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Agnesa Shala-Lawrence, Melanie Jane Blanden, Svetlana M Krylova, Soumyashree A Gangopadhyay, Stanislav S Beloborodov, James L Hougland, Sergey N Krylov
Here we introduce Protein-Lipidation Quantitation (PLQ) - the first method for quantitative analysis of both a substrate and a product of protein lipidation in a biologically relevant context. Such analysis is required to study roles of protein lipidation in cellular regulation. In PLQ, the substrate is fused with a fluorescent protein to facilitate quantitative detection of both the non-lipidated substrate and the lipidated product. When expressed in cells with endogenous lipidation activity, the substrate is intracellularly lipidated...
November 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Celia C Homyak, Ann Fernandez, Mollie A Touve, Bo Zhao, Francesca Anson, Jeanne A Hardy, Richard W Vachet, Nathan C Gianneschi, Jennifer L Ross, S Thayumanavan
Lipid-polymer hybrid materials have the potential to exhibit enhanced stability and loading capabilities in comparison to parent liposome or polymer materials. However, complexities lie in formulating and characterizing such complex nanomaterials. Here we describe a lipid-coated polymer gel (lipogel) formulated using a one-pot methodology, where self-assembling liposomes template a UV-curable polymer gel core. Using fluorescently-labeled lipids, protein, and hydrophobic molecules, we have characterized their formation, purification, stability, and encapsulation efficiency via common instrumentation methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and single particle total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Ashok Agarwal, Albert Danh Bui
Male infertility affects men worldwide. Oxidative stress (OS), characterized by an overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or a deficiency of antioxidants, is one of the major causes of male infertility. OS causes damage at the molecular level, which impairs lipids, proteins, and DNA. The cyclic cascade of redox reactions weakens sperm function which leads to poor semen parameters and eventual sterility. There is a need for advanced diagnostic tests that can quickly and accurately detect OS. Most commonly used assays can only measure single constituents of OS...
November 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
Pradip B Devhare, Ratna B Ray
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane derived nanometer-sized vesicles. EVs are released by normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. Transferring biological information via EVs to neighboring cells and inter-cellular communication not only maintain physiological functions, but also involve in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging role of EVs in viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic or alcoholic liver disease and liver cancers...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Karl St-Arnaud, Kelly Aubertin, Mathias Strupler, Wendy-Julie Madore, Andrée-Anne Grosset, Kevin Petrecca, Dominique Trudel, Frédéric Leblond
PURPOSE: Raman spectroscopy is a promising cancer detection technique for surgical guidance applications. It can provide quantitative information relating to global tissue properties associated with structural, metabolic, immunological and genetic biochemical phenomena in terms of molecular species including amino acids, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid (DNA). To date in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems mostly included probes and biopsy needles typically limited to single-point tissue interrogation over a scale between 100 and 500 microns...
November 6, 2017: Medical Physics
Chen Chen Lu, Kun Ling Ma, Xiong Zhong Ruan, Bi Cheng Liu
Microparticles (MPs) are a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from the outward budding of plasma membranes during cell apoptosis and/or activation. These microsized particles then release specific contents (e.g., lipids, proteins, microRNAs) which are active participants in a wide range of both physiological and pathological processes at the molecular level, e.g., coagulation and angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses. Research limitations, such as confusing nomenclature and overlapping classification, have impeded our comprehension of these tiny molecules...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
S Sahmani, M M Aghdam
As a supramolecular construction, lipid protein micro/nano-tubules can be utilized in a variety of sustained biological delivery system. The high slenderness ratio of lipid tubules makes their hierarchical assembly into a desired architecture difficult. Therefore, an accurate prediction of mechanical behavior of lipid tubular is essential. The objective of this study is to capture size dependency in the postbuckling and vibrational response of the postbuckled lipid micro/nano-tubules more comprehensively. To this purpose, the nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory is incorporated to the third-order shear deformation beam theory to develop an unconventional beam model...
November 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Hyun-Ro Lee, KyuHan Kim, Sung Cik Mun, Yong Keun Chang, Siyoung Q Choi
Despite the enormous potential of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as a reinforcing filler in various fields, the use of them has been limited by high-energy mechanical treatments that require a lot of energy and time consumption. To reduce the demands of energy and time required for mechanical treatments, microalgae, in particular, Nannochloropsis oceanica, which has small size, rapid growth rate, and high productivity was used as a CNFs source. This study obtains the CNFs by lipid/protein extraction, purification, and TEMPO-mediated oxidation processes under gentle mixing without high-energy mechanical treatments...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
V N Nesterov, I S Nesterkina, O A Rozentsvet, N V Ozolina, R K Salyaev
To study the characteristics of the structure and the functional role of chloroplast membranes of halophytes with different salt tolerance strategy, raft structures were isolated. Lipid analysis data provided evidence for the presence of rafts in the chloroplast membranes. The discovered significant differences in the content of raft-forming lipids in different halophytes suggest a relationship between the functions of rafts and the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants.
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Chang-Gui Pan, Feng-Jiao Peng, Wen-Jun Shi, Li-Xin Hu, Xiao-Dong Wei, Guang-Guo Ying
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent widely used in personal care products (PCPs). We investigated the effects of TCS (20μg/L, 100μg/L and 500μg/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by measuring the algal growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, and transcription of the antioxidant-related genes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX) and thioredoxin (TRX)) as well as biochemical alterations...
