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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928424/expression-of-p53-and-its-mechanism-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Jiukai Wan, Jun Zhang, Junqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of tumor protein p53 (p53), and its mechanism of function, in prostate cancer (PC). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to interfere with p53 expression in the PC cell line, DU145. Cell viability and p53 expression were analyzed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and western blotting. The effects of p53 expression on the proliferation, migration and adhesion abilities of PC cells were analyzed using Cell Counting kit-8, Transwell and adhesion assays. Changes in cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability were observed following treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD184352, and janus kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP60012...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928413/talin2-regulates-breast-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-apoptosis
#2
Yingfan Liang, Hongwei Chen, Ling Ji, Jinfu Du, Xiaofan Xie, Xiang Li, Yongliang Lou
Talin is a key component molecule of the extracellular matrix-integrin-cytoskeleton. It serves an important role in the activation of integrin, which, in turn, is known to mediate physiological and pathological processes, including cell adhesion, growth, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. In vertebrates, there are two Talin genes, Talin1 and Talin2. Talin1 is known to regulate focal adhesion dynamics, cell migration and cell invasion; however, the precise role of Talin2 in cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the functional role of Talin2 was examined in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928386/knockdown-of-p57-gene-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#3
Tai Ping Zhao, Xin Liang Wang, Yi Min Han
The aim of the study was to investigate possible effects of p57 on the growth of the human MCF-7 and rat SHZ-88 breast cancer cell lines. Specific oligonucleotide sequences containing small hairpin structure were inserted into a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression vector. The human MCF-7 and rat SHZ-88 breast cancer cell lines were transfected with recombinant plasmids. The p57 gene expression was blocked in the human MCF-7 breast and rat SHZ-88 breast cancer cells, using chemically modified siRNA. The p57 expression level was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928361/overexpression-of-p62-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-aggressive-phenotypes-in-osteosarcoma
#4
Yao Lu, Qian Wang, Yong Zhou, Liang Sun, Bin Hu, Hanzhong Xue, Ming Li, Kun Zhang, Cheng Ren, Ning Duan, Hongliang Liu, Congming Zhang, Zhong Li, Teng Ma
p62 (also known as sequestosome 1) protein, is a small regulatory protein that accumulates in autophagy-defective cells that has been demonstrated to be involved in the prognosis and survival of patients with several types of cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no such studies for osteosarcoma (OS). In the present study, the expression of p62 in 70 OS samples was determined using immunohistochemistry and its association with various clinicopathological factors was assessed. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of p62 protein was detected in 77...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926517/pheromone-binding-proteins-in-the-asian-gypsy-moth-females-lymantria-dispar-recognizing-the-sex-pheromone-and-plant-volatiles
#5
Yanxue Yu, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Chao Zheng, Jian Zhang, Naizhong Chen
Lepidopterans are known to have different pheromone-binding proteins with differential expression patterns that facilitate specific signal transduction of semiochemicals. Two PBPs of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were reported to express in both females and males, but their physiological functions were unknown. Results showed that LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 were expressed in the sensilla trichodea of males and the s. trichodea and s. basiconica of females. When LdisPBP1 gene was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) in males, the expression of LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 decreased by 69 and 76%, respectively, and when LdisPBP2 gene was targeted by RNAi, they decreased by 60 and 42%, respectively...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925950/epigenetic-inheritance-mediated-by-coupling-of-rnai-and-histone-h3k9-methylation
#6
Ruby Yu, Xiaoyi Wang, Danesh Moazed
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are associated with epigenetic states that form the basis for cell-type-specific gene expression1,2 . Once established, histone PTMs can be maintained by positive feedback involving enzymes that recognize a pre-existing histone modification and catalyse the same modification on newly deposited histones. Recent studies suggest that in wild-type cells, histone PTM-based positive feedback is too weak to mediate epigenetic inheritance in the absence of other inputs3-7 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925665/apobec3g-regulated-host-factors-interfere-with-measles-virus-replication-role-of-redd1-and-mtorc1-inhibition
#7
Vishakha Tiwarekar, Julia Wohlfahrt, Markus Fehrholz, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Susanne Kneitz, Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies
We found earlier that ectopic expression of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) in Vero cells inhibits measles (MV), respiratory syncytial and mumps virus, while the mechanism of inhibition remained unclear. A microarray analysis revealed that in A3G transduced Vero cells several cellular transcripts were differentially expressed suggesting that A3G regulates the expression of host factors. One of the best up-regulated host cell factors, REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response-1, also called DDIT4), reduced MV replication ∼10 fold upon over-expression in Vero cells...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925586/microrna166-modulates-cadmium-tolerance-and-accumulation-in-rice
#8
Yanfei Ding, Shaohua Gong, Yi Wang, Feijuan Wang, Hexigeduleng Bao, Junwei Sun, Chong Cai, Keke Yi, Zhixiang Chen, Cheng Zhu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20- to 24-nucleotide small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. Several plant miRNAs, such as miR166, have vital roles in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. One such environmental stress encountered by crop plants is exposure to cadmium (Cd), an element highly toxic to most organisms, including humans and plants. In this study, we analyzed the role of miR166 in Cd accumulation and tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). The expression levels of miR166 in both root and leaf tissues were significantly higher in the reproductive stage than in the seedling stage in rice...
