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vaccines and autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778570/nitrated-t-helper-cell-epitopes-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-her2-vaccine-and-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#1
Hong Tian, Yu He, Xiaoda Song, Liangliang Jiang, Jianhua Luo, Yi Xu, Wanli Zhang, Xiangdong Gao, Wenbing Yao
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an attractive target for cancer vaccine. However, autoimmune tolerance prevents vaccines based on HER2 protein from inducing long-lasting, highly effective anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we proved that the introduction of p-nitrophenylalanine in the universal T cell epitope (named NitraTh) enhances humoral immunity induced by B cell epitope and cellular immunity induced by CTL epitope. Moreover, this NitraTh epitope can work in both mouse and human immune system...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765386/design-of-a-type-1-diabetes-vaccine-candidate-using-edible-plants-expressing-a-major-autoantigen
#2
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760047/nanoparticles-that-reshape-the-tumor-milieu-create-a-therapeutic-window-for-effective-t-cell-therapy-in-solid-malignancies
#4
Fan Zhang, Sirkka B Stephan, Chibawanye I Ene, Tyrel T Smith, Eric C Holland, Matthias T Stephan
A major obstacle to the success rate of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-) T cell therapy against solid tumors is the microenvironment antagonistic to T cells that solid tumors create. Conventional checkpoint blockade can silence lymphocyte anti-survival pathways activated by tumors, but because they are systemic, these treatments disrupt immune homeostasis and induce autoimmune side effects. Thus, new technologies are required to remodel the tumor milieu without causing systemic toxicities. Here we demonstrate that targeted nanocarriers that deliver a combination of immune-modulatory agents can remove pro-tumor cell populations and simultaneously stimulate anti-tumor effector cells...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757592/the-profile-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-tlr4-and-their-cytosolic-downstream-signaling-pathway-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid-patients
#5
Laleh Sharifi, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Reza Yazdani, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Farimah Masoumi, Saied Bokaie, Parsova Tavasolian, Rouzbeh Sanaei, Mona Moshiri, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Tina Alinia, Gholamreza Azizi, Abbas Mirshafiey
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinical primary antibody deficiency, characterized by increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the maturation and differentiation of B-cells, TLRs' defect can be involved in the pathogenesis of CVID. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and their signaling pathway; also their association with autoimmunity, B-cell subtypes and response to pneumovax-23 were assessed in CVID patients...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749357/-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-a-significant-but-underrated-pathogen-in-paediatric-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
REVIEW
Surinder Kumar
Lower respiratory tract infections are considered a common cause responsible for morbidity and mortality among children, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae is identified to be responsible for up to 40 per cent of community-acquired pneumonia in children greater than five years of age. Extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported either due to spread of infection or autoimmune mechanisms. Infection by M. pneumoniae has high incidence and clinical importance but is still an underrated disease. Most widely used serologic methods are enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG and IgA antibodies to M...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745244/use-of-real-time-pcr-to-rule-out-marek-s-disease-in-the-diagnosis-of-peripheral-neuropathy
#7
Sesny Gall, László Kőrösi, Aneg L Cortes, Andrea Delveccio, Francesco Prandini, Peter Mitsch, Isabel M Gimeno
This article reports nine cases of neurological disease in brown layer pullets that occur in various European countries between 2015 and 2018. In all cases, the onset of neurological clinical signs was at 4-8 weeks of age and they lasted up to 22 weeks of age. Enlargement of peripheral nerves was the main lesion observed in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of nerves revealed edema with moderate to severe infiltration of plasma cells. Marek's disease (MD) was ruled out by real time PCR as none of the evaluated tissues had high load of oncogenic MD virus (MDV) DNA, characteristics of MD...
May 10, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722499/-immunization-and-autoimmune-neurological-diseases
#8
Patrice H Lalive
Autoimmune neurological diseases involve a broad spectrum of diseases that may affect the central or peripheral nervous system, the neuromuscular junction and the muscle. The risk of vaccinating a patient with an autoimmune neurological disease frequently arises in view of fears, often scientifically unfounded, to reactivate the immune system and cause or aggravate the disease. The questions should also include the risks of not vaccinating a patient, and particularly the risk of the disease getting worse in case of infection that could have been potentially prevented by vaccination...
May 2, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718264/a-hypothesis-explaining-why-so-many-pathogen-virulence-proteins-are-moonlighting-proteins
#9
Luis Franco, Juan Cedano, JosepAntoni Perez-Pons, Angel Mozo-Villarias, Jaume Piñol, Isaac Amela, Enrique Querol
Moonlighting or multitasking proteins refer to those proteins with two or more functions performed by a single polypeptide chain. Proteins that belong to key ancestral functions and metabolic pathways such as primary metabolism typically exhibit moonlighting phenomenon. We have collected 698 moonlighting proteins in MultitaskProtDB-II database. A survey shows that 25% of the proteins of the database correspond to moonlighting functions related to pathogens virulence activity. Why is the canonical function of these virulence proteins mainly from ancestral key biological functions (especially of primary metabolism)? Our hypothesis is that these proteins present a high conservation between the pathogen protein and the host counterparts...
April 30, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708518/polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-autoimmune-inflammatory-syndrome-induced-by-adjuvants-following-administration-of-influenza-vaccine
#10
Nabeela Siddiqi, Gaurav Gulati, Avis E Ware
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706295/recent-advances-in-the-development-of-vaccines-for-chronic-inflammatory-autoimmune-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Naru Zhang, Kutty Selva Nandakumar
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases leading to target tissue destruction and disability are not only causing increase in patients' suffering but also contribute to huge economic burden for the society. General increase in life expectancy and high prevalence of these diseases both in elderly and younger population emphasize the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines. In this review, at first the possible mechanisms and risk factors associated with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are discussed...
