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Jakob P Ulmschneider, Martin B Ulmschneider
Ever since the first molecular mechanics computer simulations of biological molecules became possible, there has been the dream to study all complex biological phenomena in silico, simply bypassing the enormous experimental challenges and their associated costs. For this, two inherent requirements need to be met: First, the time scales achievable in simulations must reach up to the millisecond range and even longer. Second, the computational model must accurately reproduce what is measured experimentally. Despite some recent successes, the general consensus in the field to date has been that neither of these conditions have yet been met and that the dream will be realized, if at all, only in the distant future...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Henriette S Frislev, Janni Nielsen, Jesper Nylandsted, Daniel Otzen
Cholesterol (chol) is important in all mammalian cells as a modulator of membrane fluidity. However, its low solubility is a challenge for controlled delivery to membranes. Here we introduce a new tool to deliver chol to membranes, namely, liprotides, i.e., protein-lipid complexes composed of a fatty acid core decorated with partially denatured protein. We focus on liprotides prepared by incubating Ca2+ -depleted α-lactalbumin with oleic acid (OA) for 1 h at 20 °C (lip20) or 80 °C (lip80). The binding and membrane delivery properties of liprotides is compared to the widely chol transporter methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mBCD)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Francesco Boschetto, Nami Toyama, Satoshi Horiguchi, Ryan M Bock, Bryan J McEntire, Tetsuya Adachi, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Osam Mazda, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The metabolic response of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria to bioceramic substrates was probed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Oxide zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and non-oxide silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates were tested. Bacteria exposed to silica glass substrates were used as a control. S. epidermidis, a major cause of periprosthetic infections, was screened to obtain a precise time-lapse knowledge of its molecular composition and to mechanistically understand its interaction with different substrates...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
Shinya Sato, Alissa M Weaver
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles that are released from cells and mediate cell-cell communication. EVs carry protein, lipid, and nucleic acid cargoes that interact with recipient cells to alter their phenotypes. Evidence is accumulating that tumor-derived EVs can play important roles in all steps of cancer progression. Here, we review recent studies reporting critical roles for EVs in four major areas of cancer progression: promotion of cancer invasiveness and motility, enhancement of angiogenesis and vessel permeability, conditioning premetastatic niches, and immune suppression...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Edit I Buzás, Eszter Á Tóth, Barbara W Sódar, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor
Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and large oncosomes have been shown to participate in a wide variety of biological processes and are currently under intense investigation in many different fields of biomedicine. One of the key features of extracellular vesicles is that they have relatively large surface compared to their volume. Some extracellular vesicle surface molecules are shared with those of the plasma membrane of the releasing cell, while other molecules are characteristic for extracellular vesicular surfaces...
April 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Shinichi Hamasaki, Takuro Kobori, Yui Yamazaki, Atsuhiro Kitaura, Atsuko Niwa, Takashi Nishinaka, Masahiro Nishibori, Shuji Mori, Shinichi Nakao, Hideo Takahashi
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which comprise non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid amino groups, play an important role in several diseases and aging processes including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Among AGE-associated phenotypes, toxic AGEs, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-2, and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-3 are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In addition, macrophages are reported to remove extracellular AGEs from tissues via scavenger receptors, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
Sadia Afrin, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Danila Cianciosi, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Piera Pia Manna, Jiaojiao Zhang, Josè L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Despite its high content of phenolic compounds, the chemopreventive activity of Manuka honey (MH) is still elusive. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of MH on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, cellular metabolism and the metastatic ability in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, paying particular attention to the molecular mechanisms involved. We observed a strong induction of oxidative stress after MH treatment since it augmented the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased the damage to proteins, lipids and DNA...
April 12, 2018: Food & Function
Mirthe H Schoots, Sanne J Gordijn, Sicco A Scherjon, Harry van Goor, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
The most important function of the placenta is the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between a mother and her fetus. To establish a healthy functioning placenta, placentation needs to occur with adequate remodelling of spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblasts. When this process is impaired, the resulting suboptimal and inadequate placenta function results in the manifestation of pregnancy complications. Impaired placenta function can cause preeclampsia and leads to fetal growth restriction due to hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Placenta
Kyojung Hwang, Gu-Joong Kwon, Jiwook Yang, Minyoung Kim, Won Joung Hwang, Wonjae Youe, Dae-Young Kim
This study presents composite aerogel beads prepared by mixing dissolved cellulose with Chlamydomonas angulosa and Nostoc commune cells, respectively, at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% ( w / w ). The manufactured composites (termed regenerated cellulose (RC)), with C . angulosa (RCCA-(1, 3, and 5)), and with N . commune (RCNC-(1, 3, and 5)) were analyzed. Both RCCA-5 and RCNC-5 showed the high specific surface area to be about 261.3 and 332.8 m²·g-1 . In the microstructure analysis, network structures were observed in the cross-sections of RC, RCCA-5, and RCNC-5...
April 5, 2018: Materials
Kanika Mehta, Apurva Atak, Aditi Sahu, Sanjeeva Srivastava, Murali Krishna C
Meningiomas represent one of the most frequently reported non-glial, primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Meningiomas often display a spectrum of anomalous locations and morphological attributes, deterring their timely diagnosis. Majority of them are sporadic in nature and thus the present-day screening strategies, including radiological investigations, often result in misdiagnosis due to their aberrant and equivocal radiological facets. Therefore, it is pertinent to explore less invasive and patient-friendly biofluids such as serum for their screening and diagnostics...