October 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ritiéle Pinto Coelho, Denise Lima Feksa, Patrícia Martinez Oliveira, Angélica Aparecida da Costa Güllich, Bruna Cocco Pilar, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar Piccoli, Vanusa Manfredini
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major public health problem, as they are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Tripodanthus acutifolius (TA) is a hemiparasite plant used for medicinal purposes with great antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about its hypolipemic effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tripodanthus acutifolius leaves in hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. The animals were divided into: (1) NC (Normocaloric Control); (2) HC (Hypercaloric Control); (3) Oral Simvastatin Suspension 10mg/kg (SIM); (4) TA extract 50mg/kg (TA 50mg/kg) and (5) TA 100mg/kg...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiaofang Tang, John M Snowball, Yan Xu, Cheng-Lun Na, Timothy E Weaver, Geremy Clair, Jennifer E Kyle, Erika M Zink, Charles Ansong, Wei Wei, Meina Huang, Xinhua Lin, Jeffrey A Whitsett
Adaptation to respiration at birth depends upon the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli and prevents lung collapse during the ventilatory cycle. Herein, we demonstrated that the gene encoding a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex, EMC3, also known as TMEM111 (Emc3/Tmem111), was required for murine pulmonary surfactant synthesis and lung function at birth. Conditional deletion of Emc3 in murine embryonic lung epithelial cells disrupted the synthesis and packaging of surfactant lipids and proteins, impaired the formation of lamellar bodies, and induced the unfolded protein response in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mya M Hlaing, Bayden R Wood, Don McNaughton, Julian I Rood, Edward M Fox, Mary Ann Augustin
The ability of bacteria to tolerate acid stress plays an important role in their growth and survival. In particular, aciduric bacteria have several survival systems that prevent cell damage from acid stress. In this study, the effect of the bacterial stress induced by pre-adaptation at different pH values on the cellular macromolecules of Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The expression of key genes was also quantified to provide understanding of the transcriptional response of the cells to lethal acid stress conditions...
October 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tonya D Andreeva, Svetla D Petrova, Kirilka Mladenova, Veselina Moskova-Doumanova, Tanya Topouzova-Hristova, Yulia Petseva, Nikola Mladenov, Konstantin Balashev, Zdravko Lalchev, Jordan A Doumanov
Bestrophinopathies are ocular diseases caused by mutations in the human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) - transmembrane Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel protein, mainly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. hBest1 is also an important transporter for neurotransmitters such as glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nervous system. Recently, a new biological role of hBest1, related to its possible involvement in the pathology of brain diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease) has been proposed...
October 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nina E Ottosson, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Xiongyu Wu, Samira Yazdi, Peter Konradsson, Erik Lindahl, Fredrik Elinder
Many pharmaceutical drugs against neurological and cardiovascular disorders exert their therapeutic effects by binding to specific sites on voltage-gated ion channels of neurons or cardiomyocytes. To date, all molecules targeting known ion channel sites bind to protein pockets that are mainly surrounded by water. We describe a lipid-protein drug-binding pocket of a potassium channel. We synthesized and electrophysiologically tested 125 derivatives, analogs, and related compounds to dehydroabietic acid. Functional data in combination with docking and molecular dynamics simulations mapped a binding site for small-molecule compounds at the interface between the lipid bilayer and the transmembrane segments S3 and S4 of the voltage-sensor domain...
October 2017: Science Advances
Xueqin Zhang, Gangliang Huang
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), as human endogenous lipoprotein particles, have low toxicity, high selectivity, and good safety. They can avoid the recognition and clearance of human reticuloendothelial system. These synthetic lipoproteins (sLPs) have been attracted extensive attention as the nanovectors for tumor-targeted drug and gene delivery. Herein, recent advances in the field of anticancer based on these two lipid proteins and recombinant lipoproteins (rLPs) as target delivery vectors were analyzed and discussed...
December 2017: Drug Delivery
Qiansen Zhang, Huaiyu Yang
Lipids and membrane proteins are the main components of cell membranes. Lipid-protein interactions are dynamic because these interactions typically occur on shallow protein surface clefts. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a tool for studying the dynamics of these interactions. Here, we describe the interactions of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) with both the open and closed states of a KCNQ2 channel. Through these methods, we show that a lipid can migrate between different binding sites in a protein and this migration modulates protein functions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rafael Soares Lindoso, Federica Collino, Adalberto Vieyra
The tumor microenvironment comprises a heterogeneous population of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are components of this microenvironment and have been described as key regulators of different aspects of tumor physiology. They act differently on the tumor: CSCs are described as tumor initiators and are associated with tumor growth, drug resistance and metastasis; MSCs can integrate the tumor microenvironment after recruitment and interact with cancer cells to promote tumor modifications...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
Praveen Kumar Balne, Veonice Bijin Au, Louis Tong, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Mukesh Agrawal, John Connolly, Rupesh Agrawal
Tear film is a complex mixture of lipids, proteins and minerals which covers the external surface of the eye, thereby providing lubrication, nutrition and protection to the underlying cells. Analysis of tears is an emerging area for the identification of biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of various ocular diseases. Tears are easily accessible and their collection is non-invasive. Therefore, advancing technologies are gaining prominence for identification of multiple analytes in tears to study changes in protein or metabolite composition and its association with pathological conditions...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
For endocytosis and exocytosis, membranes transition among planar, budding, and vesicular topographies through nanoscale reorganization of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. However, prior attempts to understand the initial stages of nanoscale bending have been limited by experimental resolution. Through the implementation of polarized localization microscopy, this article reports the inherent membrane bending capability of cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) in quasi-one-component-supported lipid bilayers. Membrane buds were first detected with <50 nm radius, grew to >200 nm radius, and extended into longer tubules with dependence on the membrane tension and CTxB concentration...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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