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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202504/expression-profiling-of-circulating-microvesicles-reveals-intercellular-transmission-of-oncogenic-pathways
#1
Gloria Milani, Tobia Lana, Silvia Bresolin, Sanja Aveic, Anna Pasto, Chiara Frasson, Geertruy Te Kronnie
: Circulating microvesicles (MVs) have been described as important players in cell-to-cell communication carrying biological information under normal or pathological condition. MVs released by cancer cells may incorporate diverse biomolecules (e.g. active lipids, proteins and RNA) which can be delivered and internalized by recipient cells, potentially altering gene expression of recipient cells and eventually impacting disease progression. Leukemia in vitro model systems were used to investigate MVs as vehicles of protein-coding messages...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201935/partition-and-metabolic-fate-of-dietary-glycerol-in-muscles-and-liver-of-juvenile-tilapia
#2
Diego Vicente da Costa, Jorge Dias, Rita Colen, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Sofia Engrola
This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with (14)C-glycerol [(14)C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199020/gemfibrozil-food-and-drug-administration-approved-lipid-lowering-drug-increases-longevity-in-mouse-model-of-late-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#3
Arunava Ghosh, Suresh Babu Rangasamy, Khushbu K Modi, Kalipada Pahan
Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene that leads to deficiency or loss of function of the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme. TPP1 deficiency is known to cause the accumulation of autofluoroscent lipid-protein pigments in brain. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, LINCL is also associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Despite investigations, no effective therapy is currently available for LINCL...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195143/aging-and-serum-exomir-content-in-women-effects-of-estrogenic-hormone-replacement-therapy
#4
Reeta Kangas, Timo Törmäkangas, Vidal Fey, Juha Pursiheimo, Ilkka Miinalainen, Markku Alen, Jaakko Kaprio, Sarianna Sipilä, Anna-Marja Säämänen, Vuokko Kovanen, Eija K Laakkonen
Exosomes participate in intercellular messaging by transporting bioactive lipid-, protein- and RNA-molecules and -complexes. The contents of the exosomes reflect the physiological status of an individual making exosomes promising targets for biomarker analyses. In the present study we extracted exosome microRNAs (exomiRs) from serum samples of premenopausal women (n = 8) and monozygotic postmenopausal twins (n = 10 female pairs), discordant for the use of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in order to see whether the age or/and the use of HRT associates with exomiR content...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188431/lipoprotein-a-and-its-role-in-inflammation-atherosclerosis-and-malignancies
#5
Evelyn Orsó, Gerd Schmitz
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle with an additional specific apolipoprotein (a), covalently attached to apolipoprotein B‑100 of LDL by a single thioester bond. Increased plasma Lp(a) level is a genetically determined, independent, causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease.The precise quantification of Lp(a) in plasma is still hampered by mass-sensitive assays, large particle variation, poor standardization and lack of assay comparability.The physiological functions of Lp(a) include wound healing, promoting tissue repair and vascular remodeling...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185406/detecting-senescence-a-new-method-for-an-old-pigment
#6
Hanna Salmonowicz, João F Passos
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest induced by different types of cellular stresses. The field of senescence has made significant advances in the understanding of many of the mechanisms governing this phenomenon; however, a universal biomarker that unambiguously distinguishes senescent from proliferating cells has not been found. In this issue of Aging Cell, Evangelou and colleagues developed a sensitive method for identification of senescent cells in different types of biological material based on the detection of lipofuscin using an analogue of Sudan Black B (SBB) histochemical dye coupled with biotin, which they named GL13...
February 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168317/compositional-profiles-of-rhodosporidium-toruloides-cells-under-nutrient-limitation
#7
Hongwei Shen, Xibin Zhang, Zhiwei Gong, Yanan Wang, Xue Yu, Xiaobing Yang, Zongbao K Zhao
Lipid production by the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was explored under nutrient limitation. To determine the compositional profiles of R. toruloides cells, samples were prepared using a continuous cultivation process under nutrient limitation and analyzed via several methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Under nitrogen limitation, as the dilution rate increased, the cellular lipid content decreased but the carbohydrate and protein contents increased. Under carbon limitation, the cellular lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents remained relatively constant at the different dilution rates...
