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Protein-lipid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432033/lipids-as-central-modulators-of-sensory-trp-channels
#1
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Ciardo, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel
The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is involved in a diversity of physiological processes including sensory and homeostatic functions, as well as muscle contraction and vasomotor control. Their dysfunction contributes to the etiology of several diseases, being validated as therapeutic targets. These ion channels may be activated by physical or chemical stimuli and their function is highly influenced by signaling molecules activated by extracellular signals. Notably, as integral membrane proteins, lipid molecules also modulate their membrane location and function either by direct interaction with the channel structure or by modulating the physico-chemical properties of the cellular membrane...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432030/effects-of-mixed-proximal-and-distal-topogenic-signals-on-the-topological-sensitivity-of-a-membrane-protein-to-the-lipid-environment
#2
Heidi Vitrac, William Dowhan, Mikhail Bogdanov
The final topology of membrane proteins is thought to be dictated primarily by the encoding sequence. However, according to the Charge Balance Rule the topogenic signals within nascent membrane proteins are interpreted in agreement with the Positive Inside Rule as influenced by the protein phospholipid environment. The role of long-range protein-lipid interactions in establishing a final uniform or dual topology is unknown. In order to address this role, we determined the positional dependence of the potency of charged residues as topological signals within Escherichia coli sucrose permease (CscB) in cells in which the zwitterionic phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), acting as topological determinant, was either eliminated or tightly titrated...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429463/global-mapping-of-protein-lipid-interactions-by-using-modified-choline-containing-phospholipids-metabolically-synthesized-in-live-cells
#3
Danyang Wang, Shubo Du, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Jingyan Ge, Jun-Seok Lee, Markus R Wenk, Shao Q Yao
The protein-lipid interaction is an essential metabolic process that mediates cellular signaling and functions. Existing strategies for large-scale mapping studies of the protein-lipid interaction fall short in their incompatibility with metabolic incorporation or inability to remove unwanted interferences from lipidated proteins. By incorporating an alkyne-containing choline head group and a diazirine-modified fatty acid simultaneously into choline-containing phospholipids synthesized from live mammalian cells, protein-phospholipid interactions have been successfully imaged in live cells...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429373/dietary-shifts-have-consequences-for-the-repertoire-of-allergens-produced-by-the-european-house-dust-mite
#4
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, S Rombauts, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
Products manufactured from mass-cultured house dust mites, currently commercialized for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy, are heterogeneous in terms of allergen composition and thus present concerns to regulatory authorities. The most abundant species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), produces 19 allergenic proteins. Many of these are putatively involved in mite digestive physiology and metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mite-rearing media on allergen production...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#5
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424284/a-novel-type-of-polyhedral-viruses-infecting-hyperthermophilic-archaea
#6
Ying Liu, Sonoko Ishino, Yoshizumi Ishino, Gérard Pehau-Arnaudet, Mart Krupovic, David Prangishvili
Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known virus. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20 kDa virion protein...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416709/spheres-of-hope-packets-of-doom-the-good-and-bad-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-interspecies-and-ecological-dynamics
#7
Jonathan B Lynch, Rosanna A Alegado
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposome nanoparticles ubiquitously produced by Gram-negative bacteria. Typically bearing similar composition to the outer membrane and periplasm of the cells from which they are derived, OMVs package an array of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Once considered inconsequential byproducts of bacterial growth, OMVs have since been demonstrated to mediate cellular stress relief, promote horizontal gene transfer and antimicrobial activity, and elicit metazoan inflammation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412904/the-role-of-exosomes-and-exosome-derived-micrornas-in-atherosclerosis
#8
Xinjie Lu
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and morbidity throughout industrialized nations, accounting for one-fifth of all deaths globally. Exosomes are bi-lipid membranous vesicles containing protein, lipid and nucleic acid contents that are released from cells via the endolysosomal pathway. Exosomes are derived from several cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, platelets as well as human serum. METHODS: In this review, an overview of recent advances and the evidence for the role exosomes and exosome-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in atherosclerosis are provided...
April 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411580/comparative-analysis-of-the-liver-transcriptome-of-pelteobagrus-vachellii-with-an-alternative-feeding-time
#9
Chuanjie Qin, Quan Gong, Zhengyong Wen, Yuanchao Zou, Dengyue Yuan, Ting Shao, Huatao Li
Pelteobagrus vachellii, an important freshwater fish in China, shows predominantly nocturnal behavior. To better understand the growth and molecular mechanisms underlying altered feeding times in this species, we studied the growth and liver transcriptome of P. vachellii with shifted feeding times. In this study, a 9-week growth trial was conducted on male P. vachellii (mean weight±S.E.=1.05±0.36g) with commercial feed. Two triplicate groups of fish were fed either at 0800 (day group, control) or at 2000 (night group) with the same amount of feed...
