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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804598/a-rigorous-method-to-enrich-for-exosomes-from-brain-tissue
#1
Laura J Vella, Benjamin J Scicluna, Lesley Cheng, Emma G Bawden, Colin L Masters, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas Willamson, Catriona McLean, Kevin J Barnham, Andrew F Hill
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are released by all cells, including those of the nervous system. Capable of delivering lipid, protein and nucleic acids to both nearby and distal cells, exosomes have been hypothesized to play a role in progression of many diseases of the nervous system. To date, most analyses on the role of these vesicles in the healthy and diseased state have relied on studying vesicles from in vitro sources, such as conditioned cell culture media, or body fluids. Here we have taken a critical approach to the enrichment and characterization of exosomes from human frontal cortex...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803104/exploration-of-a-mechanism-for-the-production-of-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-scenedesmus-sp-at-low-temperature-grown-on-oil-crop-residue-based-medium
#2
Qian Lu, Jun Li, Jinghan Wang, Kun Li, Jingjing Li, Pei Han, Paul Chen, Wenguang Zhou
The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells...
August 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802999/primordial-membranes-more-than-simple-container-boundaries
#3
REVIEW
Martin M Hanczyc, Pierre-Alain Monnard
Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions of modern lipids...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802007/characterization-of-intrinsic-material-properties-of-a-model-lipoproteic-emulsion-gel-by-oscillatory-and-creep-compliance-rheometry
#4
Kyle S Okada, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782177/lipid-specificity-of-the-membrane-binding-domain-of-coagulation-factor-x
#5
Melanie P Muller, Yan Wang, James H Morrissey, Emad Tajkhorshid
BACKGROUND: Factor X (FX) binds to cell membranes in a highly phospholipid-dependent manner and, in complex with tissue factor and factor VIIa (FVIIa), initiates the clotting cascade. Experimental information concerning the membrane-bound structure of FX with atomic resolution has remained elusive due to the fluid nature of cellular membranes. FX is known to bind preferentially to phosphatidylserine (PS). OBJECTIVES: To develop the first membrane-bound model of FX-GLA domain to PS at atomic level, and to identify PS-specific binding sites of FX-GLA domain...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779844/saposin-lipoprotein-scaffolds-for-structure-determination-of-membrane-transporters
#6
Joseph A Lyons, Andreas Bøggild, Poul Nissen, Jens Frauenfeld
Membrane proteins depend on their natural lipid environment for function, which makes them more difficult to study in isolation. A number of approaches that mimic the lipid bilayer of biological membranes have been described (nanodiscs, SMALPs), enabling novel ways to assay activity and elucidate structures of this important class of proteins. More recently, the use of saposin A, a protein that is involved in lipid transport, to form Salipro (saposin-lipid-protein) complexes was demonstrated for a range of membrane protein targets (Frauenfeld et al...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774891/sterol-transporters-at-membrane-contact-sites-regulate-torc1-and-torc2-signaling
#7
Andrew Murley, Justin Yamada, Bradley J Niles, Alexandre Toulmay, William A Prinz, Ted Powers, Jodi Nunnari
Membrane contact sites (MCSs) function to facilitate the formation of membrane domains composed of specialized lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. In cells, membrane domains regulate membrane dynamics and biochemical and signaling pathways. We and others identified a highly conserved family of sterol transport proteins (Ltc/Lam) localized at diverse MCSs. In this study, we describe data indicating that the yeast family members Ltc1 and Ltc3/4 function at the vacuole and plasma membrane, respectively, to create membrane domains that partition upstream regulators of the TORC1 and TORC2 signaling pathways to coordinate cellular stress responses with sterol homeostasis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762311/therapeutic-potential-of-co-enzyme-q10-in-retinal-diseases
#8
Xun Zhang, Ali Mohammad Tohari, Fabio Marcheggiani, Xinzhi Zhou, James Reilly, Luca Tiano, Xinhua Shu
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a critical role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by serving as an electron carrier in the respiratory electron transport chain. CoQ10 also functions as a lipid-soluble antioxidant by protecting lipids, proteins and DNA damaged by oxidative stress. CoQ10 deficiency has been associated with a number of human diseases including mitochondrial diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and with the ageing process. In many of these conditions CoQ10 supplementation therapy has been effective in slowing or reversing pathological changes...
August 1, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756367/the-participation-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchial-asthma
#9
REVIEW
Paulina Kleniewska, Rafał Pawliczak
Reactive oxygen species are produced during oxygen reduction and are characterized by high reactivity. They participate in many important physiological processes, but if produced in high concentrations they lead to oxidative stress development and disturb pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance towards the oxidation reaction - leading to damage of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates or nucleic acids. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways of various pathogenesis and clinical symptoms, prevalence in recent years has increased significantly...
July 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754825/fluorescent-imaging-of-protein-myristoylation-during-cellular-differentiation-and-development
#10
Andrew J Witten, Karin F K Ejendal, Lindsey M Gengelbach, Meghan A Traore, Xu Wang, David M Umulis, Sarah Calve, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) serve to give proteins new cellular functions and can influence spatial localization and enzymatic activity; greatly enriching the complexity of the proteome. Lipidation is a PTM that regulates protein stability, function and subcellular localization. To complement advances in proteomic identification of lipidated proteins, we have developed methods to image the spatial distribution of proteins that have been co- and post-translationally modified via the addition of myristic acid to the N-terminus...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751090/the-effectiveness-of-styrene-maleic-acid-sma-copolymers-for-solubilisation-of-integral-membrane-proteins-from-sma-accessible-and-sma-resistant-membranes
#11
David J K Swainsbury, Stefan Scheidelaar, Nicholas Foster, Rienk van Grondelle, J Antoinette Killian, Michael R Jones
Solubilisation of biological lipid bilayer membranes for analysis of their protein complement has traditionally been carried out using detergents, but there is increasing interest in the use of amphiphilic copolymers such as styrene maleic acid (SMA) for the solubilisation, purification and characterisation of integral membrane proteins in the form of protein/lipid nanodiscs. Here we survey the effectiveness of various commercially-available formulations of the SMA copolymer in solubilising Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centres (RCs) from photosynthetic membranes...
