Kawakami, Takuya Harada, Yui Murakami, Miki Iwai, Mari Fukuda, Sumiyuki Nishida, Jun Nakata, Yoshiki Nakae, Satoshi Takashima, Toshiaki Shirakata, Hiroko Nakajima, Kana Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kida, Takashi Kijima, Soyoko Morimoto, Fumihiro Fujiki, Akihiro Tsuboi, Eiichi Morii, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Yoshihiro Oka, Meinoshin Okumura, Haruo Sugiyama
Thymic epithelial tumors are rare malignancies, and no optimal therapeutic regimen has been defined for patients with advanced disease. Patients with advanced thymic epithelial tumors, which were resistant or intolerable to prior therapies, were eligible for this study. Patients received 9 mer-WT1-derived peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant via intradermal administration once a week as a monotherapy. After the 3 month-protocol treatment, the treatment was continued mostly at intervals of 2 to 4 weeks until disease progression or intolerable adverse events occurred...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297541/miller-fisher-syndrome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#6
Mustafa Aldag, Sebnem Albeyoglu, Ufuk Ciloglu, Hakan Kutlu, Levent Ceylan
Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is an uncommon neurological disorder that is considered a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). It is clinically defined by a triad of symptoms, namely ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. These acute inflammatory polyradiculopathic syndromes can be triggered by viral infections, major surgery, pregnancy or vaccination. While the overall incidence of GBS is 1.2-2.3 per 100 000 per year, MFS is a relatively rare disorder. Only six cases of GBS after cardiac surgery have been reported, and to our knowledge, we describe the first case of MFS after coronary artery bypass surgery...
November 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282308/b-cell-intrinsic-myd88-signaling-promotes-initial-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-to-enhance-the-germinal-center-response-to-a-virus-like-particle
#7
Meijie Tian, Zhaolin Hua, Sheng Hong, Zhimin Zhang, Can Liu, Lin Lin, Jiaorong Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuyu Zhou, Fuping Zhang, Anthony L DeFranco, Baidong Hou
Although TLR signaling in B cells has been implicated in the germinal center (GC) responses during viral infections and autoimmune diseases, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Bacterial phage Qβ-derived virus-like particle (Qβ-VLP) contains TLR ligands, which can enhance Qβ-VLP-induced Ab response, including GC response, through TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells. In this study, by examining Ag-specific B cell response to Qβ-VLP, we found that lack of B cell MyD88 from the beginning of the immune response led to a more severe defect in the GC scale than abolishing MyD88 at later time points of the immune response...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275469/tryptophan-catabolism-and-cancer-immunotherapy-targeting-ido-mediated-immune-suppression
#8
Adaobi Amobi, Feng Qian, Amit A Lugade, Kunle Odunsi
Over the last decade, tryptophan catabolism has been firmly established as a powerful mechanism of innate and adaptive immune tolerance. The catabolism of tryptophan is a central pathway maintaining homeostasis by preventing autoimmunity or immunopathology that would result from uncontrolled and overreacting immune responses. This is driven by the key and rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO), resulting in local depletion of tryptophan, while tryptophan catabolites accumulate, including kynurenine and its derivatives, depending on the presence of downstream enzymes in the kynurenine pathway...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260623/pd-1-pd-l1-in-disease
#9
Nyanbol Kuol, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
AIM: Expression of PD-1 on T/B cells regulates peripheral tolerance and autoimmunity. Binding of PD-1 to its ligand, PD-L1, leads to protection against self-reactivity. In contrary, tumor cells have evolved immune escape mechanisms whereby overexpression of PD-L1 induces anergy and/or apoptosis of PD-1 positive T cells by interfering with T cell receptor signal transduction. PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade using antibodies are in human clinical trials as an alternative cancer treatment modality...
February 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249461/improving-vaccine-and-immunotherapy-design-using-biomaterials
#10
REVIEW
Michelle L Bookstaver, Shannon J Tsai, Jonathan S Bromberg, Christopher M Jewell
Polymers, lipids, scaffolds, microneedles, and other biomaterials are rapidly emerging as technologies to improve the efficacy of vaccines against infectious disease and immunotherapies for cancer, autoimmunity, and transplantation. New studies are also providing insight into the interactions between these materials and the immune system. This insight can be exploited for more efficient design of vaccines and immunotherapies. Here, we describe recent advances made possible through the unique features of biomaterials, as well as the important questions for further study...
