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Kati Stranius, Manuel Hertzog, Karl Börjesson
Strong coupling between light and matter leads to the spontaneous formation of hybrid light-matter states, having different energies than the uncoupled states. This opens up for new ways of modifying the energy landscape of molecules without changing their atoms or structure. Heavy metal-free organic light emitting diodes (OLED) use reversed intersystem crossing (RISC) to harvest light from excited triplet states. This is a slow process, thus increasing the rate of RISC could potentially enhance OLED performance...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Lu Zhang, Kok Wai Cheah
Thermally activated delayed florescence (TADF) materials can be an efficient host in organic LED (OLED). It is because it is possible to couple energetically the emission energy level of a dopant to the energy levels in the TADF material. In this work fluorescent emitters 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl-1H,5 H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl)quinolizino-9,9a,1gh coumarin (c545t) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene (rubrene) were used as dopants in a blended TADF host; tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) with 2,4,6-tris(3'-(pyridin-3-yl)biphenyl-3-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (Tm3PyBPZ)...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Divya Mehta, Dagmar Bruenig, Bruce Lawford, Wendy Harvey, Tania Carrillo-Roa, Charles P Morris, Tanja Jovanovic, Ross McD Young, Elisabeth B Binder, Joanne Voisey
Accelerated epigenetic aging, the difference between the DNA methylation-predicted age (DNAm age) and the chronological age, is associated with a myriad of diseases. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic aging and risk and protective factors of PTSD. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed in 211 individuals including combat-exposed Australian veterans (discovery cohort, n = 96 males) and trauma-exposed civilian males from the Grady Trauma Project (replication cohort, n = 115 males)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Xiaobing Mo, Xia Yang, Yuren Adam Yuan
In Drosophila and human, component 3 promoter of RISC (C3PO), a heteromeric complex, enhances RISC assembly and promotes RISC activity. Here, we report crystal structure of full-length Drosophila C3PO (E126Q), an inactive C3PO mutant displaying much weaker RNA binding ability, at 2.1 Å resolution. In addition, we also report the cryo-EM structures of full-length Drosophila C3PO (E126Q), C3PO (WT) and SUMO-C3PO (WT, sumo-TRAX + Translin) particles trapped at different conformations at 12, 19.7 and 12.8 Å resolutions, respectively...
May 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Canan Kuscu, Pankaj Kumar, Manjari Kiran, Zhangli Su, Asrar Malik, Anindya Dutta
tRNA related RNA fragments (tRFs), also known as tRNA derived RNAs (tdRNAs), are abundant small RNAs reported to be associated with Argonaute proteins, yet their function is unclear. We show that endogenous 18 nucleotide tRFs derived from the 3' ends of tRNAs (tRF-3) post-transcriptionally repress genes in HEK293T cells in culture. tRF-3 levels increase upon parental tRNA over-expression. This represses target genes with a sequence complementary to the tRF-3 in the 3' UTR. The tRF-3-mediated repression is Dicer-independent, Argonaute-dependent and the targets are recognized by sequence complementarity...
May 29, 2018: RNA
Lin Zhang, Fengqi Fang, Xin He
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNA transcript that are characterized by lack of protein-coding capacity. The vital role of lncRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is attracting increasingly more attention. In the present study, we investigate the role of lncRNA antisense RNA of the TP73 gene (TP73-AS1) in NSCLC carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate that TP73-AS1 is markedly upregulated in NSCLC tissues, and functional experiments revealed that TP73-AS1 is significantly increased in NSCLC tissue and cell lines, indicating a possible oncogenic role...
May 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jeffrey S Kreutzer, Jennifer H Marwitz, Adam P Sima, Ana Mills, Nancy H Hsu, Herman R Lukow
OBJECTIVE: Examine a psychoeducational and skill-building intervention's effectiveness for individuals after traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a two-arm, parallel, randomized, controlled trial with wait-listed control. METHODS: The Resilience and Adjustment Intervention (RAI) targets adjustment challenges and emphasizes education, skill-building and psychological support. Overall, 160 outpatients were randomly assigned to a treatment or wait-list control (WLC) group...
May 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Anne Jølle, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Jostein Holmen, Sven Magnus Carlsen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Kristian Midthjell
Objective: Among individuals at high risk for diabetes identified through a population survey, we performed an intervention study with basic lifestyle advice aiming to prevent diabetes. Research design and methods: Among 50 806 participants in the HUNT3 Survey (2006-2008), 5297 individuals with Finnish Diabetes Risc Score (FINDRISC ≥15 were invited to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an education session with lifestyle advice, and 2634 (49.7%) attended...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Junsuke Hayashi, Misa Nishigaki, Yosuke Ochi, Shun-Ichi Wada, Fumito Wada, Osamu Nakagawa, Satoshi Obika, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Hidehito Urata
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an active agent to induce gene silencing and they have been studied for becoming a biological and therapeutic tool. Various 2'-O-modified RNAs have been extensively studied to improve the nuclease resistance. However, the 2'-O-modified siRNA activities were often decreased by modification, since the bulky 2'-O-modifications inhibit to form a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We developed novel prodrug-type 2'-O-methyldithiomethyl (MDTM) siRNA, which is converted into natural siRNA in an intracellular reducing environment...
