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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258769/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-human-health-hype-or-real
#1
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa, DSc Mohammed S Razzaque, Nasser M Al-Daghri
The incidence and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are increasing worldwide. It is estimated that over 50% of population in the world have low in vitamin D (i.e., hypovitaminosis D; levels below 30 ng/mL). 80% of our vitamin D requirement comes from the ultraviolet rays from sunlight, and for the remainder, we rely from the diet and supplements. The latter become important when one is exposing to less than optimal amounts of sunlight, inability of the skin to generate vitamin D efficiently, and/or having secondary causes that leads to increase catabolism of vitamin D...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222047/clown-knifefish-chitala-ornata-oxygen-uptake-and-its-partitioning-in-present-and-future-temperature-environments
#2
Dang Diem Tuong, Tran Bao Ngoc, Vo Thi Nhu Huynh, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Tran Ngoc Hai, Tobias Wang, Mark Bayley
It has been argued that tropical ectotherms are more vulnerable to the projected temperature increases than their temperate relatives, because they already live closer to their upper temperature limit. Here we examine the effects of a temperature increase in environmental temperature to 6°C above the present day median temperature (27°C) in the freshwater air-breathing fish Chitala ornata, on aspects of its respiratory physiology in both normoxia and in hypoxia. We found no evidence of respiratory impairment with elevated temperature...
December 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182729/effects-of-opioids-given-to-facilitate-mechanical-ventilation-on-sleep-apnea-after-extubation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
Fanny P Timm, Sebastian Zaremba, Stephanie D Grabitz, Hassan N Farhan, Stefanie Zaremba, Elizabeth Siliski, Christina H Shin, Sandra Muse, Sabine Friedrich, James E Mojica, Tobias Kurth, Satya-Krishna Ramachandran, Matthias Eikermann
Study Objectives: Following extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU), upper airway (UA) edema and respiratory depressants may promote UA dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that opioids increase the risk of sleep apnea early after extubation. Methods: 56 ICU patients underwent polysomnography the night after extubation. Airflow limitation during wakefulness was identified using bedside spirometry. Correlation and ordinal regression analyses were used to quantify effects of pre-extubation opioid dose on post-extubation Apnea-Hypopnea-Index (AHI) and severity of sleep apnea and whether or not inspiratory airway obstruction (ratio of maximum expiratory and inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50/MIF50)≥1) during wakefulness predicts airway obstruction during sleep...
November 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166701/when-is-protection-from-impact-needed-for-the-face-as-well-as-the-eyes-in-occupational-environments
#4
Stephen J Dain, Rose Huang, Aimee Tiao, B Ralph Chou
BACKGROUND: The most commonly identified reason for requiring or using occupational eye and face protection is for protection against flying objects. Standards vary on what risk may require protection of the eyes alone and what requires protection for the whole face. Information on the minimum energy transfer for face damage to occur is not well-established. METHODS: The heads of pigs were used as the common model for human skin. A 6 mm steel ball projected at velocities between 45 and 135 m/s was directed at the face area...
November 22, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122426/anatomical-factors-contributing-to-radial-nerve-excursion-at-the-brachium-a-cadaveric-study
#5
Wayne A Chen, T David Luo, Michael D Wigton, Zhongyu Li
PURPOSE: The radial nerve appears to be more vulnerable to injury in the brachium than the median and ulnar nerves. The underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is not well explained. We hypothesize that the radial nerve has less excursion than the median and ulnar nerves because it is anatomically tethered by the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) and that elbow positioning and LIS release will improve its excursion. METHODS: Eight paired fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremity specimens were used...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108382/clinicopathologic-features-and-prognostic-factors-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-who-are-75-years-and-older
#6
Mingfang Zhao, Hans Liu, Yanqing Tang, Xin Meng, Jun Yu, Qi Wang, Qiao Zhou, Sean X Leng, Haiyan Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and can be considered as a disease of older adults. About one half of the cases were diagnosed in patients over 70 years of age. Decision-making about treatment for these older patients can be complicated by age-related physiological changes, impaired functional status, limited social support, and comorbidities. Many trials excluded patients using an upper limit of 75 years of age. Little is known about prognostic factors in patients who are over this age limit. In this study, we conducted an analysis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify specific clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors for these vulnerable cancer patients (N= 293,616)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037370/modeling-warming-predicts-a-physiological-threshold-for-the-extinction-of-the-living-fossil-frog-calyptocephalella-gayi
#7
Marcela A Vidal, Francisco Novoa-Muñoz, Enrique Werner, Cristian Torres, Ricardo Nova
Global climate change will have a greater impact on ectotherms in tropical and subtropical communities than at higher latitudes, because ambient temperatures are closer to the upper thermal limits of species. Amphibian species are highly dependent on external weather conditions, and the effect of global warming on these has been evaluated recently. The Great Chilean frog (Calyptocephalella gayi) is an endemic, monotypic species and genus whose conservation status is considered Vulnerable because of high extraction pressure for human consumption, lack of regulatory measures and comprehension by its consumers...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035774/facial-dog-bite-injuries-in-children-a-case-report
#8
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Edgleys Porto, Bruno Ferreira Dos Santos, Christiane Leite Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are common and can affect victims of different ages, from children to the elderly. Injuries are usually located in different body regions, including head and face. The treatment of choice for injuries is the suture of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and tetanus and anti-rabies vaccination. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 11-year-old male black patient was admitted to the Surgery and Maxillo-Facial Traumatology Service, on an urgent basis, victim of domestic animal aggression (dog biting)...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991185/comparison-of-health-risk-assessments-of-heavy-metals-and-as-in-sewage-sludge-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-for-adults-and-children-in-the-urban-district-of-taiyuan-china
#9
Baoling Duan, Wuping Zhang, Haixia Zheng, Chunyan Wu, Qiang Zhang, Yushan Bu
