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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638081/development-of-lysosome-mimicking-vesicles-to-study-the-effect-of-abnormal-accumulation-of-sphingosine-on-membrane-properties
#1
Ana C Carreira, Rodrigo F M de Almeida, Liana C Silva
Synthetic systems are widely used to unveil the molecular mechanisms of complex cellular events. Artificial membranes are key examples of models employed to address lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions. In this work, we developed a new synthetic system that more closely resembles the lysosome - the lysosome-mimicking vesicles (LMVs) - displaying stable acid-to-neutral pH gradient across the membrane. To evaluate the advantages of this synthetic system, we assessed the distinct effects of sphingosine (Sph) accumulation in membrane structure and biophysical properties of standard liposomes (no pH gradient) and in LMVs with lipid composition tuned to mimic physiological- or NPC1-like lysosomes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#2
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629723/microbial-antioxidant-defense-enzymes
#3
REVIEW
Cindy Staerck, Amandine Gastebois, Patrick Vandeputte, Alphonse Calenda, Gérald Larcher, Louiza Gillmann, Nicolas Papon, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Free radicals are often described as chemical compounds characterized by unpaired electrons in their outer orbital rendering them highly reactive species. In mammalians, studies on free radicals were focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) due to their relative importance in physiological as well as in pathological processes. These cellular compounds are produced by different physiological systems such as the aerobic metabolism and play a major role in cell signaling pathways but also in the host immune defenses against pathogenic microorganisms...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624493/expression-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-human-apolipoprotein-a-i-using-a-chimeric-apolipoprotein
#4
Daniel E Sallee, James V C Horn, Lukas A Fuentes, Paul M M Weers
Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein, an anti-atherogenic lipid-protein complex responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. The protein is composed of an N-terminal helix bundle domain, and a small C-terminal (CT) domain. To facilitate study of CT-apoA-I, a novel strategy was employed to produce this small domain in a bacterial expression system. A protein construct was designed of insect apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) and residues 179-243 of apoA-I, with a unique a methionine residue positioned between the two proteins and an N-terminal His-tag to facilitate purification...
June 14, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619676/peroxynitrite-modified-histone-as-a-pathophysiological-biomarker-in-autoimmune-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Md Asad Khan, Khursheed Alam, Md Zafaryab, M Moshahid A Rizvi
Under physiological conditions, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are produced continuously. However, excess of these radicals may damage biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. These reactive species have been implicated in many disease conditions including acute/chronic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neurodegenerative diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peroxynitrite, an oxidant and nitrating molecule, formed in in vivo, when nitric oxide reacts with superoxide radical...
June 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613917/microwave-processing-effects-and-impacts-on-food-components
#6
Hao Jiang, Zhigang Liu, Shaojin Wang
As an efficient heating method, microwave processing has attracted attentions both in academic research and industry. However, the mechanism of dielectric heating is quite distinct from that of the traditional conduction heating, and is widely applied as polar-molecules and charged ions interaction with the alternative electromagnetic fields, resulting in fast and volumetric heating through their frication losses. Such a heating pattern would cause a certain change in microwave treatment, which is unarguable reality...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605725/a-general-reaction-network-and-kinetic-model-of-the-hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-microalgae-tetraselmis-sp
#7
The Ky Vo, Seung-Soo Kim, Hoang Vu Ly, Eun Yeol Lee, Choul-Gyun Lee, Jinsoo Kim
In this work, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgal Tetraselmis sp. was conducted at various reaction temperatures (250-350°C) and reaction times (10-60min). A general reaction network and a quantitative kinetic model were proposed for the HTL of microalgae. In this reaction network, the primary decomposition of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates generated heavy oil (HO), light oil (LO), and aqueous-phase (AP) products. Then, reversible interconversions and further decomposition of these product fractions to produce gas product were followed...
June 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601647/metalloproteomic-and-differential-expression-in-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#8
Camila Pereira Braga, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Aline de Lima Leite, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, which in the chronic stage is associated with abnormalities in lipids, protein and, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. New strategies for prevention and treatment are needed, as type 1 diabetes affects life quality and survival, and involves high-cost treatment. Proteomic and metalloproteomic studies can elucidate the functional and physiological aspects of biomolecules. In the present study, differential proteomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of diabetes in rat plasma associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and magnesium fractionation in control and diabetic rats, as well as diabetic rats treated with insulin...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595554/sulphur-containing-amino-acids-protective-role-against-free-radicals-and-heavy-metals
#9
Mirjana B Čolović, Vesna M Vasić, Dragan M Djuric, Danijela Z Krstić
Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Among them, methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in proteins structure...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591660/the-effect-of-advanced-secondary-municipal-wastewater-treatment-on-the-molecular-composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#10
Andrew C Maizel, Christina K Remucal
There is a growing interest in water reuse and in recovery of nutrients from wastewater. Because many advanced treatment processes are designed to remove organic matter, a better understanding of the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater is needed. To that end, we assessed DOM in the Nine Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant in Madison, Wisconsin by UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from the influent and effluent of two different secondary treatment processes and their respective secondary clarifiers, the UV disinfection unit, and an Ostara treatment system, which produces struvite via chemical precipitation...
