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Rna interference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656441/a-review-on-current-status-of-antiviral-sirna
#1
REVIEW
Abid Qureshi, Vaqar Gani Tantray, Altaf Rehman Kirmani, Abdul Ghani Ahangar
Viral diseases like influenza, AIDS, hepatitis, and Ebola cause severe epidemics worldwide. Along with their resistant strains, new pathogenic viruses continue to be discovered so creating an ongoing need for new antiviral treatments. RNA interference is a cellular gene-silencing phenomenon in which sequence-specific degradation of target mRNA is achieved by means of complementary short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Short interfering RNA technology affords a potential tractable strategy to combat viral pathogenesis because siRNAs are specific, easy to design, and can be directed against multiple strains of a virus by targeting their conserved gene regions...
April 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656061/hypoxia-inducible-bidirectional-shrna-expression-vector-delivery-using-pei-chitosan-tba-copolymers-for-colorectal-cancer-gene-therapy
#2
Bita Javan, Fatemeh Atyabi, Majid Shahbazi
AIMS: This investigation was conducted to construct a hypoxia/colorectal dual-specific bidirectional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector and to transfect it into the colon cancer cell line HT-29 with PEI/chitosan-TBA nanoparticles for the simultaneous knock down of β-catenin and Bcl-2 under hypoxia. MAIN METHODS: To construct a pRNA-bipHRE-CEA vector, the carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) promoter designed in two directions and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhancer were inserted between two promoters for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression...
April 12, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655920/suppressing-ku70-ku80-expression-elevates-homology-directed-repair-efficiency-in-primary-fibroblasts
#3
Guoling Li, Dewu Liu, Xianwei Zhang, Rong Quan, Cuili Zhong, Jianxin Mo, Yaoqiang Huang, Haoqiang Wang, Xiaofang Ruan, Zheng Xu, Enqin Zheng, Ting Gu, Linjun Hong, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu, Huaqiang Yang
The main DNA repair pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), are complementary to each other; hence, interruptions of the NHEJ pathway can favor HDR. Improving HDR efficiency in animal primary fibroblasts can facilitate the generation of gene knock-in animals with agricultural and biomedical values by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we used siRNA to suppress the expression of Ku70 and Ku80, which are the key factors in NHEJ pathway, to investigate the effect of Ku silencing on the HDR efficiency in pig fetal fibroblasts...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655784/aristolochic-acid-i-interferes-with-the-expression-of-blcap-tumor-suppressor-gene-in-human-cells
#4
Ying-Tzu Huang, Ting-Shuan Wu, Chuan-Chen Lu, Feng-Yih Yu, Biing-Hui Liu
Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a phytocompound that is linked to the progressive renal disease and development of human urothelial carcinoma. The bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP) gene exhibits a tumor suppressor function in various tumors, including bladder carcinoma. This study evaluated the effect of AAI on BLCAP expression and its associated mechanism in human cells. Administering AAI to human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2) and urinary bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) significantly reduced the expression of BLCAP mRNA and protein...
