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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821431/bacillus-thuringiensis-cyt2aa2-binding-on-lipid-cholesterol-bilayer-depends-on-protein-concentration-and-time
#1
Sudarat Tharad, Alberto Moreno-Cencerrado, Öykü Üzülmez, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, Jose L Toca-Herrera
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium known for its bioinsecticide properties. Besides Cry toxins, B. thuringiensis also produces cytolytic proteins (Cyt) that show toxicity against dipteran insect larvae. Two different models have been proposed in order to explain the interaction mechanism of the cytolytic protein Cyt2Aa2 on lipid membranes: pore-forming and detergent-like action. Here we report on the interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with lipid/cholesterol bilayers at early stage as a function of protein concentration...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821399/timed-knickkopf-function-is-essential-for-wing-cuticle-formation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Kaixia Li, Xubo Zhang, Ying Zuo, Weimin Liu, Jianzhen Zhang, Bernard Moussian
The insect cuticle is an extracellular matrix that consists of the polysaccharide chitin, proteins, lipids and organic molecules that are arranged in distinct horizontal layers. In Drosophila melanogaster, these layers are not formed sequentially, but, at least partially, at the same time. Timing of the underlying molecular mechanisms is conceivably crucial for cuticle formation. To study this issue, we determined the time period during which the function of Knickkopf (Knk), a key factor of chitin organization, is required for wing cuticle differentiation in D...
August 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811143/nadph-oxidases-as-drug-targets-and-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-what-is-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809004/identification-of-lipid-binding-modulators-using-the-protein-lipid-overlay-assay
#4
Tuo-Xian Tang, Wen Xiong, Carla V Finkielstein, Daniel G S Capelluto
The protein-lipid overlay assay is an inexpensive, easy-to-implement, and high-throughput methodology that employs nitrocellulose membranes to immobilize lipids in order to rapid screen and identify protein-lipid interactions. In this chapter, we show how this methodology can identify potential modulators of protein-lipid interactions by screening water-soluble lipid competitors or even the introduction of pH changes during the binding assay to identify pH-dependent lipid binding events.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808097/photoprotection-through-ultrafast-charge-recombination-in-photochemical-reaction-centres-under-oxidizing-conditions
#5
Fei Ma, David J K Swainsbury, Michael R Jones, Rienk van Grondelle
Engineering natural photosynthesis to address predicted shortfalls in food and energy supply requires a detailed understanding of its molecular basis and the intrinsic photoprotective mechanisms that operate under fluctuating environmental conditions. Long-lived triplet or singlet excited electronic states have the potential to cause photodamage, particularly in the presence of oxygen, and so a variety of mechanisms exist to prevent formation of such states or safely dissipate their energy. Here, we report a dramatic difference in spectral evolution in fully reduced and partially oxidized Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centres (RCs) following excitation of the monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) cofactors at 805 nm...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807240/role-of-exosomes-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Richard A Burkhart, Carl Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Xufeng Zhang, Stamatios Theocharis, Timothy M Pawlik
Exosomes are nanovesicles that may play a role in intercellular communication by acting as carriers of functional contents such as proteins, lipids, RNA molecules and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. In addition, exosomes may play a potential role in immunosurveillance and tumor pathogenesis and progression. Recently, research has increasingly focused on the role of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver malignancy. We herein review data on emerging experimental and clinical studies focused on the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, progression and chemotherapy response of patients with HCC...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806650/floating-rice-culture-system-for-nutrient-remediation-and-feed-production-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#7
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Jun Chun, So-Ra Ko, Junhwan Kim, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802007/characterization-of-intrinsic-material-properties-of-a-model-lipoproteic-emulsion-gel-by-oscillatory-and-creep-compliance-rheometry
#8
Kyle S Okada, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801832/simultaneous-measurement-of-total-estradiol-and-testosterone-in-human-serum-by-isotope-dilution-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Hui Zhou, Yuesong Wang, Matthew Gatcombe, Jacob Farris, Julianne C Botelho, Samuel P Caudill, Hubert W Vesper
Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone-related disorders in patient care and translational research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps...
August 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801795/storage-lipid-and-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-umbelopsis-isabellina
#10
Marianna Dourou, Panagiotis Mizerakis, Seraphim Papanikolaou, George Aggelis
Complex biochemical mechanisms are being involved in oleaginous microorganisms during storage lipid and polysaccharide metabolism. Detailed biochemical analyses and monitoring of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were performed in Yarrowia lipolytica and Umbelopsis isabellina, which are often used as model oleaginous microorganisms. It was found that during the early oleaginous phase, the carbon source (glucose) was channeled to lipid accumulation, but also to polysaccharide biosynthesis. However, during transition from the early to the late oleaginous phase, glucose was exclusively converted to lipids, while in U...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801460/multiplexed-silicon-photonic-sensor-arrays-enable-facile-characterization-of-coagulation-protein-binding-to-nanodiscs-with-variable-lipid-content
#11
Ellen M Muehl, Joshua M Gajsiewicz, Sara M Medfisch, Zachary S B Wiersma, James H Morrissey, Ryan C Bailey
Interactions of soluble proteins with the cell membrane are critical within the blood coagulation cascade. Of particular interest are the interactions of γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain-containing clotting proteins with lipids. Variability among conventional analytical methods presents challenges for comparing clotting protein-lipid interactions. Most previous studies have investigated only a single clotting protein and lipid composition and have yielded widely different binding constants. Herein, we demonstrate that a combination of lipid bilayer Nanodiscs and a multiplexed silicon photonic analysis technology enables high-throughput probing of many protein-lipid interactions among blood-clotting proteins...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798222/an-integrated-approach-to-explore-composition-and-dynamics-of-cholesterol-rich-membrane-microdomains-in-sexual-stages-of-malaria-parasite
#12
Federica Fratini, Carla Raggi, Gabriella Sferra, Cecilia Birago, Anna Sansone, Felicia Grasso, Chiara Curr Agrave, Anna Olivieri, Tomasino Pace, Stefania Mochi, Leonardo Picci, Carla Ferreri, Antonella Di Biase, Elisabetta Pizzi, Marta Ponzi
Membrane microdomains that include lipid rafts, are involved in key physiological and pathological processes and participate in the entry of endocellular pathogens. These assemblies, enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, form highly dynamic, liquid-ordered phases that can be separated from the bulk membranes thanks to their resistance to solubilization by non-ionic detergents. To characterize complexity and dynamics of detergent-resistant membranes of sexual stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, here we propose an integrated study of raft components based on proteomics, lipid analysis and bioinformatics...
