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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148124/the-safety-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-children-and-adolescents-2-through-17%C3%A2-years-of-age-a-vaccine-safety-datalink-study
#1
Matthew F Daley, Christina L Clarke, Jason M Glanz, Stanley Xu, Simon J Hambidge, James G Donahue, James D Nordin, Nicola P Klein, Steven J Jacobsen, Allison L Naleway, Michael L Jackson, Grace Lee, Jonathan Duffy, Eric Weintraub
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children 2 through 17 years of age. METHODS: The study was conducted in 6 large integrated health care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Trivalent LAIV safety was assessed in children who received LAIV between September 1, 2003 and March 31, 2013. Eighteen pre-specified adverse event groups were studied, including allergic, autoimmune, neurologic, respiratory, and infectious conditions...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#2
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134676/a-safety-and-immunogenicity-study-of-a-novel-subunit-plague-vaccine-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#3
Li Liu, Dong Wei, Zhe Qu, Li Sun, Yufa Miao, Yanwei Yang, Jinbiao Lu, Weixin Du, Bingxiang Wang, Bo Li
Plague has led to millions of deaths in history and outbreaks continue to the present day. The efficacy limitations and safety concerns of the existing killed whole cell and live-attenuated vaccines call for the development of new vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a novel subunit plague vaccine, comprising native F1 antigen and recombinant V antigen. The cynomolgus macaques in low- and high-dose vaccine groups were vaccinated at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6, at dose levels of 15 μg F1 + 15 μg rV and 30 μg F1 + 30 μg rV respectively...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126292/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-inactivated-varicella-zoster-virus-vaccine-in-adults-with-autoimmune-disease-a-phase-2-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Michael Eberhardson, Stephen Hall, Kim A Papp, Tina M Sterling, Jon E Stek, Lei Pang, Yanli Zhao, Janie Parrino, Zoran Popmihajlov
Background: Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated zoster vaccine (ZVIN) were evaluated in adults with autoimmune disease. Methods: Adults with autoimmune disease treated with immunosuppressive therapy (biologic or nonbiologic) were randomized to receive 4 doses of ZVIN, ZVIN containing a higher quantity of antigen, or placebo. To measure varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific immune responses using glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT), blood samples were collected at baseline, post-doses 2, 3, and 4...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119120/computer-aided-design-of-an-epitope-based-vaccine-against-epstein-barr-virus
#5
Julio Alonso-Padilla, Esther M Lafuente, Pedro A Reche
Epstein-Barr virus is a very common human virus that infects 90% of human adults. EBV replicates in epithelial and B cells and causes infectious mononucleosis. EBV infection is also linked to various cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Currently, there are no effective drugs or vaccines to treat or prevent EBV infection. Herein, we applied a computer-aided strategy to design a prophylactic epitope vaccine ensemble from experimentally defined T and B cell epitopes...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118363/influence-of-hydrocarbon-oil-structure-on-adjuvanticity-and-autoimmunity
#6
Anthony C Y Yau, Erik Lönnblom, Jianghong Zhong, Rikard Holmdahl
Mineral oils are extensively used in our daily life, in food, cosmetics, biomedicine, vaccines and in different industrial applications. However, exposure to these mineral oils has been associated with immune adjuvant effects and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate the structural impacts of the hydrocarbon oil molecules on their adjuvanticity and autoimmunity. First, we showed that hydrocarbon oil molecules with small atomic differences could result in experimental arthritis in DA rats differing in disease severity, incidence, weight change and serum levels of acute phase proteins...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116524/epitope-mapping-by-phage-display
#7
Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Viola Fühner, Michael Hust
Among the molecules of the immune system, antibodies, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have been shown to be interesting for many biological applications. Due to their ability to recognize only a unique part of their target, mAbs are usually very specific. These targets can have many different compositions, but the most common ones are proteins or peptides that are usually from outside the host, although self-proteins can also be targeted in autoimmune diseases, or in some types of cancer. The parts of a mAb that interact with its target compose the paratope, while the recognized parts of the target compose the epitope...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111233/age-and-immunity-what-is-immunosenescence
#8
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
As is apparent from the many contributions to this Special Issue of the Journal, the impact of age on immunity is nefarious, with all manner of dysregulated responses attributed to "immunosenescence". These range from poorer responses to vaccination, lower capacity to mediate anti-cancer responses, more inflammation and tissue damage, along with autoimmunity and loss of control of persistent infections. Given the grave clinical implications of altered immune status in aged people, it is of paramount importance to understand the nature of and mechanisms responsible for "immunosenescence"...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110080/pemphigus-trigger-factors-special-focus-on-pemphigus-vulgaris-and-pemphigus-foliaceus
#9
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour
Pemphigus is a general term for a rare group of autoimmune diseases which result in the formation of blisters on the skin and oral cavity. Although there is no way to prevent autoimmune diseases, some factors may trigger pemphigus initiation in susceptible individuals or be exacerbated in affected patients. Recognition of these triggers, based on the latest studies and experiences is essential and should be updated every few years. In this study, several triggers, including different drugs and treatments, diseases, vaccines, genetic factors, nutrients, micronutrients, pregnancy, stress, and various other triggers have been discussed...