June 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924347/highly-efficient-rnai-and-cas9-based-auto-cloning-systems-for-c-elegans-research
#9
Ádám Sturm, Éva Saskoi, Kovács Tibor, Nóra Weinhardt, Tibor Vellai
RNA interference (RNAi) technology used for the functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans genes frequently leads to phenotypes with low penetrance or even proves completely ineffective. The methods previously developed to solve this problem were built on mutant genetic backgrounds, such as those defective for rrf-3, in which endogenous RNAi pathways are overexpressed. These mutations, however, interferes with many other genetic pathways so that the detected phenotype cannot always be clearly linked to the RNAi-exposed gene...
June 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922059/rna-interference-new-mechanistic-and-biochemical-insights-with-application-in-oral-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Smaranda Buduru, Alina-Andreea Zimta, Cristina Ciocan, Cornelia Braicu, Diana Dudea, Alexandra Iulia Irimie, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Over the last few decades, the incidence of oral cancer has gradually increased, due to the negative influence of environmental factors and also abnormalities within the genome. The main issues in oral cancer treatment consist in surpassing resistance and recurrence. However, continuous discovery of altered signaling pathways in these tumors provides valuable information for the identification of novel gene candidates targeted in personalized therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural mechanism that involves small interfering RNA (siRNA); this can be exploited in biomedical research by using natural or synthetic constructs for activation of the mechanism...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921601/septins-suppress-the-release-of-vaccinia-virus-from-infected-cells
#11
Julia Pfanzelter, Serge Mostowy, Michael Way
Septins are conserved components of the cytoskeleton that play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes including division, migration, and membrane trafficking. Septins can also inhibit bacterial infection by forming cage-like structures around pathogens such as Shigella We found that septins are recruited to vaccinia virus immediately after its fusion with the plasma membrane during viral egress. RNA interference-mediated depletion of septins increases virus release and cell-to-cell spread, as well as actin tail formation...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921327/enhanced-susceptibility-of-cancer-cells-to-oncolytic-rhabdo-virotherapy-by-expression-of-nodamura-virus-protein-b2-as-a-suppressor-of-rna-interference
#12
Donald Bastin, Amelia S Aitken, Adrian Pelin, Larissa A Pikor, Mathieu J F Crupi, Michael S Huh, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault, John C Bell, Carolina S Ilkow
Antiviral responses are barriers that must be overcome for efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. In mammalian cells, antiviral responses involve the interferon pathway, a protein-signaling cascade that alerts the immune system and limits virus propagation. Tumour-specific defects in interferon signaling enhance viral infection and responses to oncolytic virotherapy, but many human cancers are still refractory to oncolytic viruses. Given that invertebrates, fungi and plants rely on RNA interference pathways for antiviral protection, we investigated the potential involvement of this alternative antiviral mechanism in cancer cells...
June 19, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921205/current-advances-in-small-activating-rnas-for-gene-therapy-principles-applications-and-challenges
#13
Ling-Yan Zhou, Zhi-Yao He, Ting Xu, Yu-Quan Wei
Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) are small double-stranded RNAs that could mediate the target-specific gene expression by targeting selected sequences in gene promoters at both the transcriptional and epigenetic levels. This phenomenon of gene manipulation is known as RNA activation (RNAa), which opens up a new pathway for RNA-based gene therapeutics in contrast to RNA interference. Although the exact molecular mechanism of RNAa mediated by saRNAs still remains foggy, some reports have provided the possible ones to explain it...
