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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438789/desmoglein-2-modulates-extracellular-vesicle-release-from-squamous-cell-carcinoma-keratinocytes
#1
Andrew M Overmiller, Jennifer A Pierluissi, Peter J Wermuth, Sami Sauma, Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn, Madalina Tuluc, Adam Luginbuhl, Joseph Curry, Larry A Harshyne, James K Wahl, Andrew P South, Mỹ G Mahoney
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale membrane-derived vesicles that serve as intercellular messengers carrying lipids, proteins, and genetic material. Substantial evidence has shown that cancer-derived EVs, secreted by tumor cells into the blood and other bodily fluids, play a critical role in modulating the tumor microenvironment and affecting the pathogenesis of cancer. Here we demonstrate for the first time that squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) EVs were enriched with the C-terminal fragment of desmoglein 2 (Dsg2), a desmosomal cadherin often overexpressed in malignancies...
April 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432921/gates-for-soluble-and-membrane-proteins-and-two-trafficking-systems-ift-and-lift-establish-a-dynamic-ciliary-signaling-compartment
#2
REVIEW
Victor L Jensen, Michel R Leroux
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found on most mammalian cell surfaces. They possess a soluble matrix and membrane contiguous with the cell body cytosol and plasma membrane, and yet, have distinct compositions that can be modulated to enable dynamic signal transduction. Here, we discuss how specialized ciliary compartments are established using a coordinated network of gating, trafficking and targeting activities. Cilium homeostasis is maintained by a size-selective molecular mesh that limits soluble protein entry, and by a membrane diffusion barrier localized at the transition zone...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432030/effects-of-mixed-proximal-and-distal-topogenic-signals-on-the-topological-sensitivity-of-a-membrane-protein-to-the-lipid-environment
#3
Heidi Vitrac, William Dowhan, Mikhail Bogdanov
The final topology of membrane proteins is thought to be dictated primarily by the encoding sequence. However, according to the Charge Balance Rule the topogenic signals within nascent membrane proteins are interpreted in agreement with the Positive Inside Rule as influenced by the protein phospholipid environment. The role of long-range protein-lipid interactions in establishing a final uniform or dual topology is unknown. In order to address this role, we determined the positional dependence of the potency of charged residues as topological signals within Escherichia coli sucrose permease (CscB) in cells in which the zwitterionic phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), acting as topological determinant, was either eliminated or tightly titrated...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429463/global-mapping-of-protein-lipid-interactions-by-using-modified-choline-containing-phospholipids-metabolically-synthesized-in-live-cells
#4
Danyang Wang, Shubo Du, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Jingyan Ge, Jun-Seok Lee, Markus R Wenk, Shao Q Yao
The protein-lipid interaction is an essential metabolic process that mediates cellular signaling and functions. Existing strategies for large-scale mapping studies of the protein-lipid interaction fall short in their incompatibility with metabolic incorporation or inability to remove unwanted interferences from lipidated proteins. By incorporating an alkyne-containing choline head group and a diazirine-modified fatty acid simultaneously into choline-containing phospholipids synthesized from live mammalian cells, protein-phospholipid interactions have been successfully imaged in live cells...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429085/the-role-of-rna-alternative-splicing-in-regulating-cancer-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Itamar Kozlovski, Zahava Siegfried, Adi Amar-Schwartz, Rotem Karni
Tumor cells alter their metabolism by a wide array of mechanisms to promote growth and proliferation. Dysregulated expression and/or somatic mutations of key components of the glycolytic pathway/TCA cycle as well as other metabolic pathways allow tumor cells to improve their ability to survive harsh conditions such as hypoxia and the presence of reactive oxygen species, as well as the ability to obtain nutrients to increase lipids, protein, and nucleic acids biogenesis. Approximately 95% of the human protein encoding genes undergo alternative splicing (AS), a regulated process of gene expression that greatly diversifies the proteome by creating multiple proteins from a single gene...
