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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081485/the-elucidation-of-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-antigen-processing-through-the-study-of-viral-antigens
#1
REVIEW
Asha Purnima Veerappan Ganesan, Laurence C Eisenlohr
By convention, CD4(+) T cells are activated predominantly by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II-bound peptides derived from extracellular (exogenous) antigens. It has been known for decades that alternative sources of antigen, particularly those synthesized within the antigen-presenting cell, can also supply peptides but the impact on TCD4+ responses, sometimes considerable, has only recently become appreciated. This review focuses on the contributions that studies of viral antigen have made to this shift in perspective, concluding with discussions of relevance to rational vaccine design, autoimmunity and cancer immunotherapy...
January 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059022/autoimmune-inflammatory-syndrome-induced-by-adjuvants-shoenfeld-s-syndrome-an-update
#3
A Watad, M Quaresma, S Brown, J W Cohen Tervaert, I Rodríguez-Pint, R Cervera, C Perricone, Y Shoenfeld
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) has been widely described in many studies conducted thus far. The syndrome incorporates five immune-mediated conditions, all associated with previous exposure to various agents such as vaccines, silicone implants and several others. The emergence of ASIA syndrome is associated with individual genetic predisposition, for instance those carrying HLA-DRB1*01 or HLA-DRB4 and results from exposure to external or endogenous factors triggering autoimmunity...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052311/readapting-the-adaptive-immune-response-therapeutic-strategies-for-atherosclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Andrew P Sage, Ziad Mallat
Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past 3 decades, but significant need still remains to reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages, and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development...
January 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044971/-innate-immunity-and-human-diseases-from-archaic-introgression-to-natural-selection
#5
Matthieu Deschamps, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Throughout evolution, humans have had to face strong variation in environmental conditions, with pathogens being among the strongest threats that our species has encountered. The use of population genetic approaches provides novel insights into how natural selection imposed by pathogen pressures, in its different forms and intensities, has shaped the patterns of diversity of the human genome at the population level. These studies help to distinguish genes playing essential, non-redundant functions in host defence from genes variation in which has conferred selective advantages to specific human populations and/or has been acquired through admixture with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030629/co-activation-of-th17-and-antibody-responses-provides-efficient-protection-against-mucosal-infection-by-group-a-streptococcus
#6
Xianyang Chen, Ning Li, Shuai Bi, Xiaoguang Wang, Beinan Wang
Conserved protein antigens among serotypes of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) have been focused for vaccine development because of the diversity of GAS serotypes and risks of autoimmunity post-GAS infection. Precise delineation of protective immune response to each of GAS antigens is critical for vaccine efficacy and safety. We recently reported that immunization with SrtA of GAS provides Th17-dependent clearance of heterologous serotypes of GAS in NALT. SCPA is a surface virulence molecule of GAS and known to induce antibody-mediated protection against GAS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017844/is-autoimmunity-infectious-the-effect-of-gastrointestinal-viral-infections-and-vaccination-on-risk-of-celiac-disease-autoimmunity
#7
EDITORIAL
Jocelyn A Silvester, Daniel A Leffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005419/aging-of-the-immune-system-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Beginning with the sixth decade of life, the human immune system undergoes dramatic aging-related changes, which continuously progress to a state of immunosenescence. The aging immune system loses the ability to protect against infections and cancer and fails to support appropriate wound healing. Vaccine responses are typically impaired in older individuals. Conversely, inflammatory responses mediated by the innate immune system gain in intensity and duration, rendering older individuals susceptible to tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002820/zika-virus-infection-in-the-elderly-possible-relationship-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#9
Wilson Savino, Carolina V Messias, Daniella A Mendes-da-Cruz, Pamela Passos, Ana Carolina A F Ferreira, Osvaldo J Nascimento
The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, in 2013, and in Brazil, in 2015, was correlated with neurological complications, which comprised, among others, congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which includes a group of acute autoimmune neuropathies generally reported after respiratory or gastrointestinal infectious diseases. Despite being relatively rare, the incidence rate of GBS rises with age, which makes GBS more frequent in the elderly, in whom it is also a more severe disease with slower recovery than in younger patients...
