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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238536/body-macronutrient-composition-is-predicted-by-lipid-and-not-protein-content-of-the-diet
#1
Joshua P Moatt, Catherine Hambly, Elizabeth Heap, Anna Kramer, Fiona Moon, John R Speakman, Craig A Walling
Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234666/technical-advances-to-study-extracellular-vesicles
#2
REVIEW
Paula Carpintero-Fernández, Juan Fafián-Labora, Ana O'Loghlen
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous and dynamic group of lipid bilayer membrane nanoparticles that can be classified into three different groups depending on their cellular origin: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. They are produced by different cell types and can be isolated from almost all body fluids. EVs contain a variety of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites which regulate a number of biological and pathological scenarios both locally and systemically. Different techniques have been described in order to determine EV isolation, release, uptake, and cargo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233869/mtorc1-as-the-main-gateway-to-autophagy
#3
REVIEW
Yoana Rabanal-Ruiz, Elsje G Otten, Viktor I Korolchuk
Cells and organisms must coordinate their metabolic activity with changes in their environment to ensure their growth only when conditions are favourable. In order to maintain cellular homoeostasis, a tight regulation between the synthesis and degradation of cellular components is essential. At the epicentre of the cellular nutrient sensing is the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which connects environmental cues, including nutrient and growth factor availability as well as stress, to metabolic processes in order to preserve cellular homoeostasis...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228670/lncrna-as-cernas-may-be-involved-in-lactation-process
#4
Shuai Yu, Yong Zhao, Fangnong Lai, Meiqiang Chu, Yanan Hao, Yanni Feng, Hongfu Zhang, Jing Liu, Ming Cheng, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Lingjiang Min
The main function of the mammary gland is to secret milk for newborn growth. Milk production process is regulated by hormones, growth factors, noncoding RNAs and other factors locally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of recently discovered non-coding RNA, have been found in mammary gland and some studies suggested lncRNA may play important roles in mammary gland development. Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are emerging to compete for miRNA binding and, in turn, regulate each other. In the current study, we sequenced mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA in goat mammary tissue at 2 points in lactation (early and mature)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#5
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227551/high-purity-isolation-and-sensitive-quantification-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-affinity-to-tim4
#6
Takeshi Yoshida, Takamasa Ishidome, Rikinari Hanayama
Almost all types of cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles. EVs carry various proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, and may participate in many aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Various studies are currently being conducted to develop therapeutic and diagnostic methods targeting or utilizing EVs. Therefore, developing ideal methods for isolating and quantifying EVs is an active area of research. EVs express phosphatidylserine on their outer lipid bilayer...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227542/characterization-of-peanut-oil-bodies-integral-proteins-lipids-and-their-associated-phytochemicals
#7
Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#8
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221437/evolutionary-characterization-and-transcript-profiling-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-during-plant-development
#9
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211351/application-of-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-to-biomolecular-profiling-of-cultured-fibroblast-cells-from-gaucher-disease-patients-a-preliminary-investigation
#10
Nasit Igci, Parisa Sharafi, Duygu Ozel Demiralp, Cemil Ozerk Demiralp, Aysel Yuce, Serap Dokmeci Emre
BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease (GD) is defined as an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.45). Glucocerebrosidase is responsible for the degradation of glucosylceramide into ceramide and glucose. The deficiency of this enzyme results in the accumulation of undegraded glucosylceramide, almost exclusively in macrophages. With Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the complete molecular diversity of the samples can be studied comparatively and the amount of the particular materials can be determined...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209616/extracellular-vesicles-as-protagonists-of-diabetic-cardiovascular-pathology
#11
REVIEW
Dakota Gustafson, Shawn Veitch, Jason E Fish
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an emerging mechanism of cell-cell communication in the cardiovascular system. Recent data suggest that EVs are produced and taken up by multiple cardiovascular cell types, influencing target cells through signaling or transfer of cargo (including proteins, lipids, messenger RNA, and non-coding RNA). The concentration and contents of circulating EVs are altered in several diseases and represent explicit signatures of cellular activation, making them of particular interest as circulating biomarkers...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209467/biological-roles-and-potential-applications-of-immune-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#12
REVIEW
Chuan Wen, Robert C Seeger, Muller Fabbri, Larry Wang, Alan S Wayne, Ambrose Y Jong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver bioactive macromolecules (i.e. proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) for intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types including immune cells. Immune cell-derived EVs modulate diverse aspects of the immune system to either enhance or suppress immune activities. The extensive effects of immune cell-derived EVs have become the focus of great interest for various nano-biomedical applications, ranging from the medical use of nanoplatform-based diagnostic agents to the development of therapeutic interventions as well as vaccine applications, and thus may be ideal for 'immune-theranostic'...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204879/reconstitution-of-membrane-tethering-mediated-by-rab-family-small-gtpases
#13
REVIEW
Joji Mima
