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Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Violet V Bumah, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Janis T Eells, Carol J Hirschmugl, Chukuka S Enwemeka
Disinfectants and biocidal products have been widely used to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in homes and healthcare environments. Although disruption of cytoplasmic membrane integrity has been documented as the main bactericidal effect of biocides, little is known about the biochemical alterations induced by these chemical agents. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools as an alternative non-destructive technique to determine the bactericidal effects of commonly used disinfectants against MRSA USA-300...
2017: PloS One
Mona Mirheydari, Elizabeth K Mann, Edgar E Kooijman
Lipid droplets are "small" organelles that play an important role in de novo synthesis of new membrane, and steroid hormones, as well as in energy storage. The way proteins interact specifically with the oil-(phospho-)lipid monolayer interface of lipid droplets is a relatively unexplored but crucial question. Here, we use our home built liquid droplet tensiometer to mimic intracellular lipid droplets and study protein-lipid interactions at this interface. As model neutral lipid binding protein, we use apoLp-III, an amphipathic α-helix bundle protein...
October 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Muhammad H Alu'datt, Taha Rababah, Mohammad N Alhamad, Ghaid J Al-Rabadi, Carole C Tranchant, Ali Almajwal, Stan Kubow, Inteaz Alli
Phenolic phytochemicals have become of interest due to their therapeutic potential, particularly with regards to their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic properties. An evolving area of research involving phenolics in foods and their products pertains to the functional, biological, and nutritional consequences resulting from the binding between certain phenolic compounds and the macronutrient and micronutrient constituents of foods. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of studies investigating endogenous phenolic interactions with major components in food systems, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins, with a focus on the phenolic compounds and nutrients in oil-bearing plants...
October 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Barbara W Sódar, Árpád Kovács, Tamás Visnovitz, Éva Pállinger, Károly Vékey, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Lilla Turiák, Edit I Buzás
Extracellular vesicles are emerging sources of biomarkers for modern preventive and precision medicine. Extracellular vesicles in body fluids offer a unique opportunity for integrative biomarker approaches due to their complex biocargo that includes proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics data suggest that a significant portion of human proteins are sorted into extracellular vesicles and amenable for biomarker discovery schemes. Areas covered: this review focuses on key aspects of isolation, quality control and subsequent analysis of blood plasma- and conditioned medium-derived extracellular vesicle proteins, and summarizes the current state-of-the-art in the field...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
Yuki Nakamura
Phospholipids are essential components of biological membranes and signal transduction cascades in plants. In recent years, plant phospholipid research was greatly advanced by the characterization of numerous mutants affected in phospholipid biosynthesis and the discovery of a number of functionally important phospholipid-binding proteins. It is now accepted that most phospholipids to some extent have regulatory functions, including those that serve as constituents of biological membranes. Phospholipids are more than an inert end product of lipid biosynthesis...
October 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Parijat Sarkar, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Solubilization of membrane proteins by amphiphilic detergents represents a crucial step in studies of membrane proteins in which proteins and lipids in natural membranes are dissociated giving rise to mixed clusters of proteins, lipids and detergents in the aqueous dispersion. Although solubilization is a popular method, physicochemical principles underlying solubilization are not well understood. In this work, we monitored solubilization of the bovine hippocampal serotonin1A receptor, a representative member of the GPCR family, using membrane dipole potential measured by a dual fluorescence ratiometric approach with a potential-sensitive fluorophore...
October 4, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Hsin-Ling Yang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Ming-Kuem Lin, Hebron Chun-Wei Chang, Chi-Rei Wu, Meng-Shiou Lee, William Tzu-Liang Chen, You-Cheng Hseu
Pearl powder, a well-known traditional mineral medicine, is reported to be used for well-being and to treat several diseases from centuries in Taiwan and China. We investigated the in vitro antihemolytic and antioxidant properties of pearl powder that could protect erythrocytes against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage to membrane proteins/lipids. Human erythrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of pearl powder (50-200 μg/mL) for 30 minutes and then exposed to AAPH for 2-6 hours...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Jianfeng Wang, Wei Zheng, Kan Lin, Zhiwei Huang
This study aims to characterize biochemical and morphological variations of the clinically relevant anatomical locations of in vivo oral tissue (i.e., alveolar process, lateral tongue, and floor of the mouth) by using hybrid Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. A total of 1049 in vivo fingerprint (FP: 800-1800 cm(-1) ) and high wavenumber (HW: 2800-3600 cm(-1) ) Raman spectra were acquired from different oral tissue (alveolar process=331; lateral tongue=339, and floor of mouth=379) of 26 normal subjects in the oral cavity under the OCT imaging guidance...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Eleni Alexandri, Raheel Ahmed, Hina Siddiqui, Muhammad I Choudhary, Constantinos G Tsiafoulis, Ioannis P Gerothanassis
Mono- and polyunsaturated lipids are widely distributed in Nature, and are structurally and functionally a diverse class of molecules with a variety of physicochemical, biological, medicinal and nutritional properties. High resolution NMR spectroscopic techniques including 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR have been successfully employed as a structural and analytical tool for unsaturated lipids. The objective of this review article is to provide: (i) an overview of the critical 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR parameters for structural and analytical investigations; (ii) an overview of various 1D and 2D NMR techniques that have been used for resonance assignments; (iii) selected analytical and structural studies with emphasis in the identification of major and minor unsaturated fatty acids in complex lipid extracts without the need for the isolation of the individual components; (iv) selected investigations of oxidation products of lipids; (v) applications in the emerging field of lipidomics; (vi) studies of protein-lipid interactions at a molecular level; (vii) practical considerations and (viii) an overview of future developments in the field...
