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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348591/relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-diagnosis-from-cerebrospinal-fluids-via-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-coupled-with-multivariate-analysis
#1
Dilek Yonar, Levent Ocek, Bedile Irem Tiftikcioglu, Yasar Zorlu, Feride Severcan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory and degenerative disease of central nervous system. Here, we aimed to develop a method for differential diagnosis of Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, as well as to identify CIS patients who will progress to RRMS, from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Spectral analyses demonstrated significant differences in the molecular contents, especially in the lipids and Z conformation of DNA of CSF from CIS, CIS to RRMS transformed (TCIS) and RRMS groups...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348169/lipid-mediated-signals-that-regulate-mitochondrial-biology
#2
Jason R Nielson, Jared P Rutter
For decades, lipids were assumed to fulfill roles only in energy storage and membrane structure. Recent studies have discovered critical roles for phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in many cellular pathways, including cell signaling and transcriptional regulation. Frequently, lipids from these various classes work together to achieve defined cellular outcomes. Specific mitochondrial lipids are critical for proper assembly of the electron transport chain complexes and for effective responses to mitochondrial damage, including maintenance of mitochondrial protein homeostasis, regulation of mitophagy, and induction of apoptosis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340240/refining-amino-acid-hydrophobicity-for-dynamics-simulation-of-membrane-proteins
#3
Ronald D Hills
Coarse-grained (CG) models have been successful in simulating the chemical properties of lipid bilayers, but accurate treatment of membrane proteins and lipid-protein molecular interactions remains a challenge. The CgProt force field, original developed with the multiscale coarse graining method, is assessed by comparing the potentials of mean force for sidechain insertion in a DOPC bilayer to results reported for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Reassignment of select CG sidechain sites from the apolar to polar site type was found to improve the attractive interfacial behavior of tyrosine, phenylalanine and asparagine as well as charged lysine and arginine residues...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332574/biomacromolecular-based-fibers-in-nanomedicine-a-combination-of-drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering
#4
Elham Arkan, Abbas Hemati Azandaryani, Pouran Moradipour, Leila Behbood
BACKGROUND: Biopolymers based materials (polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) are one of the basic resources in bio-engineering sciences because of desirable features. Moreover, nanobiotechnology innovates nanomaterial and associated technique in nano medicine (drug delivery and tissue engineering). METHODS: In the nano-medicine, fibers are introduced as a successful biomimetic extracellular matrix scaffolds and drug carrier systems. Electrospinning as a simple and cost-effective technique is used to design nanofibers...
January 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#5
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329851/chemical-characterization-of-myrciaria-floribunda-h-west-ex-willd-fruit
#6
Luciana Mouta de Oliveira, Alexandre Porte, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy, Marcelo da Costa Souza, Sidney Pacheco, Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araujo Santiago, Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa, Luzimar da Silva de Mattos do Nascimento, Renata Galhardo Borguini
M. floribunda fruit was studied to characterize its chemical composition. The chemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and volatiles of the fruit were determined. The chemical composition was determined according to AOAC and AOCS, the bioactive compounds by HPLC, the volatiles by GCMS and the antioxidant activity by ABTS+ and DPPH methods. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried fruit was 1.89 g·100 g-1, 2.43 g·100 g-1, 4.78 g·100 g-1 and 90.89 g·100 g-1 of ashes, lipids, proteins and total carbohydrates on a dry base, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315781/bioconcentration-model-for-non-ionic-polar-and-ionizable-organic-compounds-in-amphipod
#7
Ciara Chun Chen, Dave Ta Fu Kuo
This study presents a bioconcentration model for non-ionic, polar, and ionizable organic compounds in amphipod based on first-order kinetics. Uptake rate constant k1 is modeled as log k1=10.81logKOW+0.15 (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.52). Biotransformation rate constant kM is estimated using an existing polyparameter linear free energy relationship model. Respiratory elimination k2 is calculated as modeled k1 over theoretical biota-water partition coefficient Kbiow considering the contributions of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and water...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313342/a-microfluidic-diffusion-platform-for-characterizing-the-size-of-lipid-vesicles-and-the-thermodynamics-of-protein-lipid-interactions
#8
Hongze Gang, Celine Galvagnion, Georg Meisl, Thomas Müller, Alexander K Buell, Aviad Levin, Christopher M Dobson, Bo-Zhong Mu, Tuomas P J Knowles
Elucidation of the fundamental interactions of proteins with biological membranes under native conditions is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of their biological function and malfunction. Notably, the large surface to volume ratio of living cells provides a molecular landscape for significant interactions of cellular components with membranes modulating their function. However, such interactions can be challenging to probe using conventional biophysical methods due to the heterogeneity of the species and processes involved...