July 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741693/antioxidants-protect-proteins-anchorage-to-the-bilayer-by-improving-plasma-membrane-integrity-of-ram-spermatozoa-during-liquid-preservation-in-a-soya-lecithin-based-diluent
#12
R K Paul, D Kumar, Smk Naqvi
Antioxidants are known to prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidative damage to the membrane lipids during hypothermic storage of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized here that ROS also affect the lipid-protein interactions, thereby diminishing the membrane's integrity and proteins' anchorage to the bilayer. Antioxidants prevent these damages by scavenging the ROS. Ejaculates from Patanwadi rams were pooled after subjective evaluation and centrifuged using Percoll(®) . Sperm pellet was resuspended in soya lecithin-Tris-fructose diluent (400 × 10(6)  cells/ml) containing either antioxidants (100 IU/ml catalase + 10 mM reduced glutathione) or no antioxidant...
July 25, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739288/recent-advances-on-extracellular-vesicles-in-therapeutic-delivery-challenges-solutions-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Mei Lu, Haonan Xing, Zhen Yang, Yanping Sun, Tianzhi Yang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Cuifang Cai, Dongkai Wang, Pingtian Ding
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intrinsic mediators of intercellular communication in our body, allowing functional transfer of biomolecules (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid) between diverse locations. Such an instrumental role evokes a surge of interest within the drug delivery community in tailoring EVs for therapeutic delivery. These vesicles represent a novel generation of drug delivery systems, providing high delivery efficiency, intrinsic targeting properties, and low immunogenicity. In the recent years, considerable research efforts have been directed toward developing safe and efficient EV-based delivery vehicles...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738989/membrane-curvature-and-lipid-composition-synergize-to-regulate-n-ras-anchor-recruitment
#14
Jannik B Larsen, Celeste Kennard, Søren L Pedersen, Knud J Jensen, Mark J Uline, Nikos S Hatzakis, Dimitrios Stamou
Proteins anchored to membranes through covalently linked fatty acids and/or isoprenoid groups play crucial roles in all forms of life. Sorting and trafficking of lipidated proteins has traditionally been discussed in the context of partitioning to membrane domains of different lipid composition. We recently showed that membrane shape/curvature can in itself mediate the recruitment of lipidated proteins. However, exactly how membrane curvature and composition synergize remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated how three critical structural parameters of lipids, namely acyl chain saturation, headgroup size, and acyl chain length, modulate the capacity of membrane curvature to recruit lipidated proteins...
July 21, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738588/maldi-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-imaging-mass-spectrometry-ims-of-skin-aspects-of-sample-preparation
#15
Cristiana Santos de Macedo, David M Anderson, Kevin L Schey
MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) allows molecular analysis of biological materials making possible the identification and localization of molecules in tissues, and has been applied to address many questions on skin pathophysiology, as well as on studies about drug absorption and metabolism. Sample preparation for MALDI IMS is the most important part of the workflow, comprising specimen collection and preservation, tissue embedding, cryosectioning, washing, and matrix application...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736338/the-tfos-international-dry-eye-workshop-ii-report-of-the-tear-film-subcommittee
#16
REVIEW
Mark D P Willcox, Pablo Argüeso, Georgi Georgiev, Juha Holopainen, Gordon Laurie, Tom Millar, Eric Papas, Jannick Rolland, Tannin Schmidt, Ulrike Stahl, Tatiana Suarez, Lakshman Subbaraman, Omür Uçakhan, Lyndon Jones
The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research...
March 30, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735403/determining-glutathione-levels-in-plants
#17
Smita Sahoo, Jay Prakash Awasthi, Ramanjulu Sunkar, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Upon exposure to abiotic stresses, plants tend to accumulate excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that inturn react with cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, decreasing ROS accumulation is indispensible to survive under stress, which is accomplished by inducing enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense pathways. Glutathione, particularly reduced glutathione (GSH), represents a principal anitioxidant that could decrease ROS through scavenging them directly or indirectly through ascorbate-glutathione cycle or GSH peroxidases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719149/cadmium-induced-toxicity-is-rescued-by-curcumin-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohajeri, Mehdi Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common environmental and occupational heavy metals with extended distribution. Exposure to Cd may be associated with several deleterious consequences on the liver, bones, kidneys, lungs, testes, brain, immunological, and cardiovascular systems. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the main mechanism behind its toxicity causes oxidative stress and subsequent damages to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, antioxidants along with chelating agents have shown promising outcomes against Cd-induced toxicity...
July 18, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710641/a-ligand-binding-assay-to-measure-the-affinity-and-specificity-of-sterol-binding-proteins-in-vitro
#19
Rabih Darwiche, Roger Schneiter
Sterols are major constituents of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells and serve as a precursor for several classes of signaling molecules, including steroids and hydroxy sterols. They maintain the functionality and permeability barrier of the plasma membrane through lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions. The S. cerevisiae pathogen-related yeast proteins 1, 2, and 3 (Pry) belong to a large protein superfamily known as CAP/SCP/TAPS. Members of this superfamily have been implicated in a wide variety of processes, including immune defense in mammals and plants, pathogen virulence, sperm maturation and fertilization, venom toxicity, and prostate and brain cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#20
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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