June 19, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920382/identification-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-in-the-pearl-mussel-hyriopsis-cumingii-and-its-involvement-in-innate-immunity-and-pearl-sac-formation
#14
Dandan Huang, Zhiyi Bai, Jiexuan Shen, Liting Zhao, Jiale Li
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) acts as a central intracellular signal adapter molecule that mediates the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor family in vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, HcTRAF6, a molluscan homologue of TRAF6 from Hyriopsis cumingii, has been cloned and identified. The entire open reading frame of HcTRAF6 was found to comprise a 1965-bp region that encodes a predicted protein of 654 amino acids, which contains conserved characteristic domains including a RING domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a typical coiled coil and the MATH domain...
June 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920381/the-role-of-nrf2-keap1-signaling-pathway-in-the-antioxidant-defense-response-induced-by-pahs-in-the-calm-ruditapes-philippinarum
#15
Hongdan Wang, Luqing Pan, Lingjun Si, Jingjing Miao
The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of cellular responses against environmental stresses. In this study we cloned the full-length cDNAs of the RpNrf2 encompassed 2823 bp from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum (R. philippinarum). Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrf2 was highly specific in the clams. RpNrf2 expression was detected in gill, digestive gland, mantle and adductor, which the highest transcription level was observed in gill and digestive gland. The gene expressions of RpNrf2, Kelch-like-ECH-associated Protein 1 (Keap1), Cul3-based E3 Ubiquitin Ligase (E3), Glutathione S-transferase (GST-pi), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in digestive gland was evaluated by real-time PCR after being exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0...
June 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920131/expression-of-socs1-and-socs3-genes-in-interferon-treated-and-direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-treated-hepatitis-c-patients
#16
Zara Naz, Braira Wahid, Sana Usman, Komal Saleem, Shazia Rafique, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Idrees
Genetics of host plays a significant role in susceptibility and pathogenesis of disease. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV proteins interfere with interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and upregulate transcription of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 genes (SOCS1 and SOCS3), which results in impaired immune response. In this study, we evaluated relative expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in untreated HCV patients and patients treated with 2 different treatment strategies that are, (IFN therapy and direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drug regimen...
June 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917176/long-non-coding-hottip-regulates-preeclampsia-by-inhibiting-rnd3
#17
L Li, X Zhang, S-L Hong, Y Chen, G-H Ren
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is an important disease affecting maternal and neonatal pregnancy. Long non-coding RNA plays an important role in preeclampsia. This study aims to explore the role of HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA (HOTTIP) in preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of HOTTIP in placentas of preeclampsia and normal pregnancy was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The difference of clinical data between high expression HOTTIP group and low expression HOTTIP group was compared to explore the relationship between HOTTIP and the progress of preeclampsia...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917161/slpti4-affects-regulation-of-fruit-ripening-seed-germination-and-stress-responses-by-modulating-aba-signaling-in-tomato
#18
Yufei Sun, Bin Liang, Juan Wang, Wenbin Kai, Pei Chen, Li Jiang, Yangwei Du, Ping Leng
Although the role of ethylene-response factor (ERF) Pti4 in disease resistance has been demonstrated in higher plants, it is presently unknown whether the tomato SlPti4 protein plays a role in the regulation of fruit development and the stress response. Here, we show that SlPti4 is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, seed germination, and responses to drought and Botrytis cinerea infection through adjustments to ABA metabolism and signaling. SlPti4 gene expression is very low early in fruit development, but increases rapidly during ripening and can be induced by exogenous ABA and 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC)...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916171/rna-interference-in-planarians-feeding-and-injection-of-synthetic-dsrna
#19
Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata
RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the simplest and easiest methods for specifically perturbing gene function in an organism. In planarian research, RNAi is one of the essential methods for defining gene functions not only during regeneration, but also during other life history stages. Since the first report of the efficacy of RNAi in planarians in 1999, several RNAi protocols have been reported. Here, we describe protocols to synthesize and deliver synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to planarians, either by injection or by feeding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916170/systemic-rna-interference-in-planarians-by-feeding-of-dsrna-containing-bacteria
#20
Carolyn E Adler, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
RNA interference (RNAi) is currently the only method available in planaria for assessing the function of particular genes. We describe here a method for performing body-wide gene knockdown, relying on dsRNA production in bacteria and subsequent delivery to planaria by feeding a liver-bacteria mixture. This method is ideal for screening many genes in parallel, in a cost-effective and reliable manner. We also describe a ligation-independent cloning strategy, which is used to rapidly transfer single genes into an RNAi vector that is also appropriate for downstream applications such as in situ hybridizations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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