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Claire E Dodd, Charlie J Pyle, Rebecca Glowinski, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger
Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes a large global health burden as the airborne agent of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been flourishing in human populations for millennia and is therefore highly adapted to the lung environment. Alveolar macrophages, a major host cell niche for M. tuberculosis, are not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in catabolizing lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that lines the alveolar spaces. Because macrophage host defense properties can be regulated by surfactant and M...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Moutusi Manna, Miia Niemelä, Joona Tynkkynen, Matti Javanainen, Waldemar Kulig, Daniel J Müller, Tomasz Rog, Ilpo Vattulainen
There is evidence that lipids can be allosteric regulators of membrane protein structure and activation. However, there are no data showing how exactly the regulation emerges from specific lipid-protein interactions. Here we show in atomistic detail how the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) - a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor - is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates β2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located near the transmembrane helices 5-7 of the receptor...
November 29, 2016: ELife
Eduard V Bocharov, Konstantin S Mineev, Konstantin V Pavlov, Sergey A Akimov, Andrey S Kuznetsov, Roman G Efremov, Alexander S Arseniev
Interaction between transmembrane helices often determines biological activity of membrane proteins. Bitopic proteins, a broad subclass of membrane proteins, form dimers containing two membrane-spanning helices. Some aspects of their structure-function relationship cannot be fully understood without considering the protein-lipid interaction, which can determine the protein conformational ensemble. Experimental and computer modeling data concerning transmembrane parts of bitopic proteins are reviewed in the present paper...
November 22, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anastasia A Zheltova, Maria V Kharitonova, Igor N Iezhitsa, Alexander A Spasov
Magnesium deficiency (MgD) has been shown to impact numerous biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. In the present review, we discuss the relationship between MgD and oxidative stress (OS). MgD is accompanied by increased levels of OS markers such as lipid, protein and DNA oxidative modification products. Additionally, a relationship was detected between MgD and a weakened antioxidant defence. Different mechanisms associated with MgD are involved in the development and maintenance of OS...
December 2016: BioMedicine
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Marcelo Santos da Silva, Marcela Segatto, Raphael Souza Pavani, Fernanda Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Vanderson da Silva Bispo, Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros, Rodrigo Tocantins Calado, Maria Carolina Elias, Maria Isabel Nogueira Cano
Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania that affects millions of people around the world. During infection, the parasites use different strategies to survive the host's defenses, including overcoming exposure to reactive oxidant species (ROS), responsible for causing damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. This damage especially affects telomeres, which frequently results in genome instability, senescence and cell death. Telomeres are the physical ends of the chromosomes composed of repetitive DNA coupled with proteins, whose function is to protect the chromosomes termini and avoid end-fusion and nucleolytic degradation...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mohamed A Salem, Jessica Jüppner, Krzysztof Bajdzienko, Patrick Giavalisco
BACKGROUND: The elucidation of complex biological systems requires integration of multiple molecular parameters. Accordingly, high throughput methods like transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics have emerged to provide the tools for successful system-wide investigations. Unfortunately, optimized analysis of different compounds requires specific extraction procedures in combination with specific analytical instrumentation. However, the most efficient extraction protocols often only cover a restricted number of compounds due to the different physico-chemical properties of these biological compounds...
2016: Plant Methods
Cyrille Charnier, Eric Latrille, Julie Jimenez, Margaux Lemoine, Jean-Claude Boulet, Jérémie Miroux, Jean-Philippe Steyer
The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand...
November 2, 2016: Waste Management
Gabriela A Dominguez, Josefina Perlo, Carla C Fraenza, Esteban Anoardo
The elastic properties of lipid membranes can be conveniently characterized through the bending elastic modulus κ. Elasticity directly affects the deformability of a membrane, morphological and shape transitions, fusion, lipid-protein interactions, etc. It is also a critical property for the formulation of ultradeformable liposomes, and of interest for the design of theranostic liposomes for efficient drug delivery systems and/or different imaging contrast agents. Measurements of κ in liposome membranes have been made using the fast field cycling nuclear magnetic relaxometry technique...
November 2, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
M Radakovic, D Davitkov, S Borozan, S Stojanovic, J Stevanovic, V Krstic, Z Stanimirovic
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in horses infected by Theileria equi. Initial screening of 110 horses with duplex PCR enabled the selection of 30 infected horses with T. equi and 30 free of infection (control). Specimens from the 60 horses were further analysed by determining the following oxidative stress parameters: extent of haemolysis (EH), plasma free haemoglobin (PHb), catalase (CAT), Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), paraoxonase (PON1), nitrite (NO2(-)), total nitrate and nitrite (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and free thiol groups (-SH)...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
Md Torequl Islam
Reactive species play an important role in physiological functions. Overproduction of reactive species, notably reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species along with the failure of balance by the body's antioxidant enzyme systems results in destruction of cellular structures, lipids, proteins, and genetic materials such as DNA and RNA. Moreover, the effects of reactive species on mitochondria and their metabolic processes eventually cause a rise in ROS/RNS levels, leading to oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA...
