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Jill K Bartlett, William A Maher, Matthew B J Purss
Data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Near Infra-red spectroscopy quantitative modelling of bivalve protein, lipid and glycogen composition using single-species versus multi-species calibration and validation sets" [1]. Band width selections were determined using a data-driven approach to modelling Near Infra-red Spectra (NIRS) of protein, lipid and glycogen content in bivalves. Models were produced for single species and combined species of Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anadara trapezia ...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Clare Nevin, Lauren McNeil, Nessar Ahmed, Chris Murgatroyd, Daniel Brison, Michael Carroll
Glycation is the non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars, such as glucose, and proteins, lipids or nucleic acids, producing Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products. AGEs, produced during natural senescence as well as through lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking, are key pathogenic compounds in the initiation and progression of diabetes. Importantly, many of these factors and conditions also have influence on male fertility, affecting sperm count and semen quality, contributing to the decreasing trend in male fertility...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Li Sun, Kalonji Y Cole, Charles R Ford, James M Olcese, David G Meckes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia that has increased dramatically in prevalence over the past several decades. Yet many questions still surround the etiology of AD. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transport protein, lipid, and nucleic acids from cell to cell have been implicated in the clearance and propagation of misfolded proteins. Investigation of EVs in AD progression, and their potential diagnostic utility may contribute to understanding and treating AD...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Naveed Ahmad, Salim Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Asim Shabbir, Abdullah, Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Zia Ud-Din, Thomas H Roberts
Durum wheat semolina (DWS) can be enriched with legume flours to produce more nutritious but high-quality pasta. DWS was substituted with detoxified matri ( Lathyrus sativus ) flour (DMF) at 5-25%, which in spaghetti increased the levels of protein, lipid, fibre and ash but decreased nitrogen-free extract. Water absorption, arrival time and dough development time increased from 63.1 to 69.2%, 1.7 to 2.4 and 2.3 to 3.3 min, respectively, while dough stability, consistency and tolerance index decreased. DMF addition increased cooking loss (4...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Samantha M Logan, Kenneth B Storey
Background: Inflammation is generally suppressed during hibernation, but select tissues (e.g. lung) have been shown to activate both antioxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, particularly during arousal from torpor when breathing rates increase and oxidative metabolism fueling the rewarming process produces more reactive oxygen species. Brown and white adipose tissues are now understood to be major hubs for the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, yet how these potentially damaging processes are regulated by fat tissues during hibernation has hardly been studied...
2018: PeerJ
Han Tao, Ji-Sheng Huang, Qiu-Tao Xie, Yong-Ming Zou, Hui-Li Wang, Xue-Ying Wu, Xue-Ming Xu
Properties of starches isolated from soft and hard wheat dough after freezing/thawing (F/T) treatment were investigated. Significance of results was observed between isolated hard wheat starch (HWS) and soft wheat starch (SWS), but both cultivars showed an increase in the amounts of damaged starch and leaching proteins, lipids, and amylose with F/T cycles. The freezing-treated HWS exhibited a higher swelling power and peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity than SWS after F/T treatment. The onset, peak and conclusion gelatinization temperatures and the enthalpy of the isolated HWS determined by differential scanning calorimetry, decreased throughout F/T cycles...
November 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yifat Ofir-Birin, Paula Abou Karam, Ariel Rudik, Tal Giladi, Ziv Porat, Neta Regev-Rudzki
Extracellular vesicles are essential for long distance cell-cell communication. They function as carriers of different compounds, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Pathogens, like malaria parasites ( Plasmodium falciparum, Pf ), excel in employing vesicle release to mediate cell communication in diverse processes, particularly in manipulating the host response. Establishing research tools to study the interface between pathogen-derived vesicles and their host recipient cells will greatly benefit the scientific community...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Junya Peng, Wenqian Wang, Surong Hua, Lulu Liu
Cells can secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) to communicate with neighboring or distant cells by EVs which are composed of a lipid bilayer containing transmembrane proteins and enclosing cytosolic proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Breast Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy with more than 1 million new cases each year and ranks the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. In this review, we will discuss recent progresses of the roles and mechanisms of cancer-derived EVs in metastatic breast cancer, with a special attention on tumor microenvironment construction, progression, and chemo/radiotherapy responses...
2018: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Nikolai Lebedev, Matthew D Yates, Igor Griva, Leonard M Tender
Bacterial cell polarity is an internal asymmetric distribution of subcellular components, including proteins, lipids, and other molecules that correlates with the cell ability to sense energy and metabolite sources, chemical signals, quorum signals, toxins, and movement in the desired directions. This ability also plays central role in cell attachment to various surfaces and biofilm formation. Mechanisms and factors controlling formation of this cell internal asymmetry are not completely understood. As a step in this direction, in the present work, we develop an approach for analyzing how information about inorganic substrate can be non-genetically coded inside an individual bacterial cell...
June 6, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Eurico N Wilhelm, Laurent Mourot, Mark Rakobowchuk
Initially suggested as simple cell debris, cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) have now gained acceptance as recognized players in cellular communication and physiology. Shed by most, and perhaps all, human cells, these tiny lipid-membrane vesicles carry bioactive agents, such as proteins, lipids and microRNA from their cell source, and are produced under orchestrated events in response to a myriad of stimuli. Physical exercise introduces systemic physiological challenges capable of acutely disrupting cell homeostasis and stimulating the release of MVs into the circulation...
