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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212731/hamlet-a-protein-lipid-complex-with-broad-tumoricidal-activity
#1
REVIEW
James C S Ho, Aftab Nadeem, Catharina Svanborg
HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex with broad effects against cancer cells of different origin. The therapeutic potential is emphasized by a high degree of specificity for tumor tissue. Here we review early studies of HAMLET, in collaboration with the Orrenius laboratory, and some key features of the subsequent development of the HAMLET project. The early studies focused on the apoptotic response that accompanies death in HAMLET treated tumor cells and the role of mitochondria in this process...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207780/analyzing-pepsin-degradation-assay-conditions-used-for-allergenicity-assessments-to-ensure-that-pepsin-susceptible-and-pepsin-resistant-dietary-proteins-are-distinguishable
#2
Rong Wang, Thomas C Edrington, S Bradley Storrs, Kathleen S Crowley, Jason M Ward, Thomas C Lee, Zi L Liu, Bin Li, Kevin C Glenn
The susceptibility of a dietary protein to proteolytic degradation by digestive enzymes, such as gastric pepsin, provides information on the likelihood of systemic exposure to a structurally intact and biologically active macromolecule, thus informing on the safety of proteins for human and animal consumption. Therefore, the purpose of standardized in vitro degradation studies that are performed during protein safety assessments is to distinguish whether proteins of interest are susceptible or resistant to pepsin degradation via a study design that enables study-to-study comparison...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201873/insights-into-the-formation-and-structures-of-starch-protein-lipid-complexes
#3
Shujun Wang, Mengge Zheng, Jinglin Yu, Shuo Wang, Les Copeland
The aim of the present study was to characterize the multi-scale structures of ternary complexes of a model system of starch, fatty acid (FA) and β-lactoglobulin (βLG) prepared using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The addition of βLG to starch-lauric acid or starch-oleic acid RVA pastes resulted in the increased intensity or occurrence of a new viscosity peak during cooling when the RVA protocol was repeated. The viscosity peak was attributed to the formation of starch-βLG-FA complexes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed clearly that starch-βLG-FAs complex was formed as gelatinized starch was cooled in the presence of βLG and FAs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198634/phase-composition-control-in-microsphere-supported-biomembrane-systems
#4
Eric S Fried, Yue-Ming Li, Malcolm Lane Gilchrist
The popularization of studies in membrane protein lipid phase coexistence has prompted the development of new techniques to construct and study biomimetic systems with cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains. Here, microsphere supported biomembranes with integrated α-helical peptides, referred to as proteolipobeads (PLBs), were used to model peptide/protein partitioning within DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol phase-separated membranes. Due to the appearance of compositional heterogeneity and impurities in the formation of model PLB assemblies, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to characterize and sort PLB populations on the basis of disordered phase (Ld) content...
February 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193107/annals-express-evaluation-of-commonly-used-tear-sampling-methods-and-their-relevance-in-subsequent-biochemical-analysis
#5
Aniko Rentka, Krisztina Koroskenyi, Jolan Harsfalvi, Zoltan Szekanecz, Gabriella Szucs, Peter Szodoray, Adam Kemeny-Beke
The human precorneal tear film (PCTF) is a special body fluid, since it is a complex mixture of proteins, lipids small bioactive molecules and their concentrations and relative distribution represent not only the metabolic state of the ocular surface but also the systemic and local homeostasis of the outer eye and the human body. This suggests that biochemical analysis of the PCTF composition may provide a non-invasive tool for diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression or treatment efficacy in human medicine...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192064/aedes-borne-virus-mosquito-interactions-mass-spectrometry-strategies-and-findings
#6
Victoria Pando-Robles, Cesar V Batista
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
February 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185933/binding-of-%C3%AE-carrageenan-a-food-additive-to-almond-cystatin-an-insight-involving-spectroscopic-and-thermodynamic-approach
#7
Azad Alam Siddiqui, Anna Feroz, Peerzada Shariq Shaheen Khaki, Bilqees Bano
Carrageenan is a high molecular weight linear sulphated polysaccharide, primarily used in food industry as gelling, thickening, and stabilizing agent. Almond milk prepared from almonds is low in fat, but high in antioxidants, energy, proteins, lipids and fibre. Purified almond cystatin was incubated with increasing concentrations of carrageenan at 25°C for different time interval and significant loss in inhibitory activity was observed. Interaction between carrageenan and cystatin resulted in complex formation as depicted by the decrease in fluorescence intensity with increase in the concentration of carrageenan...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178372/antimicrobial-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-derived-from-seed-coats-of-selected-soybean-varieties