April 5, 2018: Analyst
Laurence Glennon-Alty, Angela P Hackett, Elinor A Chapman, Helen L Wright
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or neutrophils, are specialist phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. Their primary role is host defence against micro-organisms, which they kill via phagocytosis, followed by release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proteolytic enzymes within the phagosome. ROS are generated via the action of the NADPH oxidase (also known as NOX2), in a process termed the 'Respiratory Burst'. This process consumes large amounts of oxygen, which is converted into the highly-reactive superoxide radical O2 - and H2 O2 ...
March 29, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Heather R Ferguson Bennit, Amber Gonda, James R W McMullen, Janviere Kabagwira, Nathan R Wall
Cancer-derived exosomes are constitutively produced and secreted into the blood and biofluids of their host patients providing a liquid biopsy for early detection and diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous nature, cancer exosomes influence biological mechanisms that are beneficial to the tumor cells where they are produced and the microenvironment in which these tumors exist. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes transport proteins, lipids, DNA, mRNA, miRNA and long non coding RNA (lncRNA) for the purpose of cell-cell and cell-extracellular communication...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Xiuli Han, Yue Shi, Guoyong Liu, Yan Guo, Yongqing Yang
Plant Rho-like GTPases (ROPs) are switch-like proteins which play essential roles in controlling cell polarity development and cellular activities. ROPs are regulated by many factors, such as auxin, light, and RopGEFs and RopGAPs proteins. However, it has not been reported yet whether small molecules play a role in the regulation of ROP activity. Here, we showed that AtROP6 specially bound to a phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), by the protein-lipid overlay and liposome sedimentation assays, and further MST assay gave a dissociation constant (Kd) of 4...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alberto Claudio Miano, Erick Saldaña, Luciano Henrique Campestrini, Alisson Fernando Chiorato, Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto
This work explained how the intrinsic properties of beans affects the hydration process. For that, different properties of six cultivars of carioca bean (a variety of common bean) were analyzed to verify the correlation with their hydration kinetics characteristics (hydration rate, lag phase time and equilibrium moisture content), using a Multiple Factorial Analysis (MFA): the chemical composition (starch, protein, lipids, minerals (Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), functional groups from the seed coat analyzed by FT-IR), physical properties (size, 1000 grain weight, seed coat thickness, energy to penetrate the bean) and microstructure...
May 2018: Food Research International
Jiangping Ye, Xiuting Hu, Shunjing Luo, David Julian McClements, Lu Liang, Chengmei Liu
The composition and structure of the food matrix can have a major impact on the digestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour, with an emphasis on establishing the underlying physicochemical mechanisms involved. Native long-grain indica rice flour and rice flour with the lipids and/or proteins removed were subjected to a simulated digestion in vitro. A significant increase in starch digestibility was observed after removal of proteins, lipids, or both...
April 2018: Food Research International
Hiren J Joshi, Lars Hansen, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Hudson H Freeze, Bernard Henrissat, Eric Bennett, Hans H Wandall, Henrik Clausen, Katrine T Schjoldager
Glycosylation of proteins, lipids and proteoglycans in human cells involves at least 167 identified glycosyltransferases (GTfs), and these orchestrate the biosynthesis of diverse types of glycoconjugates and glycan structures. Mutations in this part of the genome-the GTf-genome-cause more than 58 rare, monogenic congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs). They are also statistically associated with a large number of complex phenotypes, diseases or predispositions to complex diseases based on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)...
March 22, 2018: Glycobiology
Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Maximiliano Rovegno, Alicia N Minniti, Waldo Cerpa
Oxidative stress affects the survival and function of neurons. Hence, they have a complex and highly regulated machinery to handle oxidative changes. The dysregulation of this antioxidant machinery is associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, we evaluated signaling alterations, synaptic properties and behavioral performance in 2 and 6-month-old heterozygous manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mice (SOD2+/- mice). We found that their low antioxidant capacity generated direct oxidative damage in proteins, lipids, and DNA...
March 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nasser B Alsaleh, Jared M Brown
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are utilized in many applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. The increasing use of ENMs in consumer products raises concerns of potential adverse effects in humans and the environment. A common outcome of exposure (intentional, environmental or occupational) to ENMs is altered immune responses including inflammation, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression. ENMs have been shown to interact with the immune system through key effector cells (i.e. mast cells and antigen presenting cells) or via complement activation leading to consequences to both innate and adaptive immunity...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Daniel Stabler, Eileen F Power, Anne M Borland, Jeremy D Barnes, Geraldine A Wright
Pollen provides floral visitors with essential nutrients including proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. As an important nutrient resource for pollinators, including honeybees and bumblebees, pollen quality is of growing interest in assessing available nutrition to foraging bees. To date, quantifying the protein-bound amino acids in pollen has been difficult and methods rely on large amounts of pollen, typically more than 1 g. More usual is to estimate a crude protein value based on the nitrogen content of pollen, however, such methods provide no information on the distribution of essential and non-essential amino acids constituting the proteins...
February 2018: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
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