November 6, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109730/t-follicular-helper-cells-and-b-cell-dysfunction-in-aging-and-hiv-1-infection
#10
REVIEW
Suresh Pallikkuth, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Savita Pahwa
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094629/infectious-diseases-and-immunological-markers-associated-with-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-treated-with-rituximab
#11
Kleber Jordão de Souza, Rodrigo Sala Ferro, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Paula Andreia Martins Carrilho, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: The use of rituximab (RTX) is increasing, even in developing countries. It has become the first-line therapy or adjuvant to chemotherapy (CHOP; cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone) for various diseases, including B cell lymphoma and autoimmune diseases. AIM: We describe the infectious diseases and immunological markers associated with RTX treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: Serum immunoglobulins were determined before and after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) administration...
November 2, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093087/early-ebv-genomic-diversity-and-convergence-towards-the-b95-8-genome-in-primary-infection
#12
Eric R Weiss, Susanna L Lamers, Jennifer L Henderson, Alexandre Melnikov, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Chad Nusbaum, Katherine Luzuriaga
Over 90% of the world's population is persistently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. While EBV does not cause disease in most individuals, it is the common cause of acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), has been associated with several cancers and autoimmune diseases, highlighting a need for a preventive vaccine. At present, very few primary, circulating EBV genomes have been sequenced directly from infected individuals. While low levels of diversity and viral evolution rates have been predicted for dsDNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated appreciable diversity in common dsDNA pathogens (e...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093011/primary-immunoprevention-of-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-by-vaccination-against-the-extracellular-domain-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-receptor-ii
#13
Suparna Mazumder, Justin M Johnson, Valerie Swank, Nina Dvorina, Elizabeth Martelli, Jennifer Ko, Vincent K Tuohy
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the most prevalent form of ovarian cancer in the United States, representing approximately 85% of all cases and causing more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy. We propose that optimized control of EOC requires the incorporation of a vaccine capable of inducing safe and effective preemptive immunity in cancer-free women. In addition, we hypothesize that ovarian-specific self-proteins that are "retired" from autoimmune-inducing expression levels as ovaries age but are expressed at high levels in emerging EOC may serve as vaccine targets for mediating safe and effective primary immunoprevention...
November 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093010/targeting-retired-antigens-for-cancer-immunoprevention
#14
EDITORIAL
Robert H Shoemaker, Thomas G Forsthuber
Identification of immune targets for cancer immunoprevention, or immunotherapy, has historically focused on tumor-associated (self) antigens or neoantigens expressed on malignant cells. For self-antigens, overcoming tolerance can be a difficult challenge. Neoantigens do not suffer from this limitation, but the lack of recurrent mutations yielding common neoantigens that can be exploited in vaccines is a problem for many tumor types. Targeting "retired antigens," a specialized type of self-antigen, may have considerable advantages...
