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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634830/the-microrna-effector-rna-induced-silencing-complex-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-significant-dysregulation-within-active-inflammatory-lesions
#1
S Hessam, M Sand, M Skrygan, Falk G Bechara
Recently, we could show that the expression levels of the key regulators of the microRNA (miRNA) maturation and transport were dysregulated in inflamed hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) tissue (Heyam et al. in Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 6:271-289, 2015). The RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is the central element of the miRNA pathway and regulates miRNA formation and function. We investigated the expression of the RISC components, namely transactivation-responsive RNA-binding protein-1 (TRBP1), TRBP2, protein activator (PACT) of the interferon-induced protein kinase R, Argonaute RISC Catalytic Component-1 (AGO1) and Component-2 (AGO2), metadherin, and staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain-containing-1 (SND1) in inflamed HS tissue compared to healthy and psoriatic controls by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633325/malus-hupehensis-mir168-targets-to-argonaute1-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-against-botryosphaeria-dothidea-infection-by-altering-defense-responses
#2
Xinyi Yu, Yingjun Hou, Weiping Chen, Sanhong Wang, Peihong Wang, Shenchun Qu
MicroRNA-mediated post transcriptional regulation plays a fundamental role in various plant physiological processes, including responses to pathogens. MicroRNA168 has been implicated as an essential factor of miRNA pathways by targeting ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A fluctuation in AGO1 expression influences various plant-pathogen interactions, and the homeostasis of AGO1 and miR168 accumulation is maintained by a complicated feedback regulatory loop. In this study, the connection between miR168 and the resistance of M...
June 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621718/using-small-rna-seq-data-to-detect-sirna-duplexes-induced-by-plant-viruses
#3
Xiaoran Niu, Yu Sun, Ze Chen, Rugang Li, Chellappan Padmanabhan, Jishou Ruan, Jan F Kreuze, KaiShu Ling, ZhangJun Fei, Shan Gao
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are short (usually 21 to 24 bp) double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) with several overhanging nucleotides at both 5'- and 3'-ends. It has been found that siRNA duplexes bind the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and cleave the sense strands with endonucleases. In this study, for the first time, we detected siRNA duplexes induced by plant viruses on a large scale using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. In addition, we used the detected 21 nucleotide (nt) siRNA duplexes with 2 nt overhangs to construct a dataset for future data mining...
June 16, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608334/in-vitro-analysis-of-argonaute-mediated-target-cleavage-and-translational-repression-in-plants
#4
Yukihide Tomari, Hiro-Oki Iwakawa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs, which negatively regulate expression of complementary target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs are mainly loaded onto ARGONAUTE1 to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which mediate target mