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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627869/the-effects-of-detergent-micelles-on-lipid-binding-to-proteins-in-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#1
Michael Landreh, Joana Costeira-Paulo, Joseph Gault, Erik G Marklund, Carol V Robinson
A wide variety of biological processes rely upon interactions between proteins and lipids, ranging from molecular transport to the organization of the cell membrane. It was recently established that electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is capable of capturing transient interactions between membrane proteins and their lipid environment, and a detailed understanding of the underlying processes is therefore of high importance. Here, we apply ESI-MS to investigate the factors that govern complex formation in solution and gas phases by comparing non-selective lipid binding with soluble and membrane proteins...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623709/the-mechanism-of-neuroprotective-action-of-natural-compounds
#2
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wąsik, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Disturbance of cerebral redox homeostasis is the primary cause of human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Well known experimental research demonstrates that oxidative stress is a main cause of cell death. A high concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to damage of a lot of proteins, lipids and also DNA. Synthetic compounds used for the treatment in the neurodegenerative diseases failed to meet the hopes they had raised and often exhibit a number of side effects...
April 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613945/correlation-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-data-on-food-digestion-what-can-we-predict-with-static-in-vitro-digestion-models
#3
T Bohn, F Carriere, L Day, A Deglaire, L Egger, D Freitas, M Golding, S Le Feunteun, A Macierzanka, O Menard, B Miralles, A Moscovici, R Portmann, I Recio, D Rémond, V Santé-Lhoutelier, T J Wooster, U Lesmes, A R Mackie, D Dupont
During the last decade, there has been a growing interest in understanding food's digestive fate in order to strengthen the possible effects of food on human health. Ideally, food digestion should be studied in vivo on humans but this is not always ethically and financially possible. Therefore, simple in vitro digestion models mimicking the gastrointestinal tract have been proposed as alternatives to in vivo experiments. Thus, it is no surprise that these models are increasingly used by the scientific community, although their various limitations to fully mirror the complexity of the digestive tract...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612349/role-of-hydrotherapy-in-the-amelioration-of-oxidant-antioxidant-status-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#4
Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Q Khan, Atif Zafar, Naureen Fatima, Sumayya Shahzad
AIM: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of RA. Moderate intensity exercises have been reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy on oxidant-antioxidant status in RA patients. METHODS: Forty RA patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. RA patients were subdivided into two groups: the first group (n = 20) received treatment with conventional RA drugs, while the second group (n = 20) received hydrotherapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612024/the-potential-of-a-brown-microalga-cultivated-in-high-salt-medium-for-the-production-of-high-value-compounds
#5
Saoussan Boukhris, Khaled Athmouni, Ibtissem Hamza-Mnif, Rayda Siala-Elleuch, Habib Ayadi, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami-Kamoun
Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609134/relationships-among-microbial-communities-maternal-cells-oligosaccharides-and-macronutrients-in-human-milk
#6
Janet E Williams, William J Price, Bahman Shafii, Katherine M Yahvah, Lars Bode, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. METHODS: Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608415/crystal-structural-characterization-reveals-novel-oligomeric-interactions-of-human-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-1
#7
Toshiaki Hosaka, Masateru Okazaki, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Yoshiko Ishizuka-Katsura, Kaori Ito, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Kosuke Dodo, Mikiko Sodeoka, Mikako Shirouzu
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, plays important roles in various cellular processes. For example, oligomerization of VDAC1 is involved in the release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, leading to apoptosis. However, it is unknown how VDAC1 oligomerization occurs in the membrane. In the present study, we determined high-resolution crystal structures of oligomeric human VDAC1 (hVDAC1) prepared by using an Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis system, which avoided the need for denaturation and refolding of the protein...