April 12, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650350/loss-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-glp-1-signaling-reduces-bat-thermogenesis-and-increases-adiposity
#5
Shin J Lee, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Angelica Pignalosa, Puck N Norell, Alyssa Cortella, Klaus G Pettersen, Dubravka Vrdoljak, Matthew R Hayes, Scott Kanoski, Wolfgang Langhans, Alan G Watts
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. METHODS: We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650157/rna-interference-of-ghpepc2-enhanced-seed-oil-accumulation-and-salt-tolerance-in-upland-cotton
#6
Yanpeng Zhao, Yi Huang, Yumei Wang, Yupeng Cui, Zhengjie Liu, Jinping Hua
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650150/the-swi-snf-subunit-swi3b-regulates-iamt1-expression-via-chromatin-remodeling-in-arabidopsis-leaf-development
#7
Wenxing Han, Danlu Han, Zhipeng He, Huan Hu, Qian Wu, Juanjuan Zhang, Jieming Jiang, Genji Qin, Yuhai Cui, Jianbin Lai, Chengwei Yang
The SWI/SNF complex is crucial to chromatin remodeling in various biological processes in different species, but the distinct functions of its components in plant development remain unclear. Here we uncovered the role of SWI3B, a subunit of the Arabidopsis thaliana SWI/SNF complex, via RNA interference. Knockdown of SWI3B resulted in an upward-curling leaf phenotype. Further investigation showed that the RNA level of IAA carboxyl methyltransferase 1 (IAMT1), encoding an enzyme involved in auxin metabolism, was dramatically elevated in the knockdown (SWI3B-RNAi) plants...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649335/molecular-characterization-of-the-lipophorin-receptor-in-the-crustacean-ectoparasite-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#8
Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Sussie Dalvin, Qaiser Waheed, Frank Nilsen, Rune Male
The Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a marine ectoparasite of salmonid fish in the Northern Hemisphere and considered as a major challenge in aquaculture and a threat to wild populations of salmonids. Adult female lice produce a large number of lipid-rich eggs, however, the mechanism of maternal lipid transport into developing eggs during salmon louse reproduction has not been described. In the present study, a full-length L. salmonis lipophorin receptor (LsLpR) consisting of 16 exons was obtained by RACE and RT-PCR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649213/new-insights-into-the-transposition-mechanisms-of-is6110-and-its-dynamic-distribution-between-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-lineages
#9
Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Irene Pérez, Nacho Aguiló, Santiago Uranga, Ana Picó, Carlos Lampreave, Alberto Cebollada, Isabel Otal, Sofía Samper, Carlos Martín
The insertion Sequence IS6110, only present in the pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), has been the gold-standard epidemiological marker for TB for more than 25 years, but biological implications of IS6110 transposition during MTBC adaptation to humans remain elusive. By studying 2,236 clinical isolates typed by IS6110-RFLP and covering the MTBC, we remarked a lineage-specific content of IS6110 being higher in modern globally distributed strains. Once observed the IS6110 distribution in the MTBC, we selected representative isolates and found a correlation between the normalized expression of IS6110 and its abundance in MTBC chromosomes...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649127/gene-therapy-for-chronic-hbv-can-we-eliminate-cccdna
#10
REVIEW
Kristie Bloom, Mohube Betty Maepa, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global health concern and accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually. Amongst other limitations of current anti-HBV treatment, failure to eliminate the viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and emergence of resistance remain the most worrisome. Viral rebound from latent episomal cccDNA reservoirs occurs following cessation of therapy, patient non-compliance, or the development of escape mutants. Simultaneous viral co-infections, such as by HIV-1, further complicate therapeutic interventions...
April 12, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648606/ecd1-functions-as-an-rna-editing-trans-factor-of-rps14-149-in-plastids-and-is-required-for-early-chloroplast-development
#11
Tian Jiang, Jing Zhang, Liwei Rong, Yanjiang Feng, Qi Wang, Qiulai Song, Lixin Zhang, Min Ouyang
Chloroplast development is a highly complex process and the regulatory mechanism has not been fully characterized. Identification of the corresponding regulators will shed light on the intricacies of chloroplast development. Here, we identified ECD1 (Early Chloroplast Development 1), a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein (PPR) belonging to the PLS subfamily. Inactivation of ECD1 leads to embryo lethality, and abnormal embryogenesis occurs in ecd1/+ heterozygous plants. A decrease of ECD1 induced by RNA interference (RNAi) results in seedlings with albino cotyledons but normal true leaves...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644893/activation-of-the-nfkb-pathway-alters-the-phenotype-of-mscs-in-the-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-with-severe-bpd
#12
Tobias Reicherzer, Susanne Häffner, Tayyab Shahzad, Judith Gronbach, Josef Mysliwietz, Christoph Huebener, Uwe Hasbargen, Jan Gertheiss, Andreas Schulze, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Anne Hilgendorff, Harald Ehrhardt
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are released into the airways of preterm infants following lung injury. These cells display a pro-inflammatory phenotype and are associated with development of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to characterize the functional properties of MSCs obtained from tracheal aspirates of 50 preterm infants who required invasive ventilation. Samples were separated by disease severity. The increased proliferative capacity of MSCs was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation and higher severity of BPD...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642859/identification-of-novel-mites-miniature-inverted-repeat-transposable-elements-in-coxiella-burnetii-implications-for-protein-and-small-rna-evolution
#13
Shaun Wachter, Rahul Raghavan, Jenny Wachter, Michael F Minnick
BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium and zoonotic agent of Q fever. C. burnetii's genome contains an abundance of pseudogenes and numerous selfish genetic elements. MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) are non-autonomous transposons that occur in all domains of life and are thought to be insertion sequences (ISs) that have lost their transposase function. Like most transposable elements (TEs), MITEs are thought to play an active role in evolution by altering gene function and expression through insertion and deletion activities...
