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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735492/isolation-of-biologically-active-exosomes-from-plasma-of-patients-with-cancer
#1
Chang-Sook Hong, Sonja Funk, Theresa L Whiteside
A method for exosome isolation from human plasma was developed for rapid, high-throughput processing of plasma specimens obtained from patients with cancer. This method removes the bulk of plasma proteins associated with exosomes and can be used for comparative examinations of exosomes and their content in serial specimens of patients' plasma, allowing for monitoring changes in exosome numbers, profiles, and functions in the course of cancer progression or during therapy. The plasma-derived exosomes can be recovered in quantities sufficient for the characterization of their morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), size and concentration by qNano, protein/lipid ratios, nucleic acid extraction, molecular profiling by Western blots or immune arrays, and functional assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729700/sphingomimetic-multiple-sclerosis-drug-fty720-activates-vesicular-synaptobrevin-and-augments-neuroendocrine-secretion
#2
Frederic D Darios, Jernej Jorgacevski, Ajda Flašker, Robert Zorec, Virginia García-Martinez, José Villanueva, Luis M Gutiérrez, Charlotte Leese, Manjot Bal, Elena Nosyreva, Ege T Kavalali, Bazbek Davletov
Neurotransmission and secretion of hormones involve a sequence of protein/lipid interactions with lipid turnover impacting on vesicle trafficking and ultimately fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. We previously demonstrated that sphingosine, a sphingolipid metabolite, promotes formation of the SNARE complex required for membrane fusion and also increases the rate of exocytosis in isolated nerve terminals, neuromuscular junctions, neuroendocrine cells and in hippocampal neurons. Recently a fungi-derived sphingosine homologue, FTY720, has been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725673/efficiency-data-of-intracellular-recombinant-protein-delivery-using-cationic-lipid-coated-silk-fibroin-particle
#3
Woo-Jin Kim, Bong-Soo Kim, Young-Dan Cho, Won-Joon Yoon, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Kyung-Mi Woo, Hyun-Mo Ryoo
This article presents data related to the research article "Fibroin particle-supported cationic lipid layers for highly efficient intracellular protein delivery" and focuses on the delivery efficiency aspects of the fibroin particle-cationic lipid complex (Fibroplex), including its fabrication and the intracellular delivery to the mouse skin tissue. We introduced a stable lipid-particle complex called "Fibroplex", formed by loading cargo protein onto a silk fibroin spherical particle core complexed with cationic liposomes to address the intracellular recombinant protein delivery...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718623/a-multimodal-spectroscopic-imaging-method-to-characterize-the-metal-and-macromolecular-content-of-proteinaceous-aggregates-amyloid-plaques
#4
Kelly L Summers, Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Mitchell Kiernan, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, David Paterson, Mark J Tobin, Ryu Takechi, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, John C Mamo, Hugh H Harris, Mark J Hackett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major international health and economic concern. A key pathological feature of AD is so-called "amyloid-β-plaques", or "Aβ-plaques", which are deposits of aggregated protein, enriched with the Aβ fragment of amyloid precursor protein. Despite their name, the deposits are not pure Aβ and have a heterogeneous, chemically complex composition that can include multiple proteins, lipids, and metal ions (Fe, Cu, or Zn). Despite extensive research, it is still uncertain whether Aβ-plaques are a cause or a consequence of AD pathology...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717367/cells-of-human-breast-milk
#5
REVIEW
Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny, Ewa Kaminska-El-Hassan
Human milk is a complex fluid that has developed to satisfy the nutritional requirements of infants. In addition to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components, breast milk contains a diverse microbiome that is presumed to colonize the infant gastrointestinal tract and a heterogeneous population of cells with unclear physiological roles and health implications. Noteworthy cellular components of breast milk include progenitor/stem cells. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of breast milk cells, including leukocytes, epithelial cells, stem cells and potentially probiotic bacteria...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707890/immersion-depths-of-lipid-carbons-in-bicelles-measured-by-paramagnetic-relaxation-enhancement
#6
Jobst Liebau, Lena Mäler
Myriads of biological processes occur in or at cellular lipid membranes. Knowledge about the localization of proteins, lipids, and other molecules within biological membranes is thus crucial for the understanding of such processes. Here, we present a method to determine the immersion depths of lipid carbon atoms in membranes by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) caused by the presence of doxylated lipids. As membrane mimetics, we employ small isotropic bicelles made of synthetic lipids and of natural Escherichia coli phospholipid extract...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706877/protein-lipidation-as-a-regulator-of-apoptotic-calcium-release-relevance-to-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Jessica J Chen, Darren Boehning