April 26, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698478/cross-sectional-analysis-of-cd8-t-cell-immunity-to-human-herpesvirus-6b
#12
Larissa K Martin, Alexandra Hollaus, Anna Stahuber, Christoph Hübener, Alessia Fraccaroli, Johanna Tischer, Andrea Schub, Andreas Moosmann
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is prevalent in healthy persons, causes disease in immunosuppressed carriers, and may be involved in autoimmune disease. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells are probably important for effective control of infection. However, the HHV-6-specific CD8 T cell repertoire is largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we undertook a virus-wide analysis of CD8 T cell responses to HHV-6. We used a simple anchor motif-based algorithm (SAMBA) to identify 299 epitope candidates potentially presented by the HLA class I molecule B*08:01...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692957/novel-immunotherapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma-the-last-decade-of-research
#13
REVIEW
Emaad M Khansur, Ashish H Shah, Kyle Lacy, Manish Kuchakulla, Ricardo J Komotar
Despite surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, survival for glioblastoma remains poor. Because of the dismal prognosis, attention has shifted to alternative adjuvant treatment modalities. Although traditionally limited to systemic malignancies (melanoma, lung and colon cancer), the field of immunotherapy has recently identified glioblastoma as a potential target for new treatments. Anti-tumor vaccines (dendritic cell/heat shock), checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric T-cell receptors, and virotherapy all have been preliminarily trialed in glioblastoma patients with reasonable success and safety...
January 30, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682128/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-chemically-synthesized-divalent-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine
#14
Yongxiang Wu, Suhua Li, Yanting Luo, Yunyue Zhao, Jiarui Wang, Ruimin Dong, Xujing Xie, Jieming Zhu, Jinlai Liu
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections and poststreptococcal sequelae remain a health problem worldwide, which necessitates searching for an effective vaccine, while no licensed GAS vaccine is available. We have developed a divalent peptide vaccine composed of 84 amino acids to cover the main GAS serotypes (M1 and M12 streptococci) in China, and herein, we aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with the vaccine...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678747/predictive-markers-for-humoral-influenza-vaccine-response-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid
#15
Ann Gardulf, Hassan Abolhassani, Rolf Gustafson, Lars E Eriksson, Lennart Hammarström
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiencies (CVID) responds to vaccination. The aim of the study was to try to identify predictive markers for those who developed a humoral immune response after influenza vaccination. METHODS: 48 patients with CVID (29 females, 19 males, mean age 59.4 years) were vaccinated with the A(H1N1) influenza vaccine Pandemrix® and boosted after one month. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination and two months later...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668817/adverse-events-of-vaccines-and-the-consequences-of-non-vaccination-a-critical-review
#16
Luana Raposo de Melo Moraes Aps, Marco Aurélio Floriano Piantola, Sara Araujo Pereira, Julia Tavares de Castro, Fernanda Ayane de Oliveira Santos, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risks related to vaccines and the impacts of non-vaccination on the world population. METHODS: This is a narrative review that has considered information present in the bibliographic databases NCBI-PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), between November 2015 and November 2016. For the analysis of outbreaks caused by non-vaccination, we considered the work published between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: We have described the main components of the vaccines offered by the Brazilian public health system and the adverse events associated with these elements...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663819/immunosenescence-the-role-in-the-immunotherapy-of-older-population
#17
M Prcina, M Novak, V Cigankova, E Kontsekova
With ageing of their populations, many societies are challenged with serious systemic diseases. One of the causes of these diseases could be the age-related defects in immune system termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is characterized by accumulation of memory and non-functional immune cells, impaired signalling due to restricted repertoire of receptors, overall pro-inflammatory environment and complete dysregulation of the immune system. Consequences of immunosenescence are serious, older people are not able to respond to new stimuli, including infections and vaccinations and are more prone to oncologic, neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases (Ref...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#18
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656546/a-guide-to-il-1-family-cytokines-in-adjuvanticity
#19
REVIEW
Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Ed C Lavelle
Growing awareness of the multiplicity of roles for the IL-1 family in immune regulation has prompted research exploring these cytokines in the context of vaccine-induced immunity. While tightly regulated, cytokines of the IL-1 family are normally released in response to cellular stress and in combination with other danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), triggering potent local and systemic immune responses. In the context of infection or autoimmunity, engagement of IL-1 family receptors links robust innate responses to adaptive immunity...
April 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625078/automated-generation-of-immature-dendritic-cells-in-a-single-use-system
#20
Andrew Kozbial, Lekhana Bhandary, Bradley B Collier, Christopher S Eickhoff, Daniel Hoft, Shashi K Murthy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are an indispensable part of studying human responses that are important for protective immunity against cancer and infectious diseases as well as prevention of autoimmunity and transplant rejection. These cells are also key elements of personalized vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases. Despite the vital role of DCs in both clinical and basic research contexts, methods for obtaining these cells from individuals remains a comparatively under-developed and inefficient process. DCs are present in very low concentrations (<1%) in blood, thus they must be generated from monocytes and the current methodology in DC generation involves a laborious process of static culture and stimulation with cytokines contained in culture medium...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
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