October 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marcel Zimmermann, Andreas S Reichert
Mitochondria are indispensable cellular organelles providing ATP and numerous other essential metabolites to ensure cell survival. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as side reactions during oxidative phosphorylation or by external agents, induce molecular damage in mitochondrial proteins, lipids/membranes, and DNA. To cope with this and other sorts of organellar stress, a multi-level quality control system exists to maintain cellular homeostasis. One critical level of mitochondrial quality control is the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy...
September 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Chun-Lan Keng, Ying-Chi Lin, Wei-Lung Tseng, Chi-Yu Lu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce oxidative stress and are associated with cell death and chronic diseases in organisms. In the treatment of disease, drugs that induce ROS are associated with many side effects and unpleasant symptoms. Therefore, during the assessment of new drugs and candidate compounds, ROS generation is an issue of concern, because ROS can modify proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids within organisms and alter their biological functions. In this work, we designed a peptide-based probe for the rapid (<10 min) high-throughput survey of oxidative stress induced by clinical drugs at the microliter level...
October 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Liancheng Wu, Mingna Li, Lei Tian, Shunxi Wang, Liuji Wu, Lixia Ku, Jun Zhang, Xiaoheng Song, Haiping Liu, Yanhui Chen
In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention...
2017: PloS One
Cameron Murphy, Joseph Withrow, Monte Hunter, Yutao Liu, Yao Liang Tang, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Research into the biology of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has expanded significantly with advances in EV isolation techniques, a better understanding of the surface markers that characterize exosomes and microvesicles, and greater information derived from -omics approaches on the proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) transported by EVs. We have recently discovered a role for exosome-derived miRNAs in age-related bone loss and osteoarthritis, two conditions that impose a significant public health burden on the aging global population...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Elise Balse, Catherine Eichel
Activation of the electrical signal and its transmission as a depolarizing wave in the whole heart requires highly organized myocyte architecture and cell-cell contacts. In addition, complex trafficking and anchoring intracellular machineries regulate the proper surface expression of channels and their targeting to distinct membrane domains. An increasing list of proteins, lipids, and second messengers can contribute to the normal targeting of ion channels in cardiac myocytes. However, their precise roles in the electrophysiology of the heart are far from been extensively understood...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Vittorio de Franciscis
The extraordinary boost in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of different types of cancer, is offering an unprecedented hope for the development of precise therapeutics able to interfere or replace the expression of target genes. In the last decade, the design of stable, safe and effective RNA-based therapeutics has been significantly improved increasing the number of molecules now in preclinical or in clinical trials for cancer gene therapy...
September 26, 2017: Biochimie
Lian He, Ji Jing, Lei Zhu, Peng Tan, Guolin Ma, Qian Zhang, Nhung T Nguyen, Junfeng Wang, Yubin Zhou, Yun Huang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms an extensive intracellular membranous network in eukaryotes that dynamically connects and communicates with diverse subcellular compartments such as plasma membrane (PM) through membrane contact sites (MCSs), with the inter-membrane gaps separated by a distance of 10-40 nm. Phosphoinositides (PI) constitute an important class of cell membrane phospholipids shared by many MCSs to regulate a myriad of cellular events, including membrane trafficking, calcium homeostasis and lipid metabolism...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Mozidi Bouzadi, Tine Grebenc, Ossi Turunen, Hojka Kraigher, Hassan Taib, Abdulhafied Alafai, Imed Sbissi, Mamdouh El Haj Assad, Dattatray Bedade, Salem Shamekh
Desert truffles have traditionally been used as food in Libya. Desert truffle grows and gives fruit sporadically when adequate and properly distributed rainfall occurs with existence of suitable soil and mycorrhizal host plant. The present study aimed to identify and characterize two kinds of wild desert truffles from ecological and nutritional points that were collected from the studied area. The truffle samples were identified as Terfezia (known as red or black truffle) and Tirmania (known as white truffle)...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Ping Wu, Siyuan Liu, Jianyu Su, Jianping Chen, Lin Li, Runguang Zhang, Tianfeng Chen
Cancer cells are well known to require a constant supply of protein, lipid, RNA, and DNA via altered metabolism for accelerated cell proliferation. Targeting metabolic pathways is, therefore, a promising therapeutic strategy for cancers. Isoquercitrin (ISO) is widely distributed in dietary and medicinal plants and displays selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells, primarily by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The aims of this study were to find out whether ISO could stabilize in a bladder-like acidic environment and inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation by affecting their metabolism, and to investigate its molecular mechanism...
September 26, 2017: Food & Function
Mária Herminia Ferrari Felisberto, Patricia Satie Endo Miyake, Antonio Ludovico Beraldo, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici
With the objective of widening the use of bamboo in the food industry, the present work aimed to produce and characterize the young bamboo culm flours from varieties Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa tuldoides and Bambusa vulgaris as potential sources of fiber and starch. The young culms were collected, cut in three sections (bottom, middle, top), processed into flour, and they were physically, chemically and technologically analyzed. The data were obtained in triplicate and evaluated by means of average differences, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scott-Knott test (p<0...
November 2017: Food Research International
Vera Gorelova, Jolien De Lepeleire, Jeroen Van Daele, Dick Pluim, Coline Meï, Ann Cuypers, Olivier Leroux, Fabrice Rébeillé, Jan Schellens, Dieter Blancquaert, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates (B9 vitamins) are essential cofactors in one-carbon metabolism. Since C1 transfer reactions are involved in synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, as well as in epigenetic control, folates are vital for all living organisms. This work presents the first complete study of a plant DHFR-TS (dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase) gene family that implements the penultimate step in folate biosynthesis. We demonstrate that one of the DHFR-TS isoforms (THY3) operates as an inhibitor of its two homologs, thus regulating DHFR and TS activities and, as a consequence, folate abundance...
September 22, 2017: Plant Cell
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