Calcium is a critical regulator of cell death pathways. One of the most proximal events leading to cell death is activation of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum-resident calcium channels. A large body of evidence indicates that defects in this pathway contribute to cancer development. Although we have a thorough understanding of how downstream elevations in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium contribute to cell death, it is much less clear how calcium channels are activated upstream of the apoptotic stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704386/nannochloropsis-oceania-derived-defatted-meal-as-an-alternative-to-fishmeal-in-atlantic-salmon-feeds
#8
Mette Sørensen, Yangyang Gong, Fridrik Bjarnason, Ghana K Vasanth, Dalia Dahle, Mark Huntley, Viswanath Kiron
Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698529/naturally-occurring-compounds-new-potential-weapons-against-oxidative-stress-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Lorenzo Signorini, Simona Granata, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Oxidative stress is a well-described imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense system of cells and tissues. The overproduction of free radicals damages all components of the cell (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) and modifies their physiological functions. As widely described, this condition is a biochemical hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may dramatically influence the progression of renal impairment and the onset/development of major systemic comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695207/peripheral-myelin-protein-22-alters-membrane-architecture
#10
Kathleen F Mittendorf, Justin T Marinko, Cheri M Hampton, Zunlong Ke, Arina Hadziselimovic, Jonathan P Schlebach, Cheryl L Law, Jun Li, Elizabeth R Wright, Charles R Sanders, Melanie D Ohi
Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686409/structural-characterization-of-bio-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-by-ultrahigh-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
Simone Nicolardi, Yuri E M van der Burgt, Jeroen D C Codée, Manfred Wuhrer, Cornelis H Hokke, Fabrizio Chiodo
Bio-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enable innovative translational research and development in biomedicine. Biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates can be assembled onto AuNPs to yield nanomaterials with unique properties for applications in imaging, photothermal therapy, vaccination strategies and drug delivery. The characterization of functionalized AuNPs still remains an analytical challenge that normally requires the combination of multiple techniques. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) and matrix-assisted LDI (MALDI) has been applied successfully in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of surface chemistry of AuNPs functionalized with synthetic ligands, however only for ligands with a molecular mass limited to 1000 Da...
July 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677659/effect-of-organic-solvents-on-microalgae-growth-metabolism-and-industrial-bioproduct-extraction-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Krystian Miazek, Lukas Kratky, Radek Sulc, Tomas Jirout, Mario Aguedo, Aurore Richel, Dorothee Goffin
In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are discussed. Possible implementation of various industrial effluents containing organic solvents into microalgal cultivation media, is evaluated...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677217/age-associated-intracellular-superoxide-dismutase-deficiency-potentiates-dermal-fibroblast-dysfunction-during-wound-healing
#13
Toshihiro Fujiwara, Teruyuki Dohi, Zeshaan N Maan, Kristine C Rustad, Sun Hyung Kwon, Jagannath Padmanabhan, Alexander J Whittam, Hirotaka Suga, Dominik Duscher, Melanie Rodrigues, Geoffrey C Gurtner
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair wound healing through destructive oxidation of intracellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD1) regulates ROS levels and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that age-associated wound healing impairments may partially result from decreased SOD1 expression. We investigated the mechanistic basis by which increased oxidative stress links to age-associated impaired wound healing. Fibroblasts were isolated from unwounded skin of young and aged mice, and myofibroblast differentiation was assessed by measuring α-smooth muscle actin and collagen gel contraction...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673066/extracellular-vesicles-as-a-source-of-urological-biomarkers-lessons-learned-from-advances-and-challenges-in-clinical-applications-to-major-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Ji-Young Choi, Sujin Kim, Hyo-Bum Kwak, Dong-Ho Park, Jae-Hyoung Park, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Chang-Shin Park, Ju-Hee Kang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) not only eliminate unwanted molecular components, but also carry molecular cargo essential for specific intercellular communication mechanisms. As the molecular characteristics and biogenetical mechanisms of heterogeneous EVs are different, many studies have attempted to purify and characterize EVs. In particular, exosomal molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, have been suggested as disease biomarkers or therapeutic targets in various diseases. However, several unresolved issues and challenges remain despite these promising results, including source variability before the isolation of exosomes from body fluids, the contamination of proteins during isolation, and methodological issues related to the purification of exosomes...
June 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665349/perna-canaliculus-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Sean Hall, Luis Vitetta
Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity...
June 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665188/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-lysozyme-lipid-systems-probing-the-early-steps-of-protein-aggregation
#16
Valeriya M Trusova, Galyna P Gorbenko
Using the molecular dynamics simulation, the role of lipids in the lysozyme transition into the aggregation-competent conformation has been clarified. Analysis of the changes of lysozyme secondary structure upon its interactions with the model bilayer membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixtures with phosphatidylglycerol (10, 40 and 80 mol%) within the time interval of 100 ns showed that lipid-bound protein is characterized by the increased content of β-structures. Along with this, the formation of protein-lipid complexes was accompanied by the increase of the gyration radius and the decrease in RMSD of polypeptide chain...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662347/nutritional-chemistry-of-the-peanut-arachis-hypogaea
#17
Ondulla T Toomer
Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and have been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet has warranted tremendous attention among consumer groups and within the scientific community. Additionally, current studies have identified the value in the phytonutrient composition of peanuts, such as resveratrol, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, and phytosterols, which may enhance overall health and wellness...
June 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660589/on-electrochemical-methods-for-determination-of-protein-lipid-interaction
#18
Zhiping Hu, Yanli Mao
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are important and reliable molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. Aggregation and fibrillization of Aβ peptides on ganglioside GM1 (GM1)-containing lipid membranes is considered a cause of neurodegenerative disease. Because GM1 is abundant in the central nervous system and plays a key role in the aggregation of Aβ, the interaction of Aβ with supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) containing GM1 is of great significance. We have prepared SPBs containing GM1 in order to study the electrochemical characteristics of GM1/sphingomyelin/cholesterol SPBs and their interaction with Aβ(1-40) by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which proves that electrochemical is a promising method for analyzing the interaction between peptides and lipid membranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659735/pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-induces-autophagy-and-proteasome-proteolytic-pathways-in-skeletal-muscles-effects-of-a-pressurized-whey-protein-based-diet-in-mice
#19
Osama A Kishta, Yeting Guo, Mahroo Mofarrahi, Flavia Stana, Larry C Lands, Sabah N A Hussain
Background: Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. aeurginosa infection and a whey protein-rich diet on skeletal muscle proteolytic pathways. Design: An agar bead model of pulmonary P. aeurginosa infection was established in adult C57/Bl6 mice. Protein ubiquitinaiton, lipidation of LC3B protein and expressions of autophagy-related genes and ubiquitin E3 ligases were quantified using immunoblotting and qPCR...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659494/application-of-ftir-spectroscopy-for-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-possible-tool-for-estimating-injury-interval
#20
Ji Zhang, Ping Huang, Zhenyuan Wang, Hongmei Dong
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a progressive and secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite extensive investigations in the field of forensic science and neurology, no effective methods are available to estimate TAI interval between injury and death. In this study, FTIR spectroscopy with infrared microscopy was applied to collect infrared spectra in the corpus callosum (CC) of rats subjected to TAI at 12, 24 and 72h post-injury versus control animals. The classification among different groups was visualized based on the acquired dataset using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least square (PLS)...
June 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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