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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#1
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324840/biosorption-of-diethyl-phthalate-ester-by-living-and-nonliving-burkholderia-cepacia-and-the-role-of-its-cell-surface-components
#2
Si Luo, Langlang Li, Anwei Chen, Qingru Zeng, Hao Xia, Ji-Dong Gu
In this study, the dibutyl phthalate (DBP) binding properties of a DBP-tolerant bacterium (B. cepacia) were characterized in terms of adsorption kinetics and isotherm. Living and nonliving cells both exhibited rapid removal of DBP, achieving more than 80% of maximum sorption within 30 min of contact and reached the equilibrium after 3 h. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Sips model and the nonliving cells have greater biosorption capacity and affinity for DBP than the living cells. Furthermore, the absence of an active mechanism dependent on metabolism implied that the DBP bioaccumulation by living cells was mainly attribute to passive surface binding...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321581/neurobehavioural-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice
#3
Vasanth Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayprakash Manickam, Ekambaram Perumal
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, extremely in neurotheranostics. Simultaneously, Fe2O3-NP usage is of alarming concern, as its exposure to living systems causes deleterious effects due to its redox potential. However, study on the neurobehavioural impacts of Fe2O3-NPs is very limited. In this regard, adult male mice were intraperitoneally administered with Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 4 weeks. A significant change in locomotor behaviour and spatial memory was observed in Fe2O3-NP-treated animals...
March 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317964/how-does-ytterbium-chloride-interact-with-dmpc-bilayers-a-computational-and-experimental-study
#4
Miguel A Gonzalez, Hanna M G Barriga, Joanna L Richens, Robert V Law, Paul O'Shea, Fernando Bresme
Lanthanide salts have been studied for many years, primarily in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments of mixed lipid-protein systems and more recently to study lipid flip-flop in model membrane systems. It is well recognised that lanthanide salts can influence the behaviour of both lipid and protein systems, however a full molecular level description of lipid-lanthanide interactions is still outstanding. Here we present a study of lanthanide-bilayer interactions, using molecular dynamics computer simulations, fluorescence electrostatic potential experiments and nuclear magnetic resonance...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303757/evaluation-of-microalgae-production-coupled-with-wastewater-treatment
#5
Davide De Francisci, Yixi Su, Arvo Iital, Irini Angelidaki
In the present study the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat panel photobioreactors. Biomass productivity was determined for four dilution rates (4.32 d(-1), 3.6 d(-1), 1.8 d(-1) and 0.72 d(-1)). The productivity peak was 1.524 g l(-1)d(-1) at the dilution rate of 2.41 d(-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to dilution rates, while COD removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283433/pharmacokinetics-of-exosomes-an-important-factor-for-elucidating-the-biological-roles-of-exosomes-and-for-the-development-of-exosome-based-therapeutics
#6
Masaki Morishita, Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles containing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Recently, researchers have uncovered that exosomes are involved in various biological events, such as tumor growth, metastasis, and the immune response, by delivering their cargos to exosome-receiving cells. Moreover, exosomes are expected to be employed in therapeutic treatments, such as tissue regeneration therapy and antitumor immunotherapy, since exosomes are effective delivery vehicles for proteins, nucleic acids, and other bioactive compounds...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279834/in-situ-afm-imaging-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-directly-derived-from-plasma-hdl
#7
Chaoye Gan, Zhexuan Wang, Yong Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins play vital roles in the structural integrity and physiological functions of lipoproteins. More than ten structural models of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been developed successively. In these models, apoA-I was supposed to organize in a ring-shaped form. To date, however, there is no direct evidence under physiological condition. METHODS: Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to in situ visualize the organization of apoA-I, which was exposed via depletion of the lipid component of plasma HDL pre-immobilized on functionalized mica sheets...
February 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265368/bioactivities-of-coturnix-japonica-quail-egg-yolk-and-albumen-against-physiological-stress
#8
Gideon O Oladipo, Emmanuel O Ibukun
Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Coturnix japonica (quail) egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts of quail egg yolk and the albumen...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260655/biochemical-and-genetic-toxicity-of-dinotefuran-on-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#9
Tong Liu, Xiuguo Wang, Jinli Xu, Xiangwei You, Dan Chen, Fenglong Wang, Yiqiang Li
Dinotefuran is a third-generation neonicotinoid insecticide, that is considered promising due to its excellent properties. In the present work, the biochemical and genetic toxicity of dinotefuran on earthworms were evaluated at a series of environmental background concentrations. Meanwhile, the effective concentrations of dinotefuran in artificial soil during the entire exposure period were monitored. The present results showed that dinotefuran was stable in artificial soil, and its concentrations changed no more than 20% during the 28-d exposure...
February 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258516/oxidative-stress-in-homocystinuria-due-to-cystathionine-%C3%A3-synthase-deficiency-findings-in-patients-and-in-animal-models
#10
REVIEW
Jéssica Lamberty Faverzani, Tatiane Grazieli Hammerschmidt, Angela Sitta, Marion Deon, Moacir Wajner, Carmen Regla Vargas
Homocystinuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) activity, biochemically characterized by homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met) accumulation in biological fluids and high urinary excretion of homocystine. Clinical manifestations include thinning and lengthening of long bones, osteoporosis, dislocation of the ocular lens, thromboembolism, and mental retardation. Although the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly known, the present review summarizes the available experimental findings obtained from patients and animal models indicating that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of homocystinuria...