#8
Rajaa Abutheraa, Navam Hettiarachchy, Geetha Kumar-Phillips, Ronny Horax, Pengyin Chen, Ruben Morawicki, Young Min Kwon
Soybean hulls or seed coats consist of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and polyphenols such as anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones. The polyphenolics in the seed coats give them various colors such as black, brown, green, yellow, or even a mottled appearance. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of phenolic extracts from the seed coats of different colored soybeans (yellow, dark brown, brown, and black) were evaluated against foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni in broth-cultures as well as on chicken skin...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155165/histochemical-analysis-of-plant-secretory-structures
#9
Diego Demarco
Histochemical analysis is essential for the study of plant secretory structures whose classification is based, at least partially, on the composition of their secretion. As each gland may produce one or more types of substances, a correct analysis of its secretion should be done using various histochemical tests to detect metabolites of different chemical classes. Here I describe some of the most used methods to detect carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids in the secretory structures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150429/roles-of-palmitoylation-in-axon-growth-degeneration-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Sabrina M Holland, Gareth M Thomas
The protein-lipid modification palmitoylation plays important roles in neurons, but most attention has focused on roles of this modification in the regulation of mature pre- and post-synapses. However, exciting recent findings suggest that palmitoylation is also critical for both the growth and integrity of neuronal axons and plays previously unappreciated roles in conveying axonal anterograde and retrograde signals. Here we review these emerging roles for palmitoylation in the regulation of axons in health and disease...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139536/exploring-the-bio-behavioural-link-between-stress-allostatic-load-micronutrient-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-adolescent-boys
#11
Little Flower Augustine, Krishnapillai Madhavan Nair, Sylvia Fernandez Rao, Mendu Vishnu Vardhana Rao, Punjal Ravinder, Avula Laxmaiah
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) is a cumulative measure of physiological deregulation and is influenced by multiple factors including nutrition. The objectives of the study were to assess AL among adolescent boys (15-19 yr) and delineate its association with psychological stress and micronutrient status. METHODS: A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted among 370 adolescent boys of five higher secondary schools from Hyderabad, India. Perceived stress, adolescent life event stress (ALES), psychological morbidity and coping were measured...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138305/physical-and-chemical-characteristics-of-mucin-secreted-by-pseudomyxoma-peritonei-pmp
#12
Krishna Pillai, Javed Akhter, Ahmed Mekkawy, Terence C Chua, David L Morris
Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137659/smuggling-gold-nanoparticles-across-cell-types-a-new-role-for-exosomes-in-gene-silencing
#13
Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Francisca Pereira, António P Alves de Matos, Marta Fernandes, Pedro V Baptista, Alexandra R Fernandes
Once released to the extracellular space, exosomes enable the transfer of proteins, lipids and RNA between different cells, being able to modulate the recipient cells' phenotypes. Members of the Rab small GTP-binding protein family, such as RAB27A, are responsible for the coordination of several steps in vesicle trafficking, including budding, mobility, docking and fusion. The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for gene silencing is considered a cutting-edge technology. Here, AuNPs were functionalized with thiolated oligonucleotides anti-RAB27A (AuNP@PEG@anti-RAB27A) for selective silencing of the gene with a consequent decrease of exosomes´ release by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells...
January 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125111/direct-demonstration-of-lipid-phosphorylation-in-the-lipid-bilayer-of-the-biomimetic-bicontinuous-cubic-phase-using-the-confined-enzyme-lipid-a-phosphoethanolamine-transferase
#14
Leonie van 't Hag, Anandhi Anandan, Shane A Seabrook, Sally L Gras, Calum J Drummond, Alice Vrielink, Charlotte E Conn
Retention of amphiphilic protein activity within the lipid bilayer membrane of the nanostructured biomimetic bicontinuous cubic phase is crucial for applications utilizing these hybrid protein-lipid self-assembly materials, such as in meso membrane protein crystallization and drug delivery. Previous work, mainly on soluble and membrane-associated enzymes, has shown that enzyme activity may be modified when immobilized, including membrane bound enzymes. The effect on activity may be even greater for amphiphilic enzymes with a large hydrophilic domain, such as the Neisserial enzyme lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase (EptA)...