November 3, 2016: Neurological Research
Agnieszka K Kowalkowska, Sławomir Turzyński, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Natalia Wiśniewska
Flowers of Bulbophyllum weberi and B. cumingii are characterized by fly-pollinated features. The secretory activity was described in dorsal sepals in both species (putative osmophores), petals in B. weberi (possible osmophores) and adaxial surface of lips in both species. In the cells of dorsal sepals and petals of B. weberi proteins, dihydroxyphenols, lipids and starch grains were detected, in lateral sepals-lipids. Whereas in dorsal sepal of B. cumingii only lipids and starch grains were noted, in lateral sepals-proteins and dihydroxyphenols and in petals-proteins and starch grains...
October 31, 2016: Protoplasma
Jean-Pierre Duneau, Jonathan Khao, James N Sturgis
Understanding how membrane proteins interact with their environment is fundamental to the understanding of their structure, function and interactions. We have performed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations on a series of membrane proteins in a membrane environment to examine the perturbations of the lipids by the presence of protein. We analyze these perturbations in terms of elastic membrane deformations and local lipid protein interactions. However these two factors are insufficient to describe the variety of effects that we observe and the changes caused by membranes proteins to the structure and dynamics of their lipid environment...
October 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Serap Yalçın, Özlem Özlüer, Ufuk Gündüz
Development of novel drug-delivery systems aims to specifically deliver anticancer drugs to tumor tissues and improve the efficiency of chemotherapy, while minimizing side effects of drugs on healthy tissues and organs. However, drug-delivery systems are confronted by membrane barriers and multiple drug resistance in cancer cells. In recent years, the obtained results indicate an important role of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in apoptosis, drug transport and the process of cellular uptake of nanoparticles via endocytosis...
October 28, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
Emile R Zakiev, Igor A Sobenin, Vasily N Sukhorukov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherogenic modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as modified LDL, but not native LDL, induces pronounced accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the arterial wall. It is likely that LDL particles undergo multiple modifications in human plasma: desialylation, changes in size and density, acquisition of negative electric charge, oxidation, and complex formation. In a total LDL preparation isolated from pooled plasma of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and from healthy subjects, two subfractions of LDL could be identified: desialylated LDL bound by a lectin affinity column and normally sialylated (native) LDL that passed through the column...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
George Hedger, Sarah L Rouse, Jan Domanski, Matthieu Chavent, Heidi Koldsø, Mark S P Sansom
The exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane is a fundamental cellular process. This exchange is facilitated by the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), the structure and function of which is critically dependent on the signature phospholipid of mitochondria, cardiolipin (CL). Here we employ multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate CL interactions within a membrane environment. Using simulations at both coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic (AT) resolutions, we identify three CL binding sites on the translocase, in agreement with those seen in crystal structures and inferred from NMR measurements...
October 27, 2016: Biochemistry
Alencar Kolinski Machado, Ana Cristina Andreazza, Tatiane Morgana da Silva, Aline Augusti Boligon, Vanusa do Nascimento, Gustavo Scola, Angela Duong, Francine Carla Cadoná, Euler Esteves Ribeiro, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Arthur Lalonde, Hugo Bouchard
To develop a general method for human tissue characterization with dual- and multi-energy CT and evaluate its performance in determining elemental compositions and quantities relevant to radiotherapy Monte Carlo dose calculation. Ideal materials to describe human tissue are obtained applying principal component analysis on elemental weight and density data available in literature. The theory is adapted to elemental composition for solving tissue information from CT data. A novel stoichiometric calibration method is integrated to the technique to make it suitable for a clinical environment...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Hala Attia, Nouf Al-Rasheed, Raeesa Mohamad, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Maha Al-Amin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis and its end point; cirrhosis, are the major cause of liver failure and death in patients with chronic liver disease. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. This study was designed to assess the potential effects of aqueous extract of date fruits, either flesh (DFE) or pits (DPE), on oxidative DNA damage and liver inflammation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and whether they are related to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB pathway...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Bárbara Olmeda, Marta Martínez-Calle, Jesus Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that lines and stabilizes the respiratory interface in the alveoli, allowing for gas exchange during the breathing cycle. At the same time, surfactant constitutes the first line of lung defense against pathogens. This review presents an updated view on the processes involved in biogenesis and intracellular processing of newly synthesized and recycled surfactant components, as well as on the extracellular surfactant transformations before and after the formation of the surface active film at the air-water interface...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
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