April 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411448/mtorc1-signaling-and-the-metabolic-control-of-cell-growth
#10
REVIEW
Issam Ben-Sahra, Brendan D Manning
mTOR [mechanistic target of rapamycin] is a serine/threonine protein kinase that, as part of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1), acts as an important molecular connection between nutrient signals and the metabolic processes indispensable for cell growth. While there has been pronounced interest in the upstream mechanisms regulating mTORC1, the full range of downstream molecular targets through which mTORC1 signaling stimulates cell growth is only recently emerging. It is now evident that mTORC1 promotes cell growth primarily through the activation of key anabolic processes...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411171/g-protein-membrane-interactions-ii-effect-of-g-protein-linked-lipids-on-membrane-structure-and-g-protein-membrane-interactions
#11
Jesús Casas, Maitane Ibarguren, Rafael Álvarez, Silvia Terés, Victoria Lladó, Stefano P Piotto, Simona Concilio, Xavier Busquets, David J López, Pablo V Escribá
G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (HII) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388089/critical-comparison-of-biomembrane-force-fields-protein-lipid-interactions-at-the-membrane-interface
#12
Angelica Sandoval-Perez, Kristyna Pluhackova, Rainer A Böckmann
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer the possibility to study biological processes at high spatial and temporal resolution often not reachable by experiments. Corresponding biomolecular force field parameters have been developed for a wide variety of molecules ranging from inorganic ligands and small organic molecules over proteins and lipids to nucleic acids. Force fields have typically been parametrized and validated on thermodynamic observables and structural characteristics of individual compounds, e...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378790/fast-collisional-lipid-transfer-among-polymer-bounded-nanodiscs
#13
Rodrigo Cuevas Arenas, Bartholomäus Danielczak, Anne Martel, Lionel Porcar, Cécile Breyton, Christine Ebel, Sandro Keller
Some styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers solubilise membrane lipids and proteins to form polymer-bounded nanodiscs termed SMA/lipid particles (SMALPs). Although SMALPs preserve a lipid-bilayer core, they appear to be more dynamic than other membrane mimics. We used time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer and small-angle neutron scattering to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms of phospholipid transfer among SMALPs. In contrast with vesicles or protein-bounded nanodiscs, SMALPs exchange lipids not only by monomer diffusion but also by fast collisional transfer...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378103/on-site-direct-detection-of-astaxanthin-from-salmon-fillet-using-raman-spectroscopy
#14
Jun-Ichi Hikima, Masahiro Ando, Hiro-O Hamaguchi, Masahiro Sakai, Masashi Maita, Kazunaga Yazawa, Haruko Takeyama, Takashi Aoki
A new technology employing Raman spectroscopy is attracting attention as a powerful biochemical technique for the detection of beneficial and functional food nutrients, such as carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. This technique allows for the dynamic characterization of food nutrient substances for the rapid determination of food quality. In this study, we attempt to detect and measure astaxanthin from salmon fillets using this technology. The Raman spectra showed specific bands corresponding to the astaxanthin present in salmon and the value of astaxanthin (Raman band, 1518 cm(-1)) relative to those of protein/lipid (Raman band, 1446 cm(-1)) in the spectra increased in a dose-dependent manner...
April 4, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#15
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
April 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376052/which-dietary-components-modulate-longitudinal-growth
#16
Galia Gat-Yablonski, Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Moshe Phillip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Linear growth in children is sensitive to nutritional status; the growth of the human skeleton requires many different nutritional factors for energy and building blocks: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, what are the specific nutritional factors that are required for proper growth and what is the composition that will be most beneficial is still not known. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings indicate that macro and micronutrients are required as building blocks and as cofactors for important enzymes...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370740/a-global-trait-based-approach-to-estimate-leaf-nitrogen-functional-allocation-from-observations
#17
Bardan Ghimire, William J Riley, Charles D Koven, Jens Kattge, Alistair Rogers, Peter B Reich, Ian J Wright
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth and a major constituent of proteins that regulate photosynthetic and respiratory processes. However, a comprehensive global analysis of nitrogen allocation in leaves for major processes with respect to different plant functional types is currently lacking. This study integrated observations from global databases with photosynthesis and respiration models to determine plant-functional-type-specific allocation patterns of leaf nitrogen for photosynthesis (Rubisco, electron transport, light absorption) and respiration (growth and maintenance), and by difference from observed total leaf nitrogen, an unexplained "residual" nitrogen pool...
March 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369805/exosomes-carrying-immunoinhibitory-proteins-and-their-role-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Recent emergence of exosomes as information carriers between cells has introduced us to a new previously unknown biological communication system. Multi-directional cross-talk mediated by exosomes carrying proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between normal cells, cells harboring a pathogen or cancer and immune cells has been instrumental in determining outcomes of physiological as well as pathological conditions. Exosomes play a key role in the broad spectrum of human diseases. In cancer, tumor-derived exosomes carry multiple immunoinhibitory signals, disable anti-tumor immune effector cells and promote tumor escape from immune control...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367817/-autophagy-and-vision
#19
Beatriz Villarejo-Zori, Patricia Boya
The retina is a light-sensitive tissue in the vertebrate eye that detects and processes visual images. The eye, including retina, is exposed to a variety of environmental insults and stressors, among which genetic mutations and age-associated alterations that impair their function. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that promotes the degradation and recycling of cellular components under basal and stress conditions. Proteins, lipids, and even whole organelles are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome for elimination...
March 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365294/protein-lipid-nanohybrids-as-emerging-platforms-for-drug-and-gene-delivery-challenges-and-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed Gaber, Waseem Medhat, Mark Hany, Nourhan Saher, Jia-You Fang, Ahmed Elzoghby
Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been long used to deliver a vast range of drugs and bioactives owing to their ability to demonstrate novel physical, chemical, and/or biological properties. An exponential growth has spurred in research and development of these nanocarriers which led to the evolution of a great number of diverse nanosystems including liposomes, nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), micelles, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Among them, lipid-based nanocarriers have made the largest progress whether commercially or under development...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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