May 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585042/characterizing-the-interactions-of-two-lipid-modifications-with-lipid-rafts-farnesyl-anchors-vs-palmitoyl-anchors
#11
Tao Zhang, Qichao Luo, Linlin Yang, Hualiang Jiang, Huaiyu Yang
Farnesyl (Far) and palmitoyl (Pal) anchors play important roles in the traffic of many lipidated proteins. Herein, we show the distinctive interactions and influences of the two lipid modifications on lipid rafts (LRs) and non-raft-like membranes using molecular dynamics simulations. Palmitoyl anchors behave in a more ordered fashion, pack tighter with the lipids of LRs and diffuse at a slower rate than farnesyl anchors in LRs. When interacting with non-raft-like membranes these two types of anchors become less ordered, pack more loosely with lipids, and diffuse at a higher rate...
June 5, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579420/dynamic-processes-in-biological-membrane-mimics-revealed-by-quasielastic-neutron-scattering
#12
REVIEW
Lisa Lautner, Kristyna Pluhackova, Nicolai K H Barth, Tilo Seydel, Wiebke Lohstroh, Rainer A Böckmann, Tobias Unruh
Neutron scattering is a powerful tool to study relaxation processes in biological membrane mimics in space and time. Combining different inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering techniques, a large dynamic range can be covered: from atomic to mesoscopic lengths and from femto- to some hundreds of nanoseconds in time. This allows studies on e.g. the diffusion of lipids, the membrane undulation motions, the dispersion of sound waves in membranes as well as the mutual interactions of membrane constituents such as lipids, proteins, and additives...
June 1, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571867/arsenic-speciation-in-fish-from-greek-coastal-areas
#13
Ioanna Kalantzi, Kyriaki Mylona, Katerina Sofoulaki, Manolis Tsapakis, Spiros A Pergantis
Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted on fish samples (sardine and anchovy) collected from six areas along the Greek coastline, i.e. Artemisium Straits, Thermaikos Gulf, Amvrakikos Gulf, Strymonian Gulf, Thracian Sea, and Elefsina Gulf. Total arsenic levels ranging from 11.8 to 62.6mg As/kg dry weight were determined. Arsenobetaine, a non-toxic form of arsenic, was found to be the main arsenic species, present at 8.6 to 58.8mg As/kg dry weight, accounting for 67-95% of the total arsenic. Also detected in all fish samples was dimethylarsinic acid, although at considerably lower concentrations, ranging from 0...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569055/solution-nmr-provides-new-insight-into-lipid-protein-interaction
#14
Iga Kucharska, Lukas K Tamm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556249/characterization-of-sodium-mobility-and-binding-by-23-na-nmr-spectroscopy-in-a-model-lipoproteic-emulsion-gel-for-sodium-reduction
#15
Kyle S Okada, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of formulation and processing parameters on sodium availability in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied for purposes of sodium reduction. Heat-set model gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Single quantum and double quantum-filtered (23) Na NMR spectroscopy experiments were used to characterize sodium mobility, structural order around "bound" (restricted mobility) sodium, and sodium binding, which have been correlated to saltiness perception in food systems previously...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554802/influence-of-chemical-composition-on-biochemical-methane-potential-of-fruit-and-vegetable-waste
#16
Thiago Edwiges, Laercio Frare, Bruna Mayer, Leonardo Lins, Jin Mi Triolo, Xavier Flotats, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça Costa
This study investigates the influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of twelve different batches of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) with different compositions collected over one year. BMP ranged from 288 to 516LNCH4kgVS(-1), with significant statistical differences between means, which was explained by variations in the chemical composition over time. BMP was most strongly correlated to lipid content and high calorific values. Multiple linear regression was performed to develop statistical models to more rapidly predict methane potential...
May 26, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552424/physicochemical-and-colloidal-aspects-of-food-matrix-effects-on-gastrointestinal-fate-of-ingested-inorganic-nanoparticles
#17
REVIEW
David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao, Philip Demokritou
Inorganic nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, iron oxide, zinc oxide, or silver nanoparticles, are added to some food products and food packaging materials to obtain specific functional attributes, such as lightening, powder flow, nutrition, or antimicrobial properties. These engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) all have dimensions below 100nm, but may still vary considerably in composition, morphology, charge, surface properties and aggregation state, which effects their gastrointestinal fate and potential toxicity...
May 9, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552385/regional-distribution-of-phospholipids-in-porcine-vitreous-humor
#18
Abigail Schnepf, Marta Cecilia Yappert, Douglas Borchman
This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545365/role-of-infrared-spectroscopy-and-imaging-in-cancer-diagnosis
#19
Saroj Kumar, Alagiri Srinivasan, Fredrik Nikolajeff
FTIR imaging has been used to diagnose and differentiate the molecular differences between normal and diseased tissues. The differences correspond to the distribution and structure of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids as well as other metabolites. These differences depended on the type and the grade of cancer. The sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs on individual specific was also discussed. Here, we emphasize that FTIR spectroscopy and imaging can be considered as a promising technique and will find its place on the detection of this dreadful disease because of high sensitivity, accuracy and inexpensive technique...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#20
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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