May 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Dan Chen, Jianhui Wu, Zhuxi Yao, Kaikai Lei, Yuejia Luo, Zhihao Li
Individuals with low level of resilience are documented to be less capable of regulating negative emotion. To investigate the underlying neurophysiology, the present study examined the relationship between resilience and the late positive potential (LPP) evoked by emotionally negative pictures. Fifty-four participants watched negative and neutral pictures passively while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded to assess LPP. Participants also completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) for assessment of their resilience levels...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Indranil Bhattacharjee, Nirmalya Acharya, Harsh Bhatia, Debdas Ray
The emergence of single-component organic dual light emitters holds great promise for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) and biological detection due to the involvement of broad emission covering visible spectrum. Here we show experimental studies on dual emission of carbazole-quinoline conjugate (CQ) that exhibits both thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) via reverse intersystem crossing (rISC) from the higher-lying triplet state ( T2 ) to the singlet state ( S1 ) and room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from the lowest triplet state ( T1 ) due to low energy gap between T2 and S1 , and energetic proximity of T1 with T2 ...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Stephanie N Blandford, Dylan A Galloway, Craig S Moore
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression and most biological processes. Mature miRNAs are recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and target mRNAs via complementary base-pairing, thus resulting in translational inhibition and/or transcript degradation. Here, we present evidence implicating miRNAs within extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, as mediators of central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, and injury...
May 4, 2018: Glia
Guihua Sun, Jinghan Wang, Yasheng Huang, Christine Wan-Yin Yuan, Keqiang Zhang, Shuya Hu, Linling Chen, Ren-Jang Lin, Yun Yen, Arthur D Riggs
It has been reported that the two major types of RNA interference triggers, the classical Dicer-generated small RNAs (siRNAs), which function with all members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family in mammals, and the Ago2-sliced small RNAs (sli-siRNAs), which function solely through Ago2, have similar potency in target cleavage and repression. Here, we show that sli-siRNAs are generally more potent than siRNAs in silencing mismatched targets. This phenomenon is usually more apparent in targets that have mismatched nucleotides in the 3' supplementary region than in targets with mismatches in the seed region...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Dipen Rajgor, Thomas M Sanderson, Mascia Amici, Graham L Collingridge, Jonathan G Hanley
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress translation of target mRNAs by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), underpinning a powerful mechanism for fine-tuning protein expression. Specific miRNAs are required for NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity by modulating the translation of proteins involved in dendritic spine morphogenesis or synaptic transmission. However, it is unknown how NMDAR stimulation stimulates RISC activity to rapidly repress translation of synaptic proteins...
April 30, 2018: EMBO Journal
Xiaofei Kang, Yueyan Fang, Sihan Li, Yadong Liu, Di Zhao, Xiujuan Feng, Yaqi Wang, Ping Li
Objective: Ambulance personnel who witness trauma experienced by patients have been reported to experience positive changes, known as vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). We examined VPTG and its relationship with social support and resilience among ambulance personnel. Methods: The sample (n=227) was recruited from six emergency centers in China. The measures included the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10)...
April 27, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Sonal Deshpande, Neetu Singh
RNAi is emerging as a promising technology for treatment of various diseases due to its ability to silence specific target genes. To date, a number of nanoparticle based formulations have been reported for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), with continuous modifications in the nanoparticle design for enhancing their efficiency. While majority of the design aspects are focused on avoiding or overcoming endosomal entrapment, limited studies are available that address the role of interaction of nanoparticles with the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) machinery, which is a crucial aspect deciding the outcome...
May 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Morsal Samim, Timothy H Mungroop, Mohammed AbuHilal, Cas J Isfordink, Quintus I Molenaar, Marcel J van der Poel, Thomas A Armstrong, Arjun S Takhar, Neil W Pearce, John N Primrose, Scott Harris, Helena M Verkooijen, Thomas M van Gulik, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Olivier R Busch, Colin D Johnson, Marc G Besselink
BACKGROUND: Several studies advise the use of risk models when counseling patients for hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery, but studies comparing these models to the surgeons' assessment are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess whether risk prediction models outperform surgeons' assessment for the risk of complications in HPB surgery. METHODS: This prospective study included adult patients scheduled for HPB surgery in three centers in the UK and the Netherlands...
April 17, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Geon Hyeong Lee, Young Sik Kim
Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials including 10H-phenoxaborin (PXB) as an electron acceptor and carbazole derivatives [carbazole (Cz), 1-methyl-carbazole (1-m-Cz), and 3,6-bis(3,6-diphenylcarbazolyl)carbazole (BDPCC)] as electron donors (Cz-PXB, 1-m-Cz-PXB, and BDPCC-PXB) were designed and investigated theoretically for deep blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations, we obtained the electron distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the energy of the lowest singlet (S1) and the lowest triplet (T1) excited states...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bijin Li, Linsen Zhou, Hu Cheng, Quan Huang, Jingbo Lan, Liang Zhou, Jingsong You
The photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) properties of two highly efficient excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) molecules, 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)oxazoles containing one triphenylamine (TPA) ( 1 ) and two TPAs ( 2 ) respectively, are studied systematically. The enol-forms of both 1 and 2 possess highly hybridized local and charge transfer (HLCT) excited state character, while their excited-state keto-forms are not of obvious HLCT character. A 1 -based device exhibits green-white electroluminescence with Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
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