March 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257177/glycation-of-lysozyme-by-glycolaldehyde-provides-new-mechanistic-insights-in-diabetes-related-protein-aggregation
#11
Laura Mariño, Carlos Andrés Maya-Aguirre, Kris Pauwels, Bartolomé Vilanova, Joaquin Ortega-Castro, Juan Frau, Josefa Donoso, Miquel Adrover
Glycation occurs in vivo as a result of the nonenzymatic reaction of carbohydrates (and/or their autoxidation products) with proteins, DNA, or lipids. Protein glycation causes loss-of-function and, consequently, the development of diabetic-related diseases. Glycation also boosts protein aggregation, which can be directly related with the higher prevalence of aggregating diseases in diabetic people. However, the molecular mechanism connecting glycation with aggregation still remains unclear. Previously we described mechanistically how glycation of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) with ribose induced its aggregation...
March 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257101/exosomes-from-garbage-bins-to-promising-therapeutic-targets
#12
REVIEW
Mohammed H Rashed, Emine Bayraktar, Gouda K Helal, Mohamed F Abd-Ellah, Paola Amero, Arturo Chavez-Reyes, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo
Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256706/analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles-produced-in-the-biofilm-by-the-dimorphic-yeast-pichia-fermentans
#13
Federica Leone, Lorenza Bellani, Simonetta Mucciflora, Lucia Giorgetti, Paolo Bongioanni, Marcella Simili, B E Maserti, Renata Del Carratore
The yeast Pichia fermentans DISAABA 726 strain (P. fermentans) is a dimorphic yeast that under different environmental conditions may switch from a yeast-like to pseudohyphal morphology. We hypothesize that exosomes-like vesicles (EV) could mediate this rapid modification. As EV are membrane-derived vesicles carrying lipids, proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs and have been recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. Although it has been assumed for a long time that fungi release EV, knowledge of their functions is still limited...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249819/oxidative-stress-and-brain-morphology-in-individuals-with-depression-anxiety-and-healthy-controls
#14
Laura S van Velzen, Madelief Wijdeveld, Catherine N Black, Marie-Jose van Tol, Nic J A van der Wee, Dick J Veltman, Brenda W J H Penninx, Lianne Schmaal
Oxidative stress is a biological process, caused by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, in favour of the ROS. This imbalance leads to oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA and ultimately cell death. Studies in rodents have shown that the brain, particularly the amygdala and hippocampus, is sensitive to oxidative stress, although studies on the association between oxidative stress and brain morphology in humans are lacking. Oxidative stress has also been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be related to volumetric abnormalities in the amygdala and hippocampus in MDD and anxiety disorders...
February 26, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244260/immunotherapy-with-lipid-protein-syndrome-and-diagnosing-asthma
#15
G Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243205/production-of-isolated-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-under-high-salt-concentrations
#16
Hannah Stein, Susann Spindler, Navid Bonakdar, Chun Wang, Vahid Sandoghdar
The cell membrane forms a dynamic and complex barrier between the living cell and its environment. However, its in vivo studies are difficult because it consists of a high variety of lipids and proteins and is continuously reorganized by the cell. Therefore, membrane model systems with precisely controlled composition are used to investigate fundamental interactions of membrane components under well-defined conditions. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) offer a powerful model system for the cell membrane, but many previous studies have been performed in unphysiologically low ionic strength solutions which might lead to altered membrane properties, protein stability and lipid-protein interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242691/specific-phospholipid-binding-to-na-k-atpase-at-two-distinct-sites
#17
Michael Habeck, Einat Kapri-Pardes, Michal Sharon, Steven J D Karlish
Membrane protein function can be affected by the physical state of the lipid bilayer and specific lipid-protein interactions. For Na,K-ATPase, bilayer properties can modulate pump activity, and, as observed in crystal structures, several lipids are bound within the transmembrane domain. Furthermore, Na,K-ATPase activity depends on phosphatidylserine (PS) and cholesterol, which stabilize the protein, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), known to stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240397/oxidative-stress-placental-ageing-related-pathologies-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Zakia Sultana, Kaushik Maiti, John Aitken, Jonathan Morris, Lee Dedman, Roger Smith
Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance between free radical generation and antioxidant defence, is recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although OS is a common future of normal pregnancy, persistent, overwhelming OS leads to consumption and decline of antioxidants, affecting placental antioxidant capacity and reducing systems. The accumulation of OS causes damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in the placental tissue that induces a form of accelerated ageing. Premature ageing of the placenta is associated with placental insufficiency that prevents the organ meeting the needs of the foetus, and as a consequence, the viability of the foetus is compromised...
February 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202504/expression-profiling-of-circulating-microvesicles-reveals-intercellular-transmission-of-oncogenic-pathways
#19
Gloria Milani, Tobia Lana, Silvia Bresolin, Sanja Aveic, Anna Pasto, Chiara Frasson, Geertruy Te Kronnie
Circulating microvesicles (MVs) have been described as important players in cell-to-cell communication carrying biological information under normal or pathological condition. MVs released by cancer cells may incorporate diverse biomolecules (e.g. active lipids, proteins and RNA) which can be delivered and internalized by recipient cells, potentially altering gene expression of recipient cells and eventually impacting disease progression. Leukemia in vitro model systems were used to investigate MVs as vehicles of protein-coding messages...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201935/partition-and-metabolic-fate-of-dietary-glycerol-in-muscles-and-liver-of-juvenile-tilapia
#20
Diego Vicente da Costa, Jorge Dias, Rita Colen, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Sofia Engrola
This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with (14)C-glycerol [(14)C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
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