January 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299993/exosomes-in-cholesterol-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis
#9
Allison B Reiss, Nicholas A Vernice, Nicolle M Siegart, Joshua DeLeon, Lora J Kasselman
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes are small secreted membrane vesicles formed in the late endocytic compartments by inward budding. Interest in these extracellular vesicles and their role in atherosclerosis is growing, as they can affect multiple cellular processes that lead to lipid overload, cytokine secretion and cellular adhesion. Exosomes protect and transport lipids, proteins, and RNAs, fostering intercellular communication among different cell types involved in atherogenesis such as macrophages, endothelium and smooth muscle...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290805/exosome-theranostics-biology-and-translational-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Chuanjiang He, Shu Zheng, Yan Luo, Ben Wang
Exosomes are common membrane-bound nanovesicles that contain diverse biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Exosomes are derived from cells through exocytosis, are ingested by target cells, and can transfer biological signals between local or distant cells. Exosome secretion is a constitutive phenomenon that is involved in both physiological and pathological processes and determines both the exosomal surface molecules and the contents. Hence, we can exploit exosomes as biomarkers, vaccines and drug carriers and modify them rationally for therapeutic interventions...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273334/fusogenic-properties-of-the-ectodomain-of-hcv-e2-envelope-protein
#11
Mar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Daniel Tello, Julián Gómez-Gutiérrez, Darrell L Peterson, Francisco Gavilanes, Belén Yélamos
The steps leading from hepatitis C virus (HCV) attachment to the hepatocytes to the fusion of viral and cellular membranes remain uncharacterized. In this regard, we have studied the mechanism underlying the HCV fusion process using liposomes and a truncated form of E2 protein lacking the transmembrane region, E2661 (amino acids 384-661). E2661 has been previously obtained by using the baculovirus expression system and shown to behave as an independent folding domain (M. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, D. Tello, B. Yelamos, J...
December 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262368/single-molecule-imaging-of-wnt3a-protein-diffusion-on-living-cell-membranes
#12
Anna Lippert, Agnieszka A Janeczek, Alexandre Fürstenberg, Aleks Ponjavic, W E Moerner, Roel Nusse, Jill A Helms, Nicholas D Evans, Steven F Lee
Wnt proteins are secreted, hydrophobic, lipidated proteins found in all animals that play essential roles in development and disease. Lipid modification is thought to facilitate the interaction of the protein with its receptor, Frizzled, but may also regulate the transport of Wnt protein and its localization at the cell membrane. Here, by employing single-molecule fluorescence techniques, we show that Wnt proteins associate with and diffuse on the plasma membranes of living cells in the absence of any receptor binding...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246022/tumor-derived-exosomes-in-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-their-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Jianbiao Zhou, Xiao-Lan Li, Zhi-Rong Chen, Wee-Joo Chng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both of men and women worldwide due to its metastatic properties and resistance to current treatment. Recent studies have shown that tumor-derived exosomes play emerging roles in the development of cancer. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain lipids, proteins, DNAs, and RNA species (mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA). These exosomal cargos can be transferred locally and systemically, after taken by recipient cells, so exosomes represent a new form of intercellular communication...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228670/lncrna-as-cernas-may-be-involved-in-lactation-process
#14
Shuai Yu, Yong Zhao, Fangnong Lai, Meiqiang Chu, Yanan Hao, Yanni Feng, Hongfu Zhang, Jing Liu, Ming Cheng, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Lingjiang Min
The main function of the mammary gland is to secret milk for newborn growth. Milk production process is regulated by hormones, growth factors, noncoding RNAs and other factors locally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of recently discovered non-coding RNA, have been found in mammary gland and some studies suggested lncRNA may play important roles in mammary gland development. Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are emerging to compete for miRNA binding and, in turn, regulate each other. In the current study, we sequenced mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA in goat mammary tissue at 2 points in lactation (early and mature)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217761/aptamer-conjugated-extracellular-nanovesicles-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#15