Membrane tethering is one of the most critical steps to determine the spatiotemporal specificity of membrane trafficking, which is the process to selectively transport proteins, lipids, and other biological molecules to the appropriate locations in eukaryotic cells, such as subcellular organelles, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular space. Based on genetic, cell biological, biochemical, and structural studies, Rab-family small GTPases and a number of Rab-interacting proteins (termed Rab effectors), including coiled-coil tethering proteins and multisubunit tethering complexes, have been proposed to be key protein components for membrane tethering...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200393/-skeletal-muscle-aging-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-an-update
#14
Julie Faitg, Olivier Reynaud, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Gilles Gouspillou
One of the most obvious and deleterious changes occurring with aging is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, a physiological process named sarcopenia. Amongst the multiple theories that have been put forward to explain sarcopenia, the mitochondrial theory of aging, which postulates that the accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunctions with aging plays a causal role in muscle atrophy, has focused intense research effort and attention in the past decades. The generally accepted view of this theory is that, due to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production inherent to respiratory chain activity, oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins, lipids and DNA accumulates with aging...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200216/high-performance-affinity-chromatography-and-related-separation-methods-for-the-analysis-of-biological-and-pharmaceutical-agents
#15
REVIEW
Chenhua Zhang, Elliott Rodriguez, Cong Bi, Xiwei Zheng, Doddavenkatana Suresh, Kyungah Suh, Zhao Li, Fawzi Elsebaei, David S Hage
The last few decades have witnessed the development of many high-performance separation methods that use biologically related binding agents. The combination of HPLC with these binding agents results in a technique known as high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). This review will discuss the general principles of HPAC and related techniques, with an emphasis on their use for the analysis of biological compounds and pharmaceutical agents. Various types of binding agents for these methods will be considered, including antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins, aptamers, enzymes, lectins, transport proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates...
December 4, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193463/placental-exosomes-a-proxy-to-understand-pregnancy-complications
#16
Jin Jin, Ramkumar Menon
Exosomes (30- to 150-nm particles), originating from multivesicular bodies by the invagination of the endosomal membrane, are communication channels between cells. Exosomes are released by various cell types and cargo proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids reflecting the physiologic status of their cells of origin and cause functional changes in recipient cells, which are likely dependent on their quantity and/or cargo contents. Recently, placental exosomes, produced by various placental cell types, have been isolated from maternal blood using the placental protein-specific marker, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192147/protein-crowding-and-lipid-complexity-influence-the-nanoscale-dynamic-organization-of-ion-channels-in-cell-membranes
#17
Anna L Duncan, Tyler Reddy, Heidi Koldsø, Jean Hélie, Philip W Fowler, Matthieu Chavent, Mark S P Sansom
Cell membranes are crowded and complex environments. To investigate the effect of protein-lipid interactions on dynamic organization in mammalian cell membranes, we have performed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations containing >100 copies of an inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel which forms specific interactions with the regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The tendency of protein molecules to cluster has the effect of organizing the membrane into dynamic compartments...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187541/exosomes-mediate-intercellular-transmission-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#18
Ting Wang, Liurong Fang, Fuwei Zhao, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Exosomes are small membrane-enclosed vesicles produced by various cells and actively released into the extracellular space. They participate in intercellular communication and transfer of biologically active proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes derived from cells infected by some viruses selectively encapsulate viral proteins, genetic materials or even virions to mediate cell-to-cell communication and/or virus transmission. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the global swine industry since the late 1980s...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175553/the-key-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-metastatic-process
#19
REVIEW
Hongyun Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Elisabetta Iessi, Mariantonia Logozzi, Davide Mizzoni, Rossella Di Raimo, Deepak Nagrath, Stefano Fais
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, have a key role in the paracrine communication between organs and compartments. EVs shuttle virtually all types of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites and even pharmacological compounds. Their ability to transfer their biomolecular cargo into target cells enables EVs to play a key role in intercellular communication that can regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and migration. This has led to the emergence of EVs as a key player in tumor growth and metastasis through the formation of "tumor niches" in target organs...
November 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170643/combining-mass-spectrometry-and-x-ray-crystallography-for-analyzing-native-like-membrane-protein-lipid-complexes
#20
Felipe A Montenegro, Jorge R Cantero, Nelson P Barrera
Membrane proteins represent a challenging family of macromolecules, particularly related to the methodology aimed at characterizing their three-dimensional structure. This is mostly due to their amphipathic nature as well as requirements of ligand bindings to stabilize or control their function. Recently, Mass Spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool to identify the overall stoichiometry of native-like membrane proteins complexed to ligand bindings as well as to provide insights into the transport mechanism across the membrane, with complementary information coming from X-ray crystallography...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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