February 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168010/rutin-as-a-mediator-of-lipid-metabolism-and-cellular-signaling-pathways-interactions-in-fibroblasts-altered-by-uva-and-uvb-radiation
#8
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Paula Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167047/lipidated-proteins-spotlight-on-protein-membrane-binding-interfaces
#9
REVIEW
Arjun Ray, Nidhi Jatana, Lipi Thukral
The covalent attachment of lipids to proteins is a fundamental property of all living cells. These lipidated or lipid-modified proteins are directly targeted to the membranes and display diverse functional roles that are critical to cell function such as membrane signaling and trafficking. All lipidated proteins have been classified by the type of chemical moieties that are attached to them mainly palmitoylation, myristoylation, prenylation, cholesterylation, and addition of the Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor...
February 3, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155616/crosstalk-between-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-arterial-stiffness
#10
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154130/trifunctional-lipid-probes-for-comprehensive-studies-of-single-lipid-species-in-living-cells
#11
Doris Höglinger, André Nadler, Per Haberkant, Joanna Kirkpatrick, Martina Schifferer, Frank Stein, Sebastian Hauke, Forbes D Porter, Carsten Schultz
Lipid-mediated signaling events regulate many cellular processes. Investigations of the complex underlying mechanisms are difficult because several different methods need to be used under varying conditions. Here we introduce multifunctional lipid derivatives to study lipid metabolism, lipid-protein interactions, and intracellular lipid localization with a single tool per target lipid. The probes are equipped with two photoreactive groups to allow photoliberation (uncaging) and photo-cross-linking in a sequential manner, as well as a click-handle for subsequent functionalization...
February 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148743/phytoplankton-growth-rate-modelling-can-spectroscopic-cell-chemotyping-be-superior-to-physiological-predictors
#12
Andrea Fanesi, Heiko Wagner, Christian Wilhelm
Climate change has a strong impact on phytoplankton communities and water quality. However, the development of robust techniques to assess phytoplankton growth is still in progress. In this study, the growth rate of phytoplankton cells grown at different temperatures was modelled based on conventional physiological traits (e.g. chlorophyll, carbon and photosynthetic parameters) using the partial least square regression (PLSR) algorithm and compared with a new approach combining Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy and PLSR...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146518/simultaneous-two-color-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy-by-adding-a-fiber-amplifier-to-a-2-ps-opo-based-srs-microscope
#13
Wenlong Yang, Ang Li, Yuanzhen Suo, Fa-Ke Lu, X Sunney Xie
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a label-free chemical imaging technique. Two-color imaging is often necessary to determine the distribution of chemical species in SRS microscopy. Current multi-color SRS imaging methods involve complicated instrumentation or longer data acquisition time or are limited to transmission imaging. In this Letter, we show that by adding a simple fiber amplifier to a 2 ps laser source and optical-parametric-oscillator-based SRS setup, one can achieve simultaneous two-color or frequency modulation SRS microscopy...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146236/subretinal-pigment-epithelial-deposition-of-drusen-components-including-hydroxyapatite-in-a-primary-cell-culture-model
#14
Matthew G Pilgrim, Imre Lengyel, Antonio Lanzirotti, Matt Newville, Sarah Fearn, Eszter Emri, Jonathan C Knowles, Jeffrey D Messinger, Russell W Read, Clyde Guidry, Christine A Curcio
Purpose: Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Methods: Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139118/enhanced-cisplatin-chemotherapy-by-iron-oxide-nanocarrier-mediated-generation-of-highly-toxic-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Ping'an Ma, Haihua Xiao, Chang Yu, Jianhua Liu, Ziyong Cheng, Haiqin Song, Xinyang Zhang, Chunxia Li, Jinqiang Wang, Zhen Gu, Jun Lin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in therapeutic effects as well as side effects of platinum drugs. Cisplatin mediates activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX), which triggers oxygen (O2) to superoxide radical (O2(•)(-)) and its downstream H2O2. Through the Fenton's reaction, H2O2 could be catalyzed by Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) to the toxic hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), which cause oxidative damages to lipids, proteins, and DNA. By taking the full advantage of Fenton's chemistry, we herein demonstrated tumor site-specific conversion of ROS generation induced by released cisplatin and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) from iron-oxide nanocarriers with cisplatin(IV) prodrugs for enhanced anticancer activity but minimized systemic toxicity...