Yuan Wan, Lixue Wang, Chuandong Zhu, Qin Zheng, Guoxiang Wang, Jinlong Tong, Yuan Fang, Yiqiu Xia, Gong Cheng, Xia He, Si-Yang Zheng
Extracellular nanovesicles (ENV) released by many cells contain lipids, proteins and nucleic acids that contribute to intercellular communication. ENV have emerged as biomarkers and therapeutic targets but they have also been explored as drug delivery vehicles. However, for the latter application clinical translation has been limited by low yield and inadequate targeting effects. ENV vectors with desired targeting properties can be produced from parental cells engineered to express membrane-bound targeting ligands, or they can be generated by fusion with targeting liposomes, however, neither approach has met clinical requirements...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196683/preferential-selection-of-arginine-at-the-lipid-water-interface-of-trpv1-during-vertebrate-evolution-correlates-with-its-snorkeling-behaviour-and-cholesterol-interaction
#16
Somdatta Saha, Arijit Ghosh, Nikhil Tiwari, Ashutosh Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Chandan Goswami
TRPV1 is a thermo-sensitive ion channel involved in neurosensory and other physiological functions. The trans-membrane helices of TRPV1 undergo quick and complex conformational changes governed by thermodynamic parameters and membrane components leading to channel opening. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such events are poorly understood. Here we analysed the molecular evolution of TRPV1 at the lipid-water-interface region (LWI), typically defined as a layer of 6 Å thickness on each side of the membrane with less availability of free water...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191828/hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-reveals-long-range-dynamical-allostery-in-soybean-lipoxygenase
#17
Adam R Offenbacher, Anthony T Iavarone, Judith P Klinman
In lipoxygenases, the topologically conserved C-terminal domain catalyzes the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, generating an assortment of biologically relevant signaling mediators. Plant and animal lipoxygenases also contain a 100-150 amino acid N-terminal C2-like domain that has been implicated in interactions with isolated fatty acids and at the phospholipid bilayer. These interactions may lead to increased substrate availability and contribute to the regulation of active site catalysis. Because of a lack of structural information, a molecular understanding of this lipid/protein interaction remains unresolved...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188035/oxidative-changes-in-lipids-proteins-and-antioxidants-in-yogurt-during-the-shelf-life
#18
Anna Citta, Alessandra Folda, Valeria Scalcon, Guido Scutari, Alberto Bindoli, Marco Bellamio, Emiliano Feller, Maria Pia Rigobello
Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185231/translating-asthma-dissecting-the-role-of-metabolomics-genomics-and-personalized-medicine
#19
Andrew Bush
The management of asthma has largely stagnated over the last 25 years, but we are at the dawning of a new age wherein -omics technology can help us manage the disease objectively and rationally. Even in this new scientific age, getting the basics of asthma management right remains essential. The new technologies which can be applied to multiple biological samples include genomics (study of the genome), transcriptomics (gene transcription), lipidomics, proteomics and metabolomics (lipids, proteins and metabolites, respectively) and breathomics, using exhaled breath as a source of biomarkers, which is of particular interest in view of its non-invasive nature in pediatrics...
November 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180914/insights-into-cerumen-and-application-in-diagnostics-past-present-and-future-prospective
#20
REVIEW
Engy Shokry, Nelson Roberto Antoniosi Filho
Cerumen or earwax is an emerging bio-fluid in clinical diagnosis that has been very little exploited during the past decades in spite of its high diagnostic potential. It is highly abundant in diagnostic biomarkers such as genetic material, lipids, proteins, chemical elements, internal and external metabolites (e.g. hormones, volatile organic compounds, amino acids, xenobiotics etc.) reaching earwax from the blood circulation. Thus, it is able to reflect not only physiology, pathophysiology of the human body but can also detect recent and long term exposure to environmental pollutants, without the need of invasive blood tests and in the same time overcoming many disadvantages faced by using other diagnostic biological fluids...
October 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
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