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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540674/microrna-expression-protein-participants-in-microrna-regulation
#1
Valeria M King, Glen M Borchert
MiRNAs are ~20 nt small RNAs that regulate networks of proteins using a seed region of nucleotides 2-8 to complement the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. The biogenesis and function of miRNAs as translational repressors is facilitated by protein counterparts that process primary and precursor miRNAs to maturity (Drosha/DCGR8 and Dicer/TRBP respectively) and incorporate miRNAs into the protein complex RISC to recognize and repress target mRNAs (RISC proteins: Ago/TRBP1/TRBP2/DICER). Similarly, siRNAs through comparable mechanisms are loaded into the protein complex RITS to heterochromatin formation of DNA and suppress transcription of particular genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508081/evidence-and-mechanism-of-efficient-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-promoted-by-delocalized-excited-states
#2
Takuya Hosokai, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Hajime Nakanotani, Katsumi Tokumaru, Tetsuo Tsutsui, Akihiro Furube, Keirou Nasu, Hiroko Nomura, Masayuki Yahiro, Chihaya Adachi
The design of organic compounds with nearly no gap between the first excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states has been demonstrated to result in an efficient spin-flip transition from the T1 to S1 state, that is, reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), and facilitate light emission as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). However, many TADF molecules have shown that a relatively appreciable energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (~0.2 eV) could also result in a high RISC rate. We revealed from a comprehensive study of optical properties of TADF molecules that the formation of delocalized states is the key to efficient RISC and identified a chemical template for these materials...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499009/a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-inhibits-argonaute-1-function-by-precluding-target-rna-binding-to-pre-assembled-risc
#3
Erzsébet Kenesi, Alberto Carbonell, Rita Lózsa, Beáta Vértessy, Lóránt Lakatos
In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown...
May 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473792/relationship-between-resilience-and-self-regulation-a-study-of-spanish-youth-at-risk-of-social-exclusion
#4
Raquel Artuch-Garde, Maria Del Carmen González-Torres, Jesús de la Fuente, M Mariano Vera, María Fernández-Cabezas, Mireia López-García
The ability to self-regulate behavior is one of the most important protective factors in relation with resilience and should be fostered especially in at-risk youth. Previous research has characterized these students as having behaviors indicating lack of foresight. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothetical relationship between these personal variables. It was hypothesized that self-regulation would be associated with and would be a good predictor of resilience, and that low-medium-high levels of self-regulation would lead to similar levels of resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467860/mitochondrial-mirnas-in-diabetes-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#5
Rohini Baradan, John M Hollander, Samarjit Das
Over the last two decades mi(cro)RNAs have emerged as one of the key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Most of the studies have highlighted that in the cytoplasm, miRNAs directly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of a mRNA. Conventional RISC (RNA Inducing Silencing Complex) formation results in the post-transcriptional inhibition. This process is known to contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Recent advancements with small RNA detection technologies have enabled us to identify miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment of the cells...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463111/risc-interacting-clearing-3-5-exoribonucleases-rices-degrade-uridylated-cleavage-fragments-to-maintain-functional-risc-in-arabidopsis
#6
Zhonghui Zhang, Fuqu Hu, Min Woo Sung, Chang Shu, Claudia Castillo-González, Hisashi Koiwa, Guiliang Tang, Marty Dickman, Pingwei Li, Xiuren Zhang
RNA-induced Silencing Complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460570/medical-student-resilience-and-stressful-clinical-events-during-clinical-training
#7
Jennifer C Houpy, Wei Wei Lee, James N Woodruff, Amber T Pincavage
BACKGROUND: Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. OBJECTIVE: To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. DESIGN: Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456307/rna-interference-of-dicer-1-and-argonaute-1-increasing-the-sensitivity-of-aphis-gossypii-glover-hemiptera-aphididae-to-plant-allelochemical
#8
Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Xuewei Chen, Ying Liu, Qiuling Tang, Xiwu Gao
