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upper limit of vulnerability

Matthew P Adams, Catherine J Collier, Sven Uthicke, Yan X Ow, Lucas Langlois, Katherine R O'Brien
When several models can describe a biological process, the equation that best fits the data is typically considered the best. However, models are most useful when they also possess biologically-meaningful parameters. In particular, model parameters should be stable, physically interpretable, and transferable to other contexts, e.g. for direct indication of system state, or usage in other model types. As an example of implementing these recommended requirements for model parameters, we evaluated twelve published empirical models for temperature-dependent tropical seagrass photosynthesis, based on two criteria: (1) goodness of fit, and (2) how easily biologically-meaningful parameters can be obtained...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
C L S Wiseman, A Parnia, D Chakravartty, J Archbold, N Zawar, R Copes, D C Cole
BACKGROUND: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. OBJECTIVES: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19-45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Research
Cristina Masseria, Carolyn K Martin, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Laura K Becker, Ami Buikema, Tina Q Tan
BACKGROUND: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated healthcare utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the United States. METHODS: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005-2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (ICD-9-CM 033...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Emiel O Hoogendijk, Olga Theou, Kenneth Rockwood, Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Dorly J H Deeg, Martijn Huisman
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The frailty index (FI), defined by the deficit accumulation approach, is a sensitive instrument to measure levels of frailty, and therefore important for longitudinal studies of aging. AIMS: To develop an FI in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), and to examine the predictive validity of this FI for 19-year mortality. METHODS: LASA is an ongoing study among Dutch older adults, based on a nationally representative sample...
November 28, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Wendy Janssens, Jann Goedecke, Godelieve J de Bree, Sunday A Aderibigbe, Tanimola M Akande, Alice Mesnard
OBJECTIVES: Better insights into health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) are needed to develop accessible health care and limit the increasing financial burden of NCCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in rural Kwara State, Nigeria, among 5,761 individuals. Data were obtained using biomedical and socio-economic questionnaires. Health care utilization, NCCD-related health expenditures and distances to health care providers were compared by sex and by wealth quintile, and a Heckman regression model was used to estimate health expenditures taking selection bias in health care utilization into account...
2016: PloS One
Svetlana Jevrejeva, Luke P Jackson, Riccardo E M Riva, Aslak Grinsted, John C Moore
Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Flemming T Dahlke, Elettra Leo, Felix C Mark, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Ulf Bickmeyer, Stephan Frickenhaus, Daniela Storch
Thermal tolerance windows serve as a powerful tool for estimating the vulnerability of marine species and their life-stages to increasing temperature means and extremes. However, it remains uncertain to which extent additional drivers, such as ocean acidification, modify organismal responses to temperature. This study investigated the effects of CO2 -driven ocean acidification on embryonic thermal sensitivity and performance in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, from the Kattegat. Fertilized eggs were exposed to factorial combinations of two PCO2 conditions (400 μatm vs...
October 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
Elizabeth N Pearce, John H Lazarus, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Michael B Zimmermann
Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A J Samidurai, R S Ware, P S W Davies
Introduction Appropriate dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, especially in young children. Following an iodine fortification in bread initiative, approximately 6 % of Australian preschool children were expected to have an excessive iodine status. The aim of this study was to document the current iodine status of preschool children using urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a biomarker of iodine intake. Methods A convenience sample of fifty-one preschool children, aged 2-3 years, were recruited from south east Queensland...
August 11, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Joshua D Stewart, Edgar Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Katherine R Kumli, Robert D Rubin
Foraging drives many fundamental aspects of ecology, and an understanding of foraging behavior aids in the conservation of threatened species by identifying critical habitats and spatial patterns relevant to management. The world's largest ray, the oceanic manta (Manta birostris) is poorly studied and threatened globally by targeted fisheries and incidental capture. Very little information is available on the natural history, ecology and behavior of the species, complicating management efforts. This study provides the first data on the diving behavior of the species based on data returned from six tagged individuals, and an opportunistic observation from a submersible of a manta foraging at depth...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
D Ferreira-Martins, J Coimbra, C Antunes, J M Wilson
The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is an anadromous, semelparous species that is vulnerable to endangered in parts of its native range due in part to loss of spawning habitat because of man-made barriers. The ability of lampreys to return to the ocean or estuary and search out alternative spawning river systems would be limited by their osmoregulatory ability in seawater. A reduction in tolerance to salinity has been documented in migrants, although the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. We examined the capacity for marine osmoregulation in upstream spawning migrants by characterizing the physiological effects of salinity challenge from a molecular perspective...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Miho Nozue, Midori Ishikawa, Yukari Takemi, Kaoru Kusama, Yoshiharu Fukuda, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Tomoki Nakaya, Nobuo Nishi, Kaori Yoshiba, Nobuko Murayama
Dietary assessment of community-dwelling Japanese older adults who live alone using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is limited. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among Japanese community-dwelling older adults by sex and young-old and old-old population groups to identify the most vulnerable groups that need support. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 with community-dwelling adults aged 65 y or older who lived alone. Participants were drawn from six cities in four Japanese prefectures...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Judith Bernstein, Christina Gebel, Clemencia Vargas, Paul Geltman, Ashley Walter, Raul I Garcia, Norman Tinanoff
INTRODUCTION: Early childhood caries, the most common chronic childhood disease, affects primary dentition and can impair eating, sleeping, and school performance. The disease is most prevalent among vulnerable populations with limited access to pediatric dental services. These same children generally receive well-child care at federally qualified health centers. The objective of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the integration of oral health into pediatric primary care at health centers to improve problem recognition, delivery of preventive measures, and referral to a dentist...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Coraline Chapperon, Nils Volkenborn, Jacques Clavier, Sarah Séité, Rui Seabra, Fernando P Lima
Understanding the physiological abilities of organisms to cope with heat stress is critical for predictions of species' distributions in response to climate change. We investigated physiological responses (respiration and heart beat rate) of the ectotherm limpet Patella vulgata to heat stress events during emersion and the role of seasonal and microclimatic acclimatization for individual thermal tolerance limits. Individuals were collected from 5 microhabitats characterized by different exposure to solar radiation in the high intertidal zone of a semi-exposed rocky shore in winter and summer of 2014...
April 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Michael Pittaro, William Deforge, Mark W Kroll
BACKGROUND: Determination of an adequate defibrillation safety margin or defibrillation threshold can be a challenge in patients with implantable defibrillators (ICDs). The upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) has been shown to be highly correlated with measured defibrillation thresholds. The peak of the latest peaking monophasic T wave measured from the pacing spike of the induction train of S1 via the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is generally accepted to approximate the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle...
July 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Julie D Sheldon, Nicole I Stacy, Stephen Blake, Fredy Cabrera, Sharon L Deem
Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1)...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Wilco C E P Verberk, Isabelle Durance, Ian P Vaughan, Steve J Ormerod
Aquatic ecological responses to climatic warming are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other environmental stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal warming effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of warming on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761)...
May 2016: Global Change Biology
Maria Carolina Borges, Romina Buffarini, Ricardo V Santos, Andrey M Cardoso, James R Welch, Luiza Garnelo, Carlos E A Coimbra, Bernardo L Horta
BACKGROUND: Anemia is recognized as a major public health problem that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations. Indigenous women of reproductive age in Brazil are thought to be at high risk, but lack of nationwide data limits knowledge about the burden of disease and its main determinants. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in this population using data from The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil...
2016: BMC Women's Health
David J Marshall, Enrico L Rezende, Nursalwa Baharuddin, Francis Choi, Brian Helmuth
Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America...
December 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Hannah Kuper, Velma Nyapera, Jennifer Evans, David Munyendo, Maria Zuurmond, Severine Frison, Victoria Mwenda, David Otieno, James Kisia
BACKGROUND: Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group) and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type...
2015: PloS One
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