December 22, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002308/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-liver-disease-reproductive-considerations
#10
(no author information available yet)
All women are at risk of acute and chronic liver diseases. Of particular importance are those diseases that exclusively affect pregnant women and have adverse effects on maternal, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. Acute viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver disease in pregnant women, and hepatitis E infection is associated with substantial mortality. An increasing number of women have chronic liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, and genetic liver diseases...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#11
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995907/regulatory-t-cells-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Shimon Sakaguchi
FOXP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. Infiltration of a large number of Treg cells into tumor tissues is often associated with poor prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that the removal of Treg cells is able to evoke and enhance anti-tumor immune response. However, systemic depletion of Treg cells may concurrently elicit deleterious autoimmunity. One strategy for evoking effective tumor immunity without autoimmunity is to specifically target terminally differentiated effector Treg cells rather than all FOXP3(+) T cells, because effector Treg cells are the predominant cell type in tumor tissues...
December 20, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986907/cutting-edge-adenosine-a2a-receptor-signals-inhibit-germinal-center-t-follicular-helper-cell-differentiation-during-the-primary-response-to-vaccination
#13
Shirdi E Schmiel, Jessica A Yang, Marc K Jenkins, Daniel L Mueller
Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) signaling acts as a barrier to autoimmunity by promoting anergy, inducing regulatory T cells, and inhibiting effector T cells. However, in vivo effects of A2aR signaling on polyclonal CD4 T cells during a primary response to foreign Ag has yet to be determined. To address this problem, we immunized mice with peptide Ag 2W1S coupled to PE in CFA and treated with the selective A2aR agonist CGS-21680 (CGS). 2W1S:I-A(b)-specific tetramer-binding CD4 T cells did not become anergic or differentiate into Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984139/fc-fragments-of-immunoglobulin-g-are-an-inductor-of-regulatory-rheumatoid-factor-and-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-rheumatic-diseases
#14
Alexandr Sidorov, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Alexey Terentiev, Elena Stolyarova, Nadezhda Abisheva
We recently identified rheumatoid factor, the production of which neither predicts nor exacerbates experimental autoimmune disease, but the opposite, namely it is associated with autoimmune disease resistance and remission. We have named it regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF). The aim of this study was to determine whether rat Fc fragments and human Fc fragments are an antigen for regRF, and to determine the conditions for obtaining them. The presence of an antigenic determinant for regRF on IgG fragments was inferred from the fragments' ability to inhibit the agglutination caused by regRF and to induce regRF production in vivo...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975138/selection-of-epitopes-from-self-antigens-for-eliciting-th2-or-th1-activity-in-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-disease-or-cancer
#15
REVIEW
William C Watt, Denise L Cecil, Mary L Disis
Vaccines have been valuable tools in the prevention of infectious diseases, and the rapid development of new vectors against constantly mutating foreign antigens in viruses such as influenza has become a regular, seasonal exercise. Harnessing the immune response against self-antigens is not necessarily analogous or as achievable by iterative processes, and since the desired outcome includes leaving the targeted organism intact, requires some precision engineering. In vaccine-based treatment of autoimmunity and cancer, the proper selection of antigens and generation of the desired antigen-specific therapeutic immunity has been challenging...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942537/risk-of-herpes-zoster-in-individuals-on-biologics-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-and-or-corticosteroids-for-autoimmune-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Fawziah Marra, Elaine Lo, Viktor Kalashnikov, Kathryn Richardson
BACKGROUND: Studies examining the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) associated with immunosuppressants, such as biologics, nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs), or corticosteroids, have generated conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search from January 1946 to February 2016. Search terms related to HZ, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, or inflammatory bowel disease, biologics, nbDMARDS, and corticosteroids were used...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940665/recurrent-immune-thrombocytopenia-after-influenza-vaccination-a-case-report
#17
Uri Hamiel, Iris Kventsel, Ilan Youngster
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an isolated autoimmune condition, often preceded by a viral infection. Vaccines, mainly the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, have also been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. Although some case reports of ITP after influenza immunization in adults have been published, epidemiologic studies examining the role of the influenza vaccine as a trigger of ITP have not conclusively proven causality. We report a child with 3 occurrences of ITP, each within 1 week of receiving the influenza trivalent inactivated vaccine...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933060/regulators-of-tfh-cell-differentiation
#18
REVIEW
Gajendra M Jogdand, Suchitra Mohanty, Satish Devadas
The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching, and germinal center (GC) formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), ICOS, programed death 1 (PD-1), B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. On the one hand, Tfh cells are generated from naive CD4(+) T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A), migration, and positioning in the GC by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein/signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) as well as transcription factor (BCL-6, c-Maf, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling and repressor miR155...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931862/new-recommendations-for-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#19
Diana Hernández-Flórez, Roberto González-Benítez, Lara Valor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929101/hookworm-infection
#20
Alex Loukas, Peter J Hotez, David Diemert, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James S McCarthy, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, John Croese, Jeffrey M Bethony
Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually...
December 8, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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