Plant allelochemicals are a group of important defensive agents of plants, which have been documented to be deleterious to insect herbivores. In the present study, we found that the expression level of Dicer-1 was significantly increased when Aphis gossypii adults fed on plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) incorporated artificial diets. Consider that miRNAs play great regulatory roles in various biological processes, this suggested that miRNAs may be related to the regulation of enzymes involved in metabolism of plant allelochemicals in A...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448993/the-long-non-coding-rna-xist-controls-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-by-modulating-mir-186-5p
#9
Haoyou Wang, Qiming Shen, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Yanbin Sun, Liming Wang, Xiaoxi Fan, Shun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428278/oncogenic-role-of-snd1-in-development-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Nidhi Jariwala, Devaraja Rajasekaran, Rachel G Mendoza, Xue-Ning Shen, Ayesha Siddiq, Maaged Akiel, Chadia L Robertson, Mark A Subler, Jolene Windle, Paul B Fisher, Arun J Sanyal, Devanand Sarkar
SND1, a subunit of the miRNA regulatory complex RISC, has been implicated as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that hepatocyte-specific SND1 transgenic mice (Alb/SND1 mice) develop spontaneous HCC with partial penetrance and exhibit more highly aggressive HCC induced by chemical carcinogenesis. Livers from Alb/SND1 mice exhibited a relative increase in inflammatory markers and spheroid-generating tumor initiating cells (TIC). Mechanistic investigations defined roles for Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in promoting TIC formation in Alb/SND1 mice...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408294/resilience-and-cross-network-connectivity-a-neural-model-for-post-trauma-survival
#11
Marcella Brunetti, Laura Marzetti, Gianna Sepede, Filippo Zappasodi, Vittorio Pizzella, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Literature on the neurobiological bases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) considers medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a core region of the Default Mode Network (DMN), as a region involved in response regulation to stressors. Disrupted functioning of the DMN has been recognized at the basis of the pathophysiology of a number of mental disorders. Furthermore, in the evaluation of the protective factors to trauma consequence, an important role has been assigned to resilience. Our aim was to investigate the specific relation of resilience and PTSD symptoms severity with resting state brain connectivity in a traumatized population using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution and documented advantages in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#12
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
miRNAs are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlights their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RISC component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR-domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403944/shape-of-the-ogtt-glucose-curve-and-risk-of-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-the-egir-risc-cohort
#13
Melania Manco, Giuseppe Nolfe, Zoltan Pataky, Lucilla Monti, Francesca Porcellati, Rafael Gabriel, Asimina Mitrakou, Geltrude Mingrone
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the shape of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-glucose curve is a stable trait over time; it is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity, ß-cell function and risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and glucose tolerance (IGT) in the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort. METHODS: OGTT-glucose curve shape was classified as monophasic, biphasic, triphasic and anomalous in 915 individuals...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384889/correlates-and-predictors-of-resilience-among-baccalaureate-nursing-students
#14
Monali Devaraj Mathad, Balaram Pradhan, Sasidharan K Rajesh
INTRODUCTION: A growing body of literature recognizes the importance of resilience in the nursing profession. Both mindfulness and resilience aid in handling stress, stress increases the risk of rumination and/or worry especially in females and they are more empathetic than other healthcare students. AIM: To identify correlates and predictors of the resilience among nursing students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive correlation study and we have recruited 194 participants (1-4(th) year B...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369725/rna-polymerase-i-inhibition-with-cx-5461-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-to-target-myc-in-multiple-myeloma
#15
Hans C Lee, Hua Wang, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Heather Lin, Jin He, Richard J Jones, Isere Kuiatse, Dongmin Gu, Zhiqiang Wang, Wencai Ma, John Lim, Sean O'Brien, Jonathan Keats, Jing Yang, Richard E Davis, Robert Z Orlowski
Dysregulation of MYC is frequently implicated in both early and late myeloma progression events, yet its therapeutic targeting has remained a challenge. Among key MYC downstream targets is ribosomal biogenesis, enabling increases in protein translational capacity necessary to support the growth and self-renewal programmes of malignant cells. We therefore explored the selective targeting of ribosomal biogenesis with the small molecule RNA polymerase (pol) I inhibitor CX-5461 in myeloma. CX-5461 induced significant growth inhibition in wild-type (WT) and mutant TP53 myeloma cell lines and primary samples, in association with increases in downstream markers of apoptosis...