August 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797838/escrt-dependent-cargo-sorting-at-multivesicular-endosomes
#13
REVIEW
E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is composed of five multi-subunit protein complexes, which act cooperatively at specialized endosomes to facilitate the movement of specific cargoes from the limiting membrane into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Over the past decade, numerous proteins, lipids, and RNAs have been shown to be incorporated into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs), but the mechanisms by which these unique cargoes are captured are only now becoming better understood...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780515/the-concordance-between-component-tests-and-clinical-history-in-british-adults-with-suspected-pollen-food-syndrome-to-peanut-and-hazelnut
#14
Sarah C Beck, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Donna Collins, Alex G Richter, Mamidipudi T Krishna
BACKGROUND: Mild oropharyngeal symptoms to peanut/hazelnut occur in ~30% of patients with pollen-food syndrome (PFS). Component tests are considered a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and may help differentiate PFS from those at a risk of anaphylaxis due to storage protein/lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitisation. AIMS: To assess concordance between component tests and clinical history in suspected PFS to peanut/hazelnut in a specialist clinic. METHODS: Adult patients were classified into PFS (group 1, n=69) and PFS with mild systemic symptoms (group 2, n=45) based on clinical history...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779844/saposin-lipoprotein-scaffolds-for-structure-determination-of-membrane-transporters
#15
Joseph A Lyons, Andreas Bøggild, Poul Nissen, Jens Frauenfeld
Membrane proteins depend on their natural lipid environment for function, which makes them more difficult to study in isolation. A number of approaches that mimic the lipid bilayer of biological membranes have been described (nanodiscs, SMALPs), enabling novel ways to assay activity and elucidate structures of this important class of proteins. More recently, the use of saposin A, a protein that is involved in lipid transport, to form Salipro (saposin-lipid-protein) complexes was demonstrated for a range of membrane protein targets (Frauenfeld et al...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779841/ion-channel-conformation-and-oligomerization-assessment-by-site-directed-spin-labeling-and-pulsed-epr
#16
Christos Pliotas
Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are multimeric integral membrane proteins that respond to increased lipid bilayer tension by opening their nonselective pores to release solutes and relieve increased cytoplasmic pressure. These systems undergo major conformational changes during gating and the elucidation of their mechanism requires a deep understanding of the interplay between lipids and proteins. Lipids are responsible for transmitting lateral tension to MS channels and therefore play a key role in obtaining a molecular-detail model for mechanosensation...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772175/fats-and-function-protein-lipid-modifications-in-plant-cell-signalling
#17
REVIEW
Dionne Turnbull, Piers A Hemsley
The post-translational lipid modifications N-myristoylation, prenylation and S-acylation are traditionally associated with increasing protein membrane affinity and localisation. However this is an over-simplification, with evidence now implicating these modifications in a variety of roles such as membrane microdomain partitioning, protein trafficking, protein complex assembly and polarity maintenance. Evidence for a regulatory role is also emerging, with changes or manipulation of lipid modifications offering a means of directly controlling various aspects of protein function...
July 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#18
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762494/protein-lipid-interaction-by-fluorescence-plif-to-characterize-and-screen-for-inhibitors-of-protein-phosphoinositide-interactions
#19
Laurie Ceccato, Mélanie Mansat, Bernard Payrastre, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Julien Viaud
Phosphoinositides are key signaling and regulatory phospholipids that mediate important pathophysiological processes. This is achieved through the interaction of their phosphorylated inositol head group with a wide range of protein domains. Therefore, being able to determine the phosphoinositide specificity for effector protein is essential to the understanding of its cellular function. This unit describes a novel method named Protein-Lipid Interaction by Fluorescence, or PLIF. PLIF is a fast, reliable and high throughput assay that allows determination of the phosphoinositide specificity of proteins, simultaneously providing relative affinities...
August 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759304/systemic-inflammation-after-third-molar-removal-a-case-control-study
#20
F Graziani, F D'Aiuto, S Gennai, M Petrini, M Nisi, N Cirigliano, L Landini, R M Bruno, S Taddei, L Ghiadoni
Third molar extraction is one of the most frequent interventions in dentistry. Nevertheless, there is scarce evidence on the host response of individuals with impacted or semi-impacted third molars and the possible effects of surgical removal. A case-control study of 40 patients was designed to evaluate 1) the differences in biomarkers of systemic inflammation, vascular function, and metabolism (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, lipids, fibrinogen, oxidative stress, and endothelial function analysis) and 2) the acute and short-term effects of surgical removal in patients with bilateral impacted or semi-impacted third molars compared to controls with no third molars...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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