June 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605392/transfer-of-mammary-gland-forming-ability-between-mammary-basal-epithelial-cells-and-mammary-luminal-cells-via-extracellular-vesicles-exosomes
#8
Meng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Yin Chen, Pei-Lin He, Wen-Ting Luo, Hua-Jung Li
Cells can communicate via exosomes, ~100-nm extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Non-adherent/mesenchymal mammary epithelial cell (NAMEC)-derived extracellular vesicles can be isolated from NAMEC medium via differential ultracentrifugation. Based on their density, EVs can be purified via ultracentrifugation at 110,000 x g. The EV preparation from ultracentrifugation can be further separated using a continuous density gradient to prevent contamination with soluble proteins...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603518/microbial-extracellular-polymeric-substances-epss-in-ocean-systems
#9
REVIEW
Alan W Decho, Tony Gutierrez
Microbial cells (i.e., bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in oceans secrete a diverse array of large molecules, collectively called extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) or simply exopolymers. These secretions facilitate attachment to surfaces that lead to the formation of structured 'biofilm' communities. In open-water environments, they also lead to formation of organic colloids, and larger aggregations of cells, called 'marine snow.' Secretion of EPS is now recognized as a fundamental microbial adaptation, occurring under many environmental conditions, and one that influences many ocean processes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597380/maternal-embryonic-metabolic-and-antioxidant-response-of-chapalichthys-pardalis-teleostei-goodeidae-induced-by-exposure-to-3-4-dichloroaniline
#10
Ana Laura Carbajal-Hernández, Roberto Carlos Valerio-García, Erika Berenice Martínez-Ruíz, Víctor Hugo Jarquín-Díaz, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo
Chapalichthys pardalis is a viviparous fish, microendemic to the Tocumbo Region in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. Despite the peculiar type of reproduction of goodeid fish and their mother-embryo interaction, the effects on embryos induced by maternal exposure to aquatic xenobiotics are still unknown. The objective of the present work was to determine the maternal-embryonic metabolic and antioxidant response of C. pardalis exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), a compound considered highly noxious to the environment because of its high toxicity and persistence, which has been used as reference toxicant in toxicological bioassays...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592639/physiological-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-as-promoters-of-natural-defenses
#11
REVIEW
Jérôme Roy, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
It has been 60 yr since the discovery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biology and the beginning of the scientific community's attempt to understand the impact of the unpaired electron of ROS molecules in biological pathways, which was eventually noted to be toxic. Several studies have shown that the presence of ROS is essential in triggering or acting as a secondary factor for numerous pathologies, including metabolic and genetic diseases; however, it was demonstrated that chronic treatment with antioxidants failed to show efficacy and positive effects in the prevention of diseases or health complications that result from oxidative stress...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588281/a-central-small-amino-acid-in-the-vamp2-transmembrane-domain-regulates-the-fusion-pore-in-exocytosis
#12
Benoît Hastoy, Pier A Scotti, Alexandra Milochau, Zahia Fezoua-Boubegtiten, Jorge Rodas, Rémi Megret, Bernard Desbat, Michel Laguerre, Sabine Castano, David Perrais, Patrik Rorsman, Reiko Oda, Jochen Lang
Exocytosis depends on cytosolic domains of SNARE proteins but the function of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) in membrane fusion remains controversial. The TMD of the SNARE protein synaptobrevin2/VAMP2 contains two highly conserved small amino acids, G100 and C103, in its central portion. Substituting G100 and/or C103 with the β-branched amino acid valine impairs the structural flexibility of the TMD in terms of α-helix/β-sheet transitions in model membranes (measured by infrared reflection-absorption or evanescent wave spectroscopy) during increase in protein/lipid ratios, a parameter expected to be altered by recruitment of SNAREs at fusion sites...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582604/layer-by-layer-motif-architectures-programmed-electrochemical-syntheses-of-multilayer-mesoporous-metallic-films-with-uniformly-sized-pores
#13
Bo Jiang, Cuiling Li, Huayu Qian, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Victor Malgras, Yusuke Yamauchi
Although multilayer films have been extensively reported, most compositions have been limited to non-catalytically active materials (e.g. polymers, proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids). Herein, we report the preparation of binder-free multilayer metallic mesoporous films with sufficient accessibility for high electrocatalytic activity by using a programmed electrochemical strategy. By precisely tuning the deposition potential and duration, multilayer mesoporous architectures consisting of alternating mesoporous Pd layers and mesoporous PdPt layers with controlled layer thicknesses can be synthesized within a single electrolyte, containing polymeric micelles as soft templates...