April 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357479/-differences-in-the-outcome-of-seriously-injured-children-depending-on-treatment-level
#16
Peter C Strohm, Jörn Zwingmann, Jörg Bayer, Mirjam V Neumann, Rolf Lefering, Hagen Schmal, Kilian Reising
INTRODUCTION: Many publications, mainly from other countries, suggest that the treatment of seriously injured children might be better in specialised paediatric trauma centres than in general trauma centres. Data from Germany are not available yet, but those from abroad were used for the recommendations made by the German Association for Trauma Surgery (DGU) on the topic of paediatric trauma in the "White Paper on Trauma Care". The goal of this study was to analyse whether the outcome of severely injured children is dependent on treatment level and on the availability of a paediatric surgeon based on the given data...
March 29, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350358/automated-software-acceleration-in-programmable-logic-for-an-efficient-nfft-algorithm-implementation-a-case-study
#17
Manuel Rodríguez, Eduardo Magdaleno, Fernando Pérez, Cristhian García
Non-equispaced Fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is a very important algorithm in several technological and scientific areas such as synthetic aperture radar, computational photography, medical imaging, telecommunications, seismic analysis and so on. However, its computation complexity is high. In this paper, we describe an efficient NFFT implementation with a hardware coprocessor using an All-Programmable System-on-Chip (APSoC). This is a hybrid device that employs an Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) as Processing System with Programmable Logic for high-performance digital signal processing through parallelism and pipeline techniques...
March 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317965/direct-observation-of-the-rise-of-delayed-fluorescence-in-dithienylbenzothiadiazole-and-its-role-in-the-excited-state-dynamics-of-a-donor-acceptor-donor-molecule
#18
Maneesha Esther Mohanty, Chakali Madhu, Vanammoole Lakshmi Reddy, Mahalingavelar Paramasivam, Prakriti Ranjan Bangal, Vaidya Jayathirtha Rao
Dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DTBT) is used as a building block in several molecules having application in organic light emitting devices (OLED) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Delayed fluorescence (DF) is the preferred design principle employed currently in OLED research. DTBT has excellent delayed fluorescence properties which makes this moiety a potentially viable OLED material. Here, the dynamics of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) have been explored using fluorescence, phosphorescence, fluorescence lifetime and transient absorption measurements...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304372/micrornas-mir-203-3p-mir-664-3p-and-mir-708-5p-are-associated-with-median-strain-lifespan-in-mice
#19
Benjamin P Lee, Ivana Burić, Anupriya George-Pandeth, Kevin Flurkey, David E Harrison, Rong Yuan, Luanne L Peters, George A Kuchel, David Melzer, Lorna W Harries
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA species that have been shown to have roles in multiple processes that occur in higher eukaryotes. They act by binding to specific sequences in the 3' untranslated region of their target genes and causing the transcripts to be degraded by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). MicroRNAs have previously been reported to demonstrate altered expression in several aging phenotypes such as cellular senescence and age itself. Here, we have measured the expression levels of 521 small regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) in spleen tissue from young and old animals of 6 mouse strains with different median strain lifespans by quantitative real-time PCR...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295056/guest-concentration-bias-current-and-temperature-dependent-sign-inversion-of-magneto-electroluminescence-in-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-devices
#20
Junquan Deng, Weiyao Jia, Yingbing Chen, Dongyu Liu, Yeqian Hu, Zuhong Xiong
Non-emissive triplet excited states in devices that undergo thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can be up-converted to singlet excited states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), which leads to an enhanced electroluminescence efficiency. Exciton-based fluorescence devices always exhibit a positive magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) because intersystem crossing (ISC) can be suppressed effectively by an external magnetic field. Conversely, TADF devices should exhibit a negative MEL because RISC is suppressed by the external magnetic field...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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