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Rna induced silencing complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454290/a-multi-shrna-vector-enhances-the-silencing-efficiency-of-exogenous-and-endogenous-genes-in-human-cells
#1
Yanjie Weng, Ying Shi, Xi Xia, Wenjuan Zhou, Hongyan Wang, Changyu Wang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technology for suppressing gene function. In most studies, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) consist of one short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and, therefore, are often unable to achieve loss-of-function of their target genes. In the current study, an RNAi vector containing three shRNAs under the control of three RNA polymerase III U6 promoters was constructed. RNAi vectors containing one or two shRNAs were generated for comparisons. A pilot study targeting exogenously expressed DsRed in the HEK293 cell line revealed promising effects and a high selectivity for the multi-shRNA RNAi vector...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448993/the-long-non-coding-rna-xist-controls-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-by-modulating-mir-186-5p
#2
Haoyou Wang, Qiming Shen, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Yanbin Sun, Liming Wang, Xiaoxi Fan, Shun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424727/host-induced-silencing-of-two-pharyngeal-gland-genes-conferred-transcriptional-alteration-of-cell-wall-modifying-enzymes-of-meloidogyne-incognita-vis-%C3%A3-vis-perturbed-nematode-infectivity-in-eggplant
#3
Tagginahalli N Shivakumara, Sonam Chaudhary, Divya Kamaraju, Tushar K Dutta, Pradeep K Papolu, Prakash Banakar, Rohini Sreevathsa, Bhupinder Singh, K M Manjaiah, Uma Rao
The complex parasitic strategy of Meloidogyne incognita appears to involve simultaneous expression of its pharyngeal gland-specific effector genes in order to colonize the host plants. Research reports related to effector crosstalk in phytonematodes for successful parasitism of the host tissue is yet underexplored. In view of this, we have used in planta effector screening approach to understand the possible interaction of pioneer genes (msp-18 and msp-20, putatively involved in late and early stage of M. incognita parasitism, respectively) with other unrelated effectors such as cell-wall modifying enzymes (CWMEs) in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415684/the-long-noncoding-rna-linc-ned125-controls-the-expression-of-medulloblastoma-driver-genes-by-microrna-sponge-activity
#4
Pietro Laneve, Agnese Po, Annarita Favia, Ivano Legnini, Vincenzo Alfano, Jessica Rea, Valerio Di Carlo, Valeria Bevilacqua, Evelina Miele, Angela Mastronuzzi, Andrea Carai, Franco Locatelli, Irene Bozzoni, Elisabetta Ferretti, Elisa Caffarelli
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are major regulators of physiological and disease-related gene expression, particularly in the central nervous system. Dysregulated lncRNA expression has been documented in several human cancers, and their tissue-specificity makes them attractive candidates as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic agents. Here we show that linc-NeD125, which we previously characterized as a neuronal-induced lncRNA, is significantly overexpressed in Group 4 medulloblastomas (G4 MBs), the largest and least well characterized molecular MB subgroup...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#5
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
miRNAs are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlights their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RISC component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR-domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403900/knockdown-of-ubiquitin-specific-peptidase-39-inhibited-the-growth-of-osteosarcoma-cells-and-induced-apoptosis-in-vitro
#6
Zhihua Gan, Kun Han, Shuchen Lin, Haiyan Hu, Zan Shen, Daliu Min
BACKGROUND: Ubiquitin specific peptidase 39 (USP39), an essential factor in the assembly of the mature spliceosome complex, has an aberrant expression in several cancer. However, its function and the corresponding mechanism on human osteosarcoma has not been fully explored yet. METHODS: The mRNA and DNA copies of USP39 were increased in osteosarcoma cancer tissues compared with the one in human normal tissues according to datasets from the publicly available Oncomine database...
April 12, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400515/saga-complex-mediates-the-transcriptional-up-regulation-of-antiviral-rna-silencing
#7
Ida Bagus Andika, Atif Jamal, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki
Pathogen recognition and transcriptional activation of defense-related genes are crucial steps in cellular defense responses. RNA silencing (RNAi) functions as an antiviral defense in eukaryotic organisms. Several RNAi-related genes are known to be transcriptionally up-regulated upon virus infection in some host organisms, but little is known about their induction mechanism. A phytopathogenic ascomycete, Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), provides a particularly advantageous system to study RNAi activation, because its infection by certain RNA viruses induces the transcription of dicer-like 2 (dcl2) and argonaute-like 2 (agl2), two major RNAi players...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383555/zeb1-induces-er-%C3%AE-promoter-hypermethylation-and-confers-antiestrogen-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#8
Jianbo Zhang, Chen Zhou, Huimin Jiang, Lin Liang, Wen Shi, Quansheng Zhang, Peiqing Sun, Rong Xiang, Yue Wang, Shuang Yang
Antiestrogen resistance is a major obstacle to endocrine therapy for breast cancers. Although reduced estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) expression is a known contributing factor to antiestrogen resistance, the mechanisms of ER-α downregulation in antiestrogen resistance are not fully understood. Here, we report that ectopic zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with ER-α deficiency in breast cancer cells and thus confers antiestrogen resistance. Mechanistically, ZEB1 represses ER-α transcription by forming a ZEB1/DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3B/histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 complex on the ER-α promoter, leading to DNA hypermethylation and the silencing of ER-α...