June 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580796/artificial-cell-mimics-as-simplified-models-for-the-study-of-cell-biology
#14
Ali Salehi-Reyhani, Oscar Ces, Yuval Elani
Living cells are hugely complex chemical systems composed of a milieu of distinct chemical species (including DNA, proteins, lipids, and metabolites) interconnected with one another through a vast web of interactions: this complexity renders the study of cell biology in a quantitative and systematic manner a difficult task. There has been an increasing drive towards the utilization of artificial cells as cell mimics to alleviate this, a development that has been aided by recent advances in artificial cell construction...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574430/extracellular-vesicles-in-hematological-malignancies-from-biology-to-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Antonella Caivano, Francesco La Rocca, Ilaria Laurenzana, Stefania Trino, Luciana De Luca, Daniela Lamorte, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pellegrino Musto
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of particles, between 15 nanometers and 10 microns in diameter, released by almost all cell types in physiological and pathological conditions, including tumors. EVs have recently emerged as particularly interesting informative vehicles, so that they could be considered a true "cell biopsy". Indeed, EV cargo, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, generally reflects the nature and status of the origin cells. In some cases, EVs are enriched of peculiar molecular cargo, thus suggesting at least a degree of specific cellular packaging...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573816/lipid-internal-dynamics-probed-in-nanodiscs
#16
Denis Martinez, Marion Decossas, Julia Kowal, Lukas Frey, Henning Stahlberg, Erick Dufourc, Roland Riek, Birgit Habenstein, Stefan Bibow, Antoine Loquet
Nanodiscs offer a very promising tool to incorporate membrane proteins into native-like lipid bilayers and an alternative to liposomes to maintain protein functions and protein-lipid interactions in a soluble nanoscale object. The activity of the incorporated membrane protein appears to be correlated to its dynamics in the lipid bilayer and by protein-lipid interactions. These two parameters depend on the lipid internal dynamics surrounded by the lipid-encircling discoidal scaffold protein that might differ from more unrestricted lipid bilayers observed in vesicles or cellular extracts...
June 1, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572939/effect-of-cooking-and-preservation-on-nutritional-and-phytochemical-composition-of-the-mushroom-amanita-zambiana
#17
Tsungai Reid, Merjury Munyanyi, Takafira Mduluza
The effect of different cooking and preservation methods on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of the mushroom, Amanita zambiana, was investigated. Fresh mushrooms were boiled in water, fried, or microwaved. In addition, fresh mushrooms were either air-dried for 7 days or frozen at -20°C for 14 days. The protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and phenolic content of the treated mushrooms were measured and compared to the fresh mushroom contents. Frying increased the protein (2.01% ± 0.2% [fresh mushroom] to 2...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570864/molecular-mechanisms-of-astrocyte-induced-synaptogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Katherine T Baldwin, Cagla Eroglu
Astrocytes are morphologically complex cells that perform a wide variety of critical functions in the brain. As a structurally and functionally integrated component of the synapse, astrocytes secrete proteins, lipids, and small molecules that bind neuronal receptors to promote synaptogenesis and regulate synaptic connectivity. Additionally, astrocytes are key players in circuit formation, instructing the formation of synapses between distinct classes of neurons. This review highlights recent publications on the topic of astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms through which astrocytes orchestrate the formation of synaptic circuits...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567016/streptomyces-sp-mum212-as-a-source-of-antioxidants-with-radical-scavenging-and-metal-chelating-properties
#19
Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Kok-Gan Chan, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Sarah Ibrahim Bukhari, Surasak Saokaew, Acharaporn Duangjai, Priyia Pusparajah, Learn-Han Lee, Bey-Hing Goh
Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562695/label-free-pathology-by-spectrally-sliced-femtosecond-stimulated-raman-scattering-srs-microscopy
#20
Andrew Francis, Kyla Berry, Yikai Chen, Benjamin Figueroa, Dan Fu
Optical "virtual biopsy" is an attractive way to improve disease diagnosis and surgical guidance. Many optical microscopy techniques have been developed to provide diagnostic information without the need for tissue sectioning or staining. Among these techniques, label-free chemical imaging is the most desirable. Recently, it has been shown that narrowband, picosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) can achieve comparable morphological contrast to hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E staining), the 'gold standard' of pathology...
2017: PloS One
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