January 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123329/dietary-glycotoxins-and-infant-formulas
#15
REVIEW
Tufan Kutlu
Advanced glycation end products constitute a complex group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids formed endogenously, but also from exogenous supplies such as tobacco smoking (glycotoxins). Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of glycotoxins in animal studies and also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. Composition of infant formulas and their processing methods render an extraordinary favorable milieu for the formation of glycotoxins, and the content of glycotoxins in infant formula exceeds that of breast milk by hundred folds...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122734/hugh-davson-distinguished-lectureship-article-caveolins-and-cavins-in-the-trafficking-maturation-and-degradation-of-caveolae-implications-for-cell-physiology
#16
Anna R Busija, Hemal H Patel, Paul A Insel
Caveolins (Cavs) are ~20 kDa scaffolding proteins that assemble as oligomeric complexes in lipid raft domains to form caveolae, flask-shaped plasma membrane (PM) invaginations. Caveolae ("little caves") require lipid-lipid, protein-lipid, and protein-protein interactions that can modulate the localization, conformational stability, ligand affinity, effector specificity, and other functions of proteins that are partners of Cavs. Cavs are assembled into small oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported to the Golgi for assembly with cholesterol and other oligomers, and then exported to the PM as an intact coat complex...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117819/isolation-and-characterization-of-microvesicles-from-peripheral-blood
#17
Kerstin Menck, Annalen Bleckmann, Matthias Schulz, Lena Ries, Claudia Binder
The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) including small endosomal-derived exosomes (Exos, diameter < 100 nm) and large plasma membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs, diameter > 100 nm) is a fundamental cellular process that occurs in all living cells. These vesicles transport proteins, lipids and nucleic acids specific for their cell of origin and in vitro studies have highlighted their importance as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs have been successfully isolated from various body fluids and especially EVs in blood have been identified as promising biomarkers for cancer or infectious diseases...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117435/movrp1-a-putative-verprolin-protein-is-required-for-asexual-development-and-infection-in-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#18
Lin Huang, Shengpei Zhang, Ziyi Yin, Muxing Liu, Bing Li, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Endocytosis is a crucial cellular process in eukaryotic cells which involves clathrin and/or adaptor proteins, lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. Verprolin proteins, such as Vrp1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are conserved family proteins that regulate actin binding and endocytosis. Here, we identified and characterized MoVrp1 as the yeast Vrp1 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of the MoVRP1 gene resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual development, and infection of the host plant...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117161/exposure-to-silver-nanoparticles-produces-oxidative-stress-and-affects-macromolecular-and-metabolic-biomarkers-in-the-goodeid-fish-chapalichthys-pardalis
#19
Roberto Carlos Valerio-García, Ana Laura Carbajal-Hernández, Erika Berenice Martínez-Ruíz, Víctor Hugo Jarquín-Díaz, Catalina Haro-Pérez, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commercialized nanomaterial worldwide, mainly due to their microbicidal activity. Although, AgNPs have been shown to be toxic to aquatic species, their effect on endemic fish, like Goodeidae, has not been demonstrated. Endemic species are under strong pressures by anthropogenic contamination and destruction of their habitat; therefore, we studied adult Chapalichthys pardalis, an endemic fish of Mexico. We evaluated the toxic effect of AgNPs through oxidative stress, macromolecular and metabolic biomarkers...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116358/dynamic-interactions-between-a-membrane-binding-protein-and-lipids-induce-fluctuating-diffusivity
#20
Eiji Yamamoto, Takuma Akimoto, Antreas C Kalli, Kenji Yasuoka, Mark S P Sansom
Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are membrane-binding lipid recognition proteins that interact with phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) molecules in eukaryotic cell membranes. Diffusion of PH domains plays a critical role in biological reactions on membrane surfaces. Although diffusivity can be estimated by long-time measurements, it lacks information on the short-time diffusive nature. We reveal two diffusive properties of a PH domain bound to the surface of a PIP-containing membrane using molecular dynamics simulations...
January 2017: Science Advances
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