April 6, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374749/pkr-activation-and-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-mediate-human-globin-mrna-splicing-at-spliceosome-assembly
#9
Lena Ilan, Farhat Osman, Lise Sarah Namer, Einav Eliahu, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Yitzhak Ben-Asouli, Yona Banai, Raymond Kaempfer
Short elements in mammalian mRNA can control gene expression by activating the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR that attenuates translation by phosphorylating cytoplasmic eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). We demonstrate a novel, positive role for PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation in human globin mRNA splicing. PKR localizes in splicing complexes and associates with splicing factor SC35. Splicing and early-stage spliceosome assembly on β-globin pre-mRNA depend strictly on activation of PKR by a codon-containing RNA fragment within exon 1 and on phosphorylation of nuclear eIF2α on Serine 51...
April 4, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371128/intranuclear-actin-structure-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#10
Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Zhihui Xie, Cody McGrath, Maya Styner, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J van Wijnen, Janet Rubin
Actin structure contributes to physiologic events within the nucleus to control mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation. Continuous cytochalasin D (Cyto D) disruption of the MSC actin cytoskeleton leads to osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, both requiring mass transfer of actin into the nucleus. Cyto D remains extranuclear, thus intranuclear actin polymerization is potentiated by actin transfer: we asked whether actin structure affects differentiation. We show that secondary actin filament branching via the Arp2/3 complex is required for osteogenesis and that preventing actin branching stimulates adipogenesis, as shown by expression profiling of osteogenic and adipogenic biomarkers and unbiased RNA-seq analysis...
April 3, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369725/rna-polymerase-i-inhibition-with-cx-5461-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-to-target-myc-in-multiple-myeloma
#11
Hans C Lee, Hua Wang, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Heather Lin, Jin He, Richard J Jones, Isere Kuiatse, Dongmin Gu, Zhiqiang Wang, Wencai Ma, John Lim, Sean O'Brien, Jonathan Keats, Jing Yang, Richard E Davis, Robert Z Orlowski
Dysregulation of MYC is frequently implicated in both early and late myeloma progression events, yet its therapeutic targeting has remained a challenge. Among key MYC downstream targets is ribosomal biogenesis, enabling increases in protein translational capacity necessary to support the growth and self-renewal programmes of malignant cells. We therefore explored the selective targeting of ribosomal biogenesis with the small molecule RNA polymerase (pol) I inhibitor CX-5461 in myeloma. CX-5461 induced significant growth inhibition in wild-type (WT) and mutant TP53 myeloma cell lines and primary samples, in association with increases in downstream markers of apoptosis...
April 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350964/promoting-vaginal-distribution-of-e7-and-mcl-1-sirna-silencing-nanoparticles-for-cervical-cancer-treatment
#12
Anna Lechanteur, Tania Furst, Brigitte Evrard, Philippe Delvenne, Geraldine Piel, Pascale Hubert
There is an urgent need to develop a less aggressive and more effective treatment against cervical lesions induced by different high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We investigated the potential of a cocktail of small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against the oncoprotein E6 (E6), the oncoprotein E7 (E7) and/or the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 (MCL-1). The combination of siRNA anti-E7 and anti-MCL-1 demonstrated high efficacy on multiple HPV16 and HPV18 cell lines and no effects on healthy keratinocytes...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349429/targeting-promoter-associated-rnas-by-sirnas
#13
Sara Napoli
Promoter-associated RNAs (paRNA) are long noncoding RNAs transcribed in sense or antisense direction in correspondence of promoters of other genes. Their expression influences promoter activity by means of specific regulatory function. PaRNA can act as a scaffold for proteins involved in processes regulating gene expression, as chromatin remodeling or transcription. RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) is the mechanism of transcriptional interference achieved by siRNA directed against chromatin-associated RNAs, as paRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334781/auf1-facilitates-microrna-mediated-gene-silencing
#14
Kyung-Won Min, Myung Hyun Jo, Soochul Shin, Sylvia Davila, Richard W Zealy, Soo Im Kang, Lawson T Lloyd, Sungchul Hohng, Je-Hyun Yoon