November 15, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247714/multifaceted-roles-of-basophils-in-health-and-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Hajime Karasuyama, Kensuke Miyake, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Yamanishi
Until recently, basophils had often been neglected in immunological studies because of their minority status among immune cells, or confused with tissue-resident mast cells due to some phenotypic similarities between them in spite of different anatomical localization. It is now appreciated that basophils and mast cells are distinct cell lineages, and that basophils play important and non-redundant roles distinct from those played by mast cells. On the one hand, basophils contribute beneficially to protective immunity, particularly against parasitic infections...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241550/structural-determination-of-the-broadly-reactive-anti-ighv1-69-anti-idiotypic-antibody-g6-and-its-idiotope
#12
Yuval Avnir, Kristina L Prachanronarong, Zhen Zhang, Shurong Hou, Eric C Peterson, Jianhua Sui, Hatem Zayed, Vinodh B Kurella, Andrew T McGuire, Leonidas Stamatatos, Brendan J Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F Kowalik, Jeffrey D Jensen, Robert W Finberg, Jennifer P Wang, Margaret Goodall, Roy Jefferis, Quan Zhu, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco
The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238906/thyroid-dysfunctions-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
P Chalan, G Di Dalmazi, F Pani, A De Remigis, A Corsello, P Caturegli
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is a firmly established pillar in the treatment of cancer, alongside the traditional approaches of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Like every treatment, also cancer immunotherapy causes a diverse spectrum of side effects, collectively referred to as immune-related adverse events. OBJECTIVE: This review will examine the main forms of immunotherapy, the proposed mechanism(s) of action, and the incidence of thyroid dysfunctions. METHODS: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed for articles published up to March 30, 2017...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232324/vaccination-recommendations-for-adults-with-autoimmune-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-in-latin-america
#14
Claiton Viegas Brenol, Valderilio Feijo Azevedo, Pablo Eduardo Bonvehi, Paola Ximena Coral-Alvarado, Julio Granados, Roberto Muñoz-Louis, Carlos Pineda, Carla Vizzotti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) are at increased risk of contracting severe infections and suffering complications, particularly when they are receiving immunomodulating therapy. Vaccination is an important means to prevent many potential infections and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with AIRD. The purpose of this consensus document is to provide health care professionals with recommendations for the vaccination of AIRD patients who reside in Latin America...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224679/a-review-on-sle-and-malignancy
#15
REVIEW
May Y Choi, Kelsey Flood, Sasha Bernatsky, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Ann E Clarke
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and immune complex deposition. It predominantly affects young and middle-aged women. While improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of SLE have altered prognosis, morbidity and mortality rates remain higher than the general population. In addition to renal injury, cardiovascular disease, and infection, malignancy is known to be a significant cause of death in this population...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224673/understanding-the-role-of-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
REVIEW
Christine G Parks, Aline de Souza Espindola Santos, Medha Barbhaiya, Karen H Costenbader
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease with a complex etiology. Its risk is higher among women, racial and ethnic minorities, and individuals with a family history of SLE or related autoimmune diseases. It is believed that genetic factors interact with environmental exposures throughout the lifespan to influence susceptibility to developing SLE. The strongest epidemiologic evidence exists for increased risk of SLE associated with exposure to crystalline silica, current cigarette smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, while there is an inverse association with alcohol use...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220370/absence-of-anti-hypocretin-receptor-2-autoantibodies-in-post-pandemrix-narcolepsy-cases
#17
Guo Luo, Ling Lin, Louis Jacob, Mélodie Bonvalet, Aditya Ambati, Giuseppe Plazzi, Fabio Pizza, Ryan Leib, Christopher M Adams, Markku Partinen, Emmanuel Jean-Marie Mignot
BACKGROUND: A recent publication suggested molecular mimicry of a nucleoprotein (NP) sequence from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) strain, the backbone used in the construction of the reassortant strain X-179A that was used in Pandemrix® vaccine, and reported on anti-hypocretin (HCRT) receptor 2 (anti-HCRTR2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy, mostly in post Pandemrix® narcolepsy cases (17 of 20 sera). In this study, we re-examined this hypothesis through mass spectrometry (MS) characterization of Pandemrix®, and two other pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1)-2009 vaccines, Arepanrix® and Focetria®, and analyzed anti-HCRTR2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients and controls using three independent strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216804/the-use-of-alpha-fetoprotein-for-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-diseases-and-cancer
#18
Vladimir N Pak
Alpha-fetoprotein is a shuttle protein that delivers nutrients through receptor-mediated endocytosis to embryotic cells. In adults, alpha-fetoprotein can shuttle drugs into alpha-fetoprotein receptor-positive myeloid-derived suppressor, regenerating and also cancer cells. Drugs with high-binding affinity to alpha-fetoprotein can activate or deplete targeted cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells activation leads to immune suppression that can be used for treating autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, toxins delivered by alpha-fetoprotein can damage myeloid-derived suppressor cells and consequently unleash innate and adaptive immunity to destroy cancer cells...
January 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207528/construction-and-potential-applications-of-biosensors-for-proteins-in-clinical-laboratory-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
Xuan Liu, Hui Jiang
Biosensors for proteins have shown attractive advantages compared to traditional techniques in clinical laboratory diagnosis. In virtue of modern fabrication modes and detection techniques, various immunosensing platforms have been reported on basis of the specific recognition between antigen-antibody pairs. In addition to profit from the development of nanotechnology and molecular biology, diverse fabrication and signal amplification strategies have been designed for detection of protein antigens, which has led to great achievements in fast quantitative and simultaneous testing with extremely high sensitivity and specificity...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203716/immune-tolerance-therapies-for-autoimmune-diseases-based-on-heat-shock-protein-t-cell-epitopes
#20
REVIEW
Willem van Eden
Experimental models of autoimmune diseases have revealed the disease protective role of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Both the administration of exogenous extracellular, mostly recombinant, HSP and the experimental co-induction of endogenous intracellular HSP in models have been shown to lead to production of disease protective regulatory T cells (Tregs). Similar to HSP taken up from extracellular bodily fluids, due to stress-related autophagy upregulated HSP also from intracellular sources is a major provider for the major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) ligandome; therefore, both extracellular and intracellular HSP can be prominent targets of Treg...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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