April 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642521/cytochrome-p450-cyp6ev11-in-chironomus-kiiensis-larvae-involved-in-phenol-stress
#14
Qihui Zhang, Dong Chu, Lili Sun, Chuanwang Cao
Phenol is one of the organic pollutants which can cause water environment pollution. It is not only enriched in aquatic organisms but is also a serious threat to human health. Chironomus kiiensis is very sensitive to the contaminants in water and its cytochrome P450s are usually chosen as biomarkers for water pollution. To examine whether CYP6EV11 plays a role in the oxidative metabolism of phenol, we measured the silencing efficiency of CYP6EV11 and evaluated larval susceptibility to sublethal phenol levels by RNA interference (RNAi) technology...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630109/effects-of-long-non-coding-rna-urhc-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-invasion-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Z-G Gu, G-H Shen, J-H Lang, W-X Huang, Z-H Qian, J Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA URHC on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of lncRNA-URHC in tissues and cells was tested by Real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of lncRNA-URHC was down-regulated by RNA interference (siRNA). The Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to detect the interference efficiency. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, and transwell were used to detect the effect of lncRNA-URHC on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of colorectal cancer cells...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629115/h-2-o-2-responsive-and-plaque-penetrating-nanoplatform-for-mtor-gene-silencing-with-robust-anti-atherosclerosis-efficacy
#16
Wen Gao, Yujie Zhao, Xiang Li, Yuhui Sun, Michelle Cai, Wenhua Cao, Zhenhua Liu, Lili Tong, Guanwei Cui, Bo Tang
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that controls autophagy and lipid metabolism is pivotal for atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Although blocking the mTOR function with rapamycin and its analogs may stimulate autophagy and consequently attenuate lipid storage and atherosclerotic lesions, only limited success has been achieved in clinical applications due to the unsatisfactory efficacy and safety profiles. In this study, we engineered a cerium oxide nanowire (CeO2 NW)-based RNA interference (RNAi) oligonucleotide delivery nanoplatform for the effective silencing of mTOR and treatment of atherosclerosis...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629072/caged-circular-sirnas-for-photomodulation-of-gene-expression-in-cells-and-mice
#17
Liangliang Zhang, Duanwei Liang, Yuan Wang, Dong Li, Jinhao Zhang, Li Wu, Mengke Feng, Fan Yi, Luzheng Xu, Liandi Lei, Quan Du, XinJing Tang
By means of RNA interference (RNAi), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play important roles in gene function study and drug development. Recently, photolabile siRNAs were developed to elucidate the process of gene silencing in terms of space, time and degree through chemical modification of siRNAs. We report herein a novel type of photolabile siRNA that was synthesized through cyclizing two ends of a single stranded RNA with a photocleavable linker. These circular siRNAs became more resistant to serum degradation...
January 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628790/heme-oxygenase-inhibition-in-cancers-possible-tools-and-targets
#18
REVIEW
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627379/the-antipsychotic-drug-quetiapine-stimulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-modulating-the-cell-cycle
#19
Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
Recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine. To explore the mechanisms of quetiapine in oligodendrocyte development, we examined the effects of quetiapine on cell cycle progression...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625540/the-role-of-transposable-elements-in-emergence-of-metazoa
#20
REVIEW
R N Mustafin, E K Khusnutdinova
Systems initially emerged for protecting genomes against insertions of transposable elements and represented by mechanisms of splicing regulation, RNA-interference, and epigenetic factors have played a key role in the evolution of animals. Many studies have shown inherited transpositions of mobile elements in embryogenesis and preservation of their activities in certain tissues of adult organisms. It was supposed that on the emergence of Metazoa the self-regulation mechanisms of transposons related with the gene networks controlling their activity could be involved in intercellular cell coordination in the cascade of successive divisions with differentiated gene expression for generation of tissues and organs...
March 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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