January 31, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130090/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-strawberry-extract-against-lps-induced-stress-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#16
Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Francesca Giampieri, Sadia Afrin, Josè M Alvarez-Suarez, Luca Mazzoni, Bruno Mezzetti, Josè L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
A common denominator in the pathogenesis of most chronic inflammatory diseases is the involvement of oxidative stress, related to ROS production by all aerobic organisms. Dietary antioxidants from plant foods represent an efficient strategy to counteract this condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry extracts on inflammatory status induced by E. Coli LPS on RAW 264.7 macrophages by measuring the main oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers and investigating the molecular pathways involved...
January 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128290/membrane-mediated-action-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-on-membrane-proteins-implications-for-understanding-the-receptor-independent-mechanism
#17
Djalma Medeiros, Laíz da Costa Silva-Gonçalves, Annielle Mendes Brito da Silva, Marcia Perez Dos Santos Cabrera, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda
Endocannabinoids are amphiphilic molecules that play crucial neurophysiological functions acting as lipid messengers. Antagonists and knockdown of the classical CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors do not completely abolish many endocannabinoid activities, supporting the idea of a mechanism independent of receptors whose mode of action remains unclear. Here we combine gramicidin A (gA) single channel recordings and membrane capacitance measurements to investigate the lipid bilayer-modifying activity of endocannabinoids...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122734/hugh-davson-distinguished-lectureship-article-caveolins-and-cavins-in-the-trafficking-maturation-and-degradation-of-caveolae-implications-for-cell-physiology
#18
Anna R Busija, Hemal H Patel, Paul A Insel
Caveolins (Cavs) are ~20 kDa scaffolding proteins that assemble as oligomeric complexes in lipid raft domains to form caveolae, flask-shaped plasma membrane (PM) invaginations. Caveolae ("little caves") require lipid-lipid, protein-lipid, and protein-protein interactions that can modulate the localization, conformational stability, ligand affinity, effector specificity, and other functions of proteins that are partners of Cavs. Cavs are assembled into small oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported to the Golgi for assembly with cholesterol and other oligomers, and then exported to the PM as an intact coat complex...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122339/molecularly-targeted-co-delivery-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-and-paclitaxel-by-lipid-protein-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-synergistic-combinational-chemotherapy
#19
Hima Bindu Ruttala, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Bijay Kumar Poudal, Yongjoo Choi, Ju Yeon Choi, Jeonghwan Kim, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
In this study, a transferrin-anchored albumin nanoplatform with PEGylated lipid bilayers (Tf-L-APVN) was developed for the targeted co-delivery of paclitaxel and vorinostat in solid tumors. Tf-L-APVN exhibited a sequential and controlled release profile of paclitaxel and vorinostat, with an accelerated release pattern at acidic pH. At cellular levels, Tf-L-APVN significantly enhanced the synergistic effects of paclitaxel and vorinostat on the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cancer cells. Vorinostat could significantly enhance the cytotoxic potential of paclitaxel, induce marked cell apoptosis, alter cell cycle patterns, and inhibit the migratory capacity of cancer cells...
January 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117711/protective-effect-of-strawberry-extract-against-inflammatory-stress-induced-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#20
Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Francesca Giampieri, Sadia Afrin, Bruno Mezzetti, Josè L Quiles, Stefano Bompadre, Maurizio Battino
A protracted pro-inflammatory state is a major contributing factor in the development, progression and complication of the most common chronic pathologies. Fruit and vegetables represent the main sources of dietary antioxidants and their consumption can be considered an efficient tool to counteract inflammatory states. In this context an evaluation of the protective effects of strawberry extracts on inflammatory stress induced by E. coli LPS on human dermal fibroblast cells was performed in terms of viability assays, ROS and nitrite production and biomarkers of oxidative damage of the main biological macromolecules...
January 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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