April 20, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416656/effect-of-cholesterol-on-the-molecular-structure-and-transitions-in-a-clinical-grade-lung-surfactant-extract
#6
Jenny Marie Andersson, Carl Grey, Marcus Larsson, Tiago Mendes Ferreira, Emma Sparr
The lipid-protein film covering the interface of the lung alveolar in mammals is vital for proper lung function and its deficiency is related to a range of diseases. Here we present a molecular-level characterization of a clinical-grade porcine lung surfactant extract using a multitechnique approach consisting of [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] solid-state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and mass spectrometry. The detailed characterization presented for reconstituted membranes of a lung extract demonstrates that the molecular structure of lung surfactant strongly depends on the concentration of cholesterol...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414936/east-urals-radioactive-trace-dose-dependent-functional-metabolic-effects-in-the-myocardium-of-the-pygmy-wood-mouse-apodemus-uralensis-taking-into-account-population-size
#7
Nataĺya A Orekhova, Makar V Modorov
The population dynamics, radiometric data and biochemical parameters (concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucose phosphate isomerase and catalase, as well as lipid peroxidation level) in the myocardium of the pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis Pall., 1811) inhabiting the area of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) were analyzed. The functional-metabolic radiation effects as a result external and internal exposure to (137)Cs and (90)Sr (unweighted total dose rate 0...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396881/allelopathic-activity-of-extracts-from-different-brazilian-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-cultivars-on-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-and-weed-plants
#8
G S Casimiro, E Mansur, G Pacheco, R Garcia, I C R Leal, N K Simas
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389626/metabolomics-for-biomarker-discovery-in-the-diagnosis-prognosis-survival-and-recurrence-of-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#9
Fan Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Weiwei Zhao, Kui Deng, Zhuozhong Wang, Chunyan Yang, Libing Ma, Margarita S Openkova, Yan Hou, Kang Li
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains an incurable disease. There are no effective noninvasive techniques that have achieved colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis, prognosis, survival and recurrence in clinic. To investigate colorectal cancer metabolism, we perform an electronic literature search, from 1998 to January 2016, for studies evaluating the metabolomic profile of patients with CRC regarding the diagnosis, recurrence, prognosis/survival, and systematically review the twenty-three literatures included. QUADOMICS tool was used to assess the quality of them...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369941/a-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-dira-using-patient-specific-tissue-classification-via-dect-for-improved-quantitative-ct-in-dose-planning
#10
Alexandr Malusek, Maria Magnussony, Michael Sandborg, Gudrun Alm Carlsson
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate-in a proof-of-concept configuration-a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (DIRA) for quantitative determination of elemental composition of patient tissues for application to brachytherapy with low energy (< 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. METHODS: DIRA was designed as a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, which uses filtered backprojection, automatic segmentation and multimaterial tissue decomposition. The evaluation was done for a phantom derived from the voxelized ICRP 110 male phantom...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358190/a-novel-prebinding-strategy-dramatically-enhances-sortase-mediated-coupling-of-proteins-to-liposomes
#11
John R Silvius, Rania Leventis
We have examined quantitatively the efficiency and the kinetics of sortase A-mediated coupling of model substrate proteins (derived from green fluorescent protein and the SNAP variant of O-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase) to large unilamellar liposomes incorporating low levels of oligopeptide-modified acceptor lipids. Under normal reaction conditions, even using high concentrations of S. aureus or S. pyogenes sortase A and optimal protein coupling substrates and acceptor lipids, protein-liposome coupling is slow, gives at best modest coupling yields, and is markedly limited by the hydrolytic activity of sortase...
April 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352532/strategies-to-enhance-the-production-of-photosynthetic-pigments-and-lipids-in-chlorophycae-species
#12
REVIEW
Juan Roberto Benavente-Valdés, Cristóbal Aguilar, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel, Alejandro Méndez-Zavala, Julio Montañez
Microalgae are a major natural source for a vast array of valuable compounds as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, pigments among others. Despite many applications, only a few species of microalgae are cultured commercially because of poorly developed of cultivation process. Nowadays some strategies of culture have been used for enhancing biomass and value compounds yield. The most strategies applied to microalgae are classified into two groups: nutrimental and physical. The nutrimental are considered as change in media composition as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation and changes in carbon source, while physical are described as manipulation in operational conditions and external factors such as application of high-light intensities, medium salinity and electromagnetic fields...
June 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337779/the-chemistry-function-patho-physiology-of-stratum-corneum-barrier-ceramides
#14
REVIEW
David J Moore, Anthony V Rawlings
Research on understanding of the chemistry, function and (patho)physiology of stratum corneum (SC) lipids and especially ceramides has evolved over the last two decades. This has been made successful through the application of separation techniques that have become increasingly more sophisticated and it has become increasingly evident that our understanding of these molecules remains in its infancy. Thirteen classes of ceramides with over 300 and possibly up to 1000 distinct ceramide species have been identified suggesting an exquisitely subtle relationship between the types of ceramides and physical and chemical behavior...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#15
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324840/biosorption-of-diethyl-phthalate-ester-by-living-and-nonliving-burkholderia-cepacia-and-the-role-of-its-cell-surface-components
#16
Si Luo, Langlang Li, Anwei Chen, Qingru Zeng, Hao Xia, Ji-Dong Gu
In this study, the dibutyl phthalate (DBP) binding properties of a DBP-tolerant bacterium (B. cepacia) were characterized in terms of adsorption kinetics and isotherm. Living and nonliving cells both exhibited rapid removal of DBP, achieving more than 80% of maximum sorption within 30 min of contact and reached the equilibrium after 3 h. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Sips model and the nonliving cells have greater biosorption capacity and affinity for DBP than the living cells. Furthermore, the absence of an active mechanism dependent on metabolism implied that the DBP bioaccumulation by living cells was mainly attribute to passive surface binding...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321581/neurobehavioural-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice
#17
Vasanth Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayprakash Manickam, Ekambaram Perumal
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, extremely in neurotheranostics. Simultaneously, Fe2O3-NP usage is of alarming concern, as its exposure to living systems causes deleterious effects due to its redox potential. However, study on the neurobehavioural impacts of Fe2O3-NPs is very limited. In this regard, adult male mice were intraperitoneally administered with Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 4 weeks. A significant change in locomotor behaviour and spatial memory was observed in Fe2O3-NP-treated animals...
March 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317964/how-does-ytterbium-chloride-interact-with-dmpc-bilayers-a-computational-and-experimental-study
#18
Miguel A Gonzalez, Hanna M G Barriga, Joanna L Richens, Robert V Law, Paul O'Shea, Fernando Bresme
Lanthanide salts have been studied for many years, primarily in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments of mixed lipid-protein systems and more recently to study lipid flip-flop in model membrane systems. It is well recognised that lanthanide salts can influence the behaviour of both lipid and protein systems, however a full molecular level description of lipid-lanthanide interactions is still outstanding. Here we present a study of lanthanide-bilayer interactions, using molecular dynamics computer simulations, fluorescence electrostatic potential experiments and nuclear magnetic resonance...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303757/evaluation-of-microalgae-production-coupled-with-wastewater-treatment
#19
Davide De Francisci, Yixi Su, Arvo Iital, Irini Angelidaki
In the present study the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat panel photobioreactors. Biomass productivity was determined for four dilution rates (4.32 d(-1), 3.6 d(-1), 1.8 d(-1) and 0.72 d(-1)). The productivity peak was 1.524 g l(-1)d(-1) at the dilution rate of 2.41 d(-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to dilution rates, while COD removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283433/pharmacokinetics-of-exosomes-an-important-factor-for-elucidating-the-biological-roles-of-exosomes-and-for-the-development-of-exosome-based-therapeutics
#20
Masaki Morishita, Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles containing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Recently, researchers have uncovered that exosomes are involved in various biological events, such as tumor growth, metastasis, and the immune response, by delivering their cargos to exosome-receiving cells. Moreover, exosomes are expected to be used in therapeutic treatments, such as tissue regeneration therapy and antitumor immunotherapy, because exosomes are effective delivery vehicles for proteins, nucleic acids, and other bioactive compounds...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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