Eukaryotic mRNA decay is tightly modulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). RBP AU-binding factor 1 (AUF1) has four isoforms resulting from alternative splicing and is critical for miRNA-mediated gene silencing with a distinct preference of target miRNAs. Previously, we have shown that AUF1 facilitates miRNA loading to Argonaute 2 (AGO2), the catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Here, we further demonstrate that depletion of AUF1 abolishes the global interaction of miRNAs and AGO2...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330734/enhanced-cellular-uptake-and-gene-silencing-activity-of-sirna-using-temperature-responsive-polymer-modified-liposome
#15
Jian Wang, Eri Ayano, Yoshie Maitani, Hideko Kanazawa
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery systems using nanoparticle carriers have been limited by inefficient intracellular delivery. One drawback is the poor cellular uptake of siRNA/particle complexes through the plasma membrane and release of the nucleic acids into the cytosol. In this study, to develop the temperature-responsive liposome as a novel carrier for siRNA delivery, we prepared lipoplexes and assessed cellular uptake of siRNA and gene silencing activity of target genes, compared with those of a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine RNAiMAX, and non-modified or PEGylated liposomes...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326190/malat1-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-and-muscle-regeneration-through-modulating-myod-transcriptional-activity
#16
Xiaona Chen, Liangqiang He, Yu Zhao, Yuying Li, Suyang Zhang, Kun Sun, Karl So, Fengyuan Chen, Liang Zhou, Leina Lu, Lijun Wang, Xihua Zhu, Xichen Bao, Miguel A Esteban, Shinichi Nakagawa, Kannanganattu V Prasanth, Zhenguo Wu, Hao Sun, Huating Wang
Malat1 is one of the most abundant long non-coding RNAs in various cell types; its exact cellular function is still a matter of intense investigation. In this study we characterized the function of Malat1 in skeletal muscle cells and muscle regeneration. Utilizing both in vitro and in vivo assays, we demonstrate that Malat1 has a role in regulating gene expression during myogenic differentiation of myoblast cells. Specifically, we found that knockdown of Malat1 accelerates the myogenic differentiation in cultured cells...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319645/the-atypical-genesis-and-bioavailability-of-the-plant-based-small-rna-mir2911-bulking-up-while-breaking-down
#17
Jian Yang, Natee Kongchan, Cecilia Primo Planta, Joel R Neilson, Kendal D Hirschi
SCOPE: The uptake of dietary plant small RNAs (sRNAs) in consumers remains controversial, which is mainly due to low dietary content in combination with poor fractional absorption. MIR2911, among all the plant sRNAs including microRNAs, has been shown to be one of the most robustly absorbed sRNAs. Here we analyze the unusual abundance and unique genesis of MIR2911 during vegetable processing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using qRT-PCR, the abundance of MIR2911 increased dramatically in macerated tissues while other microRNAs degraded...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#18
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304372/micrornas-mir-203-3p-mir-664-3p-and-mir-708-5p-are-associated-with-median-strain-lifespan-in-mice
#19
Benjamin P Lee, Ivana Burić, Anupriya George-Pandeth, Kevin Flurkey, David E Harrison, Rong Yuan, Luanne L Peters, George A Kuchel, David Melzer, Lorna W Harries
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA species that have been shown to have roles in multiple processes that occur in higher eukaryotes. They act by binding to specific sequences in the 3' untranslated region of their target genes and causing the transcripts to be degraded by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). MicroRNAs have previously been reported to demonstrate altered expression in several aging phenotypes such as cellular senescence and age itself. Here, we have measured the expression levels of 521 small regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) in spleen tissue from young and old animals of 6 mouse strains with different median strain lifespans by quantitative real-time PCR...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291845/human-suv3-helicase-regulates-growth-rate-of-the-hela-cells-and-can-localize-in-the-nucleoli
#20
Maciej Szewczyk, Natalia Fedoryszak-Kuśka, Katarzyna Tkaczuk, Jurek Dobrucki, Agnieszka Waligórska, Piotr P Stępień
The human SUV3 helicase (SUV3, hSUV3, SUPV3L1) is a DNA/RNA unwinding enzyme belonging to the class of DexH-box helicases. It localizes predominantly in the mitochondria, where it forms an RNA-degrading complex called mitochondrial degradosome with exonuclease PNP (polynucleotide phosphorylase). Association of this complex with the polyA polymerase can modulate mitochondrial polyA tails. Silencing of the SUV3 gene was shown to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce apoptosis in human cell lines. However, since small amounts of the SUV3 helicase were found in the cell nuclei, it was not clear whether the observed phenotypes of SUV3 depletion were of mitochondrial or nuclear origin...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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