November 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080431/nkt-cell-glycolipid-agonist-as-adjuvant-in-synthetic-vaccine
#15
Zheng Liu, Jun Guo
NKT cells are CD1d-restricted, glycolipid antigen-reactive, immunoregulatory T lymphocytes that can serve as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immunities. NKT cells have a wide range of therapeutic application in autoimmunity, transplant biology, infectious disease, cancer, and vaccinology. Rather than triggering "danger signal" and eliciting an innate immune response, αGalCer-based NKT-cell agonist act via a unique mechanism, recruiting NKT cells which play a T helper-like role even without peptide as Th epitope...
November 27, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079102/an-imputation-method-for-calculating-and-comparing-autoimmune-disease-incidence-using-partial-case-review
#16
Jeff Slezak, Kristin Meyer, Lina S Sy, Chun Chao, Harpreet Takhar, Brad Ackerson, T Craig Cheetham, Steven Jacobsen
PURPOSE: Estimate incidence of autoimmune conditions in a population who received HPV4 vaccine and a comparison unvaccinated population. Electronic health record (EHR) data may contain inaccurate or incomplete coding, while manual chart review of all cases may not be feasible. We propose a method to estimate incidence using EHR data and case review for a sample. METHODS: Suspected incident cases were identified using ICD-9 codes, laboratory results and medications related to the condition...
October 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076688/herpes-zoster-during-immunosuppressive-therapy-for-autoimmune-diseases
#17
Mohammad Faizan Zahid, Mariam Ghufran, Armaghan-E-Rehman Mansoor, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are at a greater risk for herpes zoster reactivation and are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Propylactic antivrials and vaccinations may potentially prevent these complications. METHODS: Medical literature addressing the clinical course and therapy of herpes zoster in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune disorders, and the roles of anti-viral prophylaxis and vaccination was reviewed. Research databases including PubMed, Ovid, Medline, Google Scholar and Cochrane were utilized...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076383/influenza-and-risk-of-later-celiac-disease-a-cohort-study-of-2-6-million-people
#18
Line Lund Kårhus, Nina Gunnes, Ketil Størdal, Inger Johanne Bakken, German Tapia, Lars C Stene, Siri E Håberg, Karl Mårild
OBJECTIVES: Influenza has been linked to autoimmune conditions, but its relationship to subsequent celiac disease (CD) is unknown. Our primary aim was to determine the risk of CD after influenza. A secondary analysis examined the risk of CD following pandemic influenza vaccination. METHODS: This nationwide register-based cohort study included 2,637,746 Norwegians (born between 1967-2013) followed during 2006-2014 with information on influenza diagnosed in primary or non-primary care, pandemic vaccination (Pandemrix), and subsequent CD...
October 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068485/is-the-hygiene-hypothesis-relevant-for-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
M Wendel-Haga, E G Celius
The hygiene hypothesis, suggesting that low exposure to pathogens early in life can increase the risk for immune-mediated diseases, has been proposed as an explanation for the increase in incidence of allergy and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries during the last decades. Several aspects of the hygiene hypothesis have been related to MS. Already in 1966, the risk of MS was suggested to be higher in individuals with high hygienic standard during childhood. Further, an episode of infectious mononucleosis is an independent risk factor for MS and can be regarded as an indicator of low exposure to pathogens early in life, as infection with Epstein-Barr virus often is asymptomatic when it occurs in young children...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067978/association-of-rheumatic-fever-rheumatic-heart-disease-with-plausible-early-late-stage-disease-markers
#20
Subendu Sarkar, Mukul Rastogi, Priyanka Chaudhary, Rajesh Kumar, Priya Arora, Vivek Sagar, Inderpal Singh Sahni, Sunil Shethi, Khemraj Thakur, Sourav Ailawadhi, Devinder Toor, Anuradha Chakraborti
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are the autoimmune sequelae caused by Group A Streptococcus. RHD still remains a major concern in the developing countries due to its poor diagnosis, lack of vaccines and social awareness among population. This study was aimed to identify the plausible early- and late-stage disease markers associated with RF/RHD. METHODS: A total of 84 patients with confirmed pharyngitis (n=18), RF (n=23) and RHD (n=43) were included in the comparative analysis of different factors involved in host-pathogen interaction during RF/RHD pathogenesis...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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