June 4, 2018: Sports Medicine
A Hidir, M A Aaqillah-Amr, M N Noordiyana, M Ikhwanuddin
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the ovarian maturation of mud crabs, genus Scylla. Studies regarding the factors that affect ovarian maturation in mud crabs, however, are still lacking. This study, therefore, evaluates the relationship between diet and internal physiological changes of female orange mud crabs, Scylla olivacea. Sixty female adult S. olivacea were sampled from Setiu Wetland, Malaysia. Foreguts were sampled to study fullness and content. The hepatopancreas was sampled to study digestive enzyme activity, biochemical composition, and histology...
May 30, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Baoen Chen, Yang Sun, Jixiao Niu, Gopala K Jarugumilli, Xu Wu
Protein lipidation is an important co- or posttranslational modification in which lipid moieties are covalently attached to proteins. Lipidation markedly increases the hydrophobicity of proteins, resulting in changes to their conformation, stability, membrane association, localization, trafficking, and binding affinity to their co-factors. Various lipids and lipid metabolites serve as protein lipidation moieties. The intracellular concentrations of these lipids and their derivatives are tightly regulated by cellular metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Mostafa A Abo Norag, Abeer M Elshenawy, Sabreen E Fadl, Walied S Abdo, Doaa M Gad, Mohammed A Rashed, Abdelbary Mohammed Prince
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of low phosphorus diet with or without different levels of phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance, body composition, nutrient retention efficiency, gene expression, and health status of A. hydrophila challenged fish. A total of 240 monosex males of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average body weight of 23.19 ± 0.15 g/fish were used. Fish were randomly chosen and divided into 4 equal groups (60 fish per group), with 3 subgroups containing 20 fish as a replicate...
May 31, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jaqueline Carmo Silva, Pedro Echeveste, Ana Teresa Lombardi
Copper is an important metal for industry, and its toxic threshold in natural ecosystems has increased since the industrial revolution. As an essential nutrient, it is required in minute amounts, being toxic in slightly increased concentrations, causing great biochemical transformation in microalgae. This study aimed at investigating the physiology of Scenedesmus quadricauda, a cosmopolitan species, exposed to copper concentrations including those that trigger intracellular biochemical modifications. The Cu exposure concentrations tested ranged from 0...
May 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Guangyu Liu, Weijuan Huang, Oksana Babii, Xiaoyu Gong, Zhigang Tian, Jingqi Yang, Yixiang Wang, René L Jacobs, Vine Donna, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Lingyun Chen
Food protein and lipid based nanoparticles have attracted recent interest as a means of delivering nutraceuticals. Nanoparticle encapsulation of nutraceuticals faces challenges to overcome for it to be readily applied in the food industry, such as low encapsulation efficiency for hydrophilic compounds and poor stability once in the gastrointestinal tract. This research introduces a new protein-lipid composite nanoparticle with a three-layered structure (a barley protein layer, α-tocopherol layer and phospholipid layer) and an inner aqueous compartment to load hydrophilic nutraceuticals...
May 30, 2018: Nanoscale
Marta Adamiak, Susmita Sahoo
Myocardial disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the human heart following myocardial injury, stem cell-based therapies have emerged as a promising approach for improving cardiac repair and function. The discovery of extracellular vesicles including exosomes as a key component of the beneficial function of stem cells has generated hope for their use to advance cell-based regenerative therapies for cardiac repair. Exosomes secreted from stem cells are membranous bionanovesicles, naturally loaded with various proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Marisa Loi, Ilaria Fregno, Concetta Guerra, Maurizio Molinari
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein, lipid, phospholipid, steroid and oligosaccharide synthesis and modification, calcium ion storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous products. Its volume (and activity) must be maintained under normal growth conditions, must be expanded in a controlled manner on activation of ER stress programs and must be reduced to pre-stress size during the recovery phase that follows ER stress termination. ER-phagy is the constitutive or regulated fragmentation and delivery of ER fragments to lysosomal compartments for clearance...
May 25, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Zhen Sun, Li Wang, Lihua Dong, Xiujie Wang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of heterogeneous cells existed in tumour tissues or cancer cell lines with self-renewal and differentiation potentials. CSCs were considered to be responsible for the failure of conventional therapy and tumour recurrence. However, CSCs are not a static cell population, CSCs and non-CSCs are maintained in dynamic interconversion state by their self-differentiation and dedifferentiation. Therefore, targeting CSCs for cancer therapy is still not enough,exploring the mechanism of dynamic interconversion between CSCs and non-CSCs and blocking the interconversion seems to be imperative...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
C Chang, T Lahti, T Tanaka, M T Nickerson
Eggs are an important source of macro- and micronutrients within the diet, comprised of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. They are constituted by a shell, the white (containing 110 g kg-1 proteins: ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, lysozyme and ovomucin), and the yolk (containing 150-170 g kg-1 proteins: lipovitellins, phosvitin, livetins, and low-density lipoproteins). Due to their nutritional value and biological characteristics, both the egg white and yolk proteins are extensively fractionated using different techniques (e...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Suman Mallik, Ramesh Prasad, Anindita Bhattacharya, Prosenjit Sen
Natural phosphatidylserine (PS), which contains two chiral centers, enhances blood coagulation. However, the process by which PS enhanced blood coagulation is not completely understood. An efficient and flexible synthetic route has been developed to synthesize all of the possible stereoisomers of PS. In this study, we examined the role of PS chiral centers in modulating the activity of the tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa coagulation initiation complex. Full length TF was relipidated with phosphatidylcholine, and the synthesized PS isomers were individually used to estimate the procoagulant activity of the TF-FVIIa complex via a FXa generation assay...
May 10, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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