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Wojciech Majeran, Jean-Pierre Le Caer, Lalit Ponnala, Thierry Meinnel, Carmela Giglione
N-terminal myristoylation (MYR) is a biologically important co-translational protein lipidation. MYR is difficult to detect in vivo and challenging to predict in silico. We developed a targeted proteomics strategy to identify the Arabidopsis thaliana myristoylated (MYRed) proteome in specific sub-cellular compartments. This global profiling approach allowed us to: (i) identify one third of all open reading frames of the A. thaliana proteome including 54% of the predicted myristoylome; and (ii) establish the first comprehensive plant myristoylome, featuring direct evidence of MYR in 72 proteins...
February 16, 2018: Plant Cell
Brian D Rutter, Roger W Innes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Wenfeng Li, Yanping Chen, Steven C Cook
Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana and the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Until relatively recently, A. mellifera honey bees were naïve to N. ceranae infection. Symptoms of nosemosis, or Nosema disease, in the infected hosts include immunosuppression, damage to gut epithelium, nutrient and energetic stress, precocious foraging and reduced longevity of infected bees. Links remain unclear between immunosuppression, the symptoms of nutrient and energetic stress, and precocious foraging behavior of hosts...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Sergey E Sedykh, Lada V Purvinish, Artem S Monogarov, Evgeniya E Burkova, Alina E Grigor'eva, Dmitrii V Bulgakov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Valentin V Vlassov, Elena I Ryabchikova, Georgy A Nevinsky
Exosomes are 40-100 nm nanovesicles containing RNA and different proteins. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs are important in intracellular communication and immune function. Exosomes from different sources are usually obtained by combination of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation and according to published data can contain from a few dozens to thousands of different proteins. Crude exosome preparations from milk of eighteen horses were obtained for the first time using several standard centrifugations...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Shovonlal Roy
Energy value of phytoplankton regulates the growth of higher trophic species, affecting the tropic balance and sustainability of marine food webs. Therefore, developing our capability to estimate and monitor, on a global scale, the concentrations of macromolecules that determine phytoplankton energy value, would be invaluable. Reported here are the first estimates of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and overall energy value of phytoplankton in the world oceans, using ocean-colour data from satellites. The estimates are based on a novel bio-optical method that utilises satellite-derived bio-optical fingerprints of living phytoplankton combined with allometric relationships between phytoplankton cells and cellular macromolecular contents...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Augusta Caligiani, Angela Marseglia, Giulia Leni, Stefania Baldassarre, Lara Maistrello, Arnaldo Dossena, Stefano Sforza
Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) constitutes an economic way to convert residual biomasses into a valuable source of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of applying different extraction protocols, either chemical extractions or enzymatic assisted extraction, to recover pure fat, protein and chitin fractions. First, exact proximate composition, total amino acids, fatty acids profile, and N-acetylglucosamine content of the prepupae samples were determined...
March 2018: Food Research International
Cecilia Lässer, Su Chul Jang, Jan Lötvall
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have over the last 10-15 years been recognized to convey key messages in the molecular communication between cells. Indeed, EVs have the capacity to shuttle proteins, lipids, and nucleotides such as RNA between cells, leading to an array of functional changes in the recipient cells. Importantly, the EV secretome changes significantly in diseased cells and under conditions of cellular stress. More recently, it has become evident that the EV secretome is exceptionally diverse, with many different types of EVs being released by a single cell type, and these EVs can be described in terms of differences in density, molecular cargos, and morphology...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Alireza Oryan, Azizia Wahedi, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
To cope with stressful events such as flight, organisms have evolved various regulatory mechanisms, often involving control by endocrine-derived factors. In insects, two stress-related factors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-related peptides adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ). AKH is a pleiotropic hormone best known as a substrate liberator of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. CRZ has been shown to have roles in pigmentation, ecdysis or act as a cardiostimulatory factor although a universal function has not yet been elucidated...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Enrico Dainese, Gianfranco Gilardi, Mauro Maccarrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jan Domański, Mark S P Sansom, Phillip J Stansfeld, Robert B Best
Atomistic simulations have recently been shown to be sufficiently accurate to reversibly fold globular proteins and have provided insights into folding mechanisms. Gaining similar understanding from simulations of membrane protein folding and association would be of great medical interest. All-atom simulations of the folding and assembly of transmembrane protein domains are much more challenging, not least due to very slow diffusion within the lipid bilayer membrane. Here, we focus on a simple and well-characterized prototype of membrane protein folding and assembly, namely the dimerization of glycophorin A, a homodimer of single transmembrane helices...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Jayaraman Narenkumar, Adikesavan Selvi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam, Aruliah Rajasekar
The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Song-Pei Li, Zhong-Xiao Lin, Xue-Yan Jiang, Xi-Yong Yu
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that serve as mediators for intercellular communication through the delivery of cargo, including protein, lipids, nucleic acids or other cellular components, to neighboring or distant cells. Exosomal cargo may vary in response to different physiological or pathological conditions. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) family has been widely accepted as a key mechanism in biogenesis and cargo sorting. On the other hand, accumulating evidence show that ESCRT-independent pathways exist...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Longkun Wu, Limin Wang, Baokun Qi, Xiaonan Zhang, Fusheng Chen, Yang Li, Xiaonan Sui, Lianzhou Jiang
The understanding of the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from enzyme-assisted extraction processing (EAEP) was a critical step to break the oil-rich emulsion structure in order to recover oil. Albeit EAEP method has been applied as an alternative way to conventional solvent extraction method, the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion was still unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from EAEP using 3D confocal Raman imaging technique. With increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis duration from 1 to 3 h, the stability of oil-rich emulsion was decreased as visualized in the 3D confocal Raman images that the protein and oil were mixed together...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Leslie A Salas-Estrada, Nicholas Leioatts, Tod D Romo, Alan Grossfield
Rhodopsin, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor, is a membrane protein that can sense dim light. This highly effective photoreceptor is known to be sensitive to the composition of its lipidic environment, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this fine-tuned modulation of the receptor's function and structural stability are not fully understood. There are two competing hypotheses to explain how this occurs: 1) lipid modulation occurs via solvent-like interactions, where lipid composition controls membrane properties like hydrophobic thickness, which in turn modulate the protein's conformational equilibrium; or 2) protein-lipid interactions are ligand-like, with specific hot spots and long-lived binding events...
January 23, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Inês Gomes Castro, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar
The eukaryotic cell is organized as a complex grid system where membrane-bound cellular compartments, organelles, must be localized to the right place at the right time. One way to facilitate correct organelle localization and organelle cooperation is through membrane contact sites, areas of close proximity between two organelles that are bridged by protein/lipid complexes. It is now clear that all organelles physically contact each other. The main focus of this review is contact sites of peroxisomes, central metabolic hubs whose defects lead to a variety of diseases...
January 27, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Anthony Fardet, Didier Dupont, Laurie-Eve Rioux, Sylvie L Turgeon
Beyond nutrient composition matrix plays an important role on food health potential, notably acting on the kinetics of nutrient release, and finally on their bioavailability. This is particularly true for dairy products that present both solid (cheeses), semi-solid (yogurts) and liquid (milks) matrices. The main objective of this narrative review has been to synthesize available data in relation with the impact of physical structure of main dairy matrices on nutrient bio-accessibility, bioavailability and metabolic effects, in vitro, in animals and in humans...
February 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jeff C Clements, Carla Hicks, Réjan Tremblay, Luc A Comeau
Pre-spawning blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) appear sensitive to elevated temperature and robust to elevated pCO2; however, the effects of these stressors soon after investing energy into spawning remain unknown. Furthermore, while studies suggest that elevated pCO2 affects the byssal attachment strength of Mytilus trossulus from southern latitudes, pCO2 and temperature impacts on the byssus strength of other species at higher latitudes remain undocumented. In a 90 day laboratory experiment, we exposed post-spawning adult blue mussels (M...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Jonathan Shearer, Syma Khalid
We use coarse-grain molecular simulations to investigate the structural and dynamics differences between an asymmetric and a symmetrical membrane, both containing beta barrel transmembrane proteins. We find in where the dynamics of the two leaflets differ greatly, the slowest leaflet dominates the structural effects and importance of protein-lipid interactions.
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alvaro Toledo, Zhen Huang, James L Coleman, Erwin London, Jorge L Benach
Lipid rafts are microdomains present in the membrane of eukaryotic organisms and bacterial pathogens. They are characterized by having tightly packed lipids and a subset of specific proteins. Lipid rafts are associated with a variety of important biological processes including signaling and lateral sorting of proteins. To determine whether lipid rafts exist in the inner membrane of B. burgdorferi, we separated the inner and outer membranes and analyzed the lipid constituents present in each membrane fraction...
January 27, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Vita Birzniece
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hepatic actions of androgens in the regulation of protein, lipid and glucose metabolism. The rationale for liver-targeted testosterone use will be provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Liver-targeted testosterone administration, via the oral route, induces protein anabolic effect by reducing the rate of protein oxidation to a similar extent to that of systemic testosterone administration. Recent evidence indicates that testosterone exerts whole-body anabolic effect through inhibition of nitrogen loss via the hepatic urea cycle...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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