Abstract: To compare the human health risk of heavy metals and As in sewage sludge between adults and children, samples were collected from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the urban district of Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi. Heavy metals and As in sewage sludge can be ranked according to the mean concentration in the following order: Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Compared with the concentration limit set by different countries, the heavy metals contents in sewage sludge were all within the standard limits, except for the content of As, which was higher than the threshold limit established by Canada...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943009/midterm-and-long-term-follow-up-in-competitive-athletes-undergoing-thoracic-outlet-decompression-for-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#10
William Shutze, Brad Richardson, Ryan Shutze, Kimberly Tran, Allen Dao, Gerald O Ogola, Allan Young, Greg Pearl
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) results from compression of the brachial plexus by the clavicle, first rib, and scalene muscles and may develop secondary to repetitive motion of the upper extremity. Athletes routinely perform repetitive motions, and sports requiring significant arm and shoulder use may put the participant at increased risk for NTOS. Competitive athletes who develop NTOS may require first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) for symptomatic relief...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900253/leaf-thermotolerance-in-tropical-trees-from-a-seasonally-dry-climate-varies-along-the-slow-fast-resource-acquisition-spectrum
#11
Aniruddh Sastry, Deepak Barua
Knowledge of the upper limits of temperature tolerance is essential to understand how tropical trees will respond to global warming. We quantified leaf thermotolerance in 41 tree species growing in a seasonally dry tropical region of the Indian subcontinent to examine: (1) differences between evergreen and deciduous species; (2) relationships with leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf size; and, (3) seasonal variation in thermotolerance. Thermotolerance ranged from 45.5 °C to 50.5 °C among species, was higher for evergreen than deciduous species, and was negatively related to a continuous estimate of deciduousness...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867960/estimating-the-upper-limit-of-prehistoric-peak-ground-acceleration-using-an-in-situ-intact-and-vulnerable-stalagmite-from-plaveck%C3%A3-priepast-cave-detrek%C3%A5-i-zsomboly-little-carpathians-slovakia-first-results
#12
K Gribovszki, K Kovács, P Mónus, G Bokelmann, P Konecny, M Lednická, G Moseley, C Spötl, R L Edwards, M Bednárik, L Brimich, L Tóth
Earthquakes hit urban centres in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is therefore very important. In principle, the best way to test probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) is to compare them with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle...
2017: Journal of Seismology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806748/temperature-effects-on-gene-expression-and-morphological-development-of-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-larvae
#13
Sebastian N Politis, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Sune R Sørensen, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp), growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factors (igf)] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782036/deadly-heat-waves-projected-in-the-densely-populated-agricultural-regions-of-south-asia
#14
Eun-Soon Im, Jeremy S Pal, Elfatih A B Eltahir
The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760156/predictors-of-self-reported-health-among-the-elderly-in-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Cynthia Lum Fonta, Justice Nonvignon, Moses Aikins, Emmanuel Nwosu, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey
BACKGROUND: Self-reported health is a widely used measure of health status across individuals. As the ageing population increases, the health of the elderly also becomes of growing concern. The elderly go through life facing social, economic and financial hardships. These hardships are known to affect the health status of people as they age. The purpose of this study is to assess social and health related factors of self-reported health among the elderly in Ghana. METHODS: A multivariate regression analysis in form of a binary and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine the association between socioeconomic, demographic and health related factors, on self-reported health...
July 31, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732401/can-brook-trout-survive-climate-change-in-large-rivers-if-it-rains
#16
Eric R Merriam, Rodrigo Fernandez, J Todd Petty, Nicolas Zegre
We provide an assessment of thermal characteristics and climate change vulnerability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitats in the upper Shavers Fork sub-watershed, West Virginia. Spatial and temporal (2001-2015) variability in observed summer (6/1-8/31) stream temperatures was quantified in 23 (9 tributary, 14 main-stem) reaches. We developed a mixed effects model to predict site-specific mean daily stream temperature from air temperature and discharge and coupled this model with a hydrologic model to predict future (2016-2100) changes in stream temperature under low (RCP 4...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633653/household-cereal-crop-harvest-and-children-s-nutritional-status-in-rural-burkina-faso
#17
Kristine Belesova, Antonio Gasparrini, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Paul Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601816/associations-between-self-rated-health-and-health-behaviour-among-older-adults-in-estonia-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#18
Liili Abuladze, Nele Kunder, Katrin Lang, Sirje Vaask
OBJECTIVES: The population of Estonia has one of the lowest life expectancies and health statuses in Europe. This is reflected in a lower perception of health among older adults. This study focuses on the role of health behaviour (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and nutrition) in self-rated health, accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations and long-term illnesses as well as satisfaction with life of older Estonian men and women. DESIGN: We use representative cross-sectional data from Wave 4 of the Estonian Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, conducted mainly in 2011...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587125/equine-welfare-during-exercise-an-evaluation-of-breathing-breathlessness-and-bridles
#19
REVIEW
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579706/hepatotoxicity-due-to-antituberculosis-therapy-among-paediatric-patients-seen-at-the-university-of-ilorin-teaching-hospital-north-central-nigeria
#20
Gobir Aishatu, Ibraheem Rasheedah, Johnson Wahab, Muhammed Sheni, Oladele Damilola, Ojuola Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: The liver is vulnerable to injury from the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. This may result in mortality, long term morbidity and reduced compliance to therapy. Nigeria recently introduced fixed drug combinations in the treatment of children amid concerns of hepatotoxicity. A 6-year-old boy was treated in our unit had fulminant hepatic failure two weeks after completing his anti-tuberculosis therapy. This prompted the unit to investigate hepatotoxicity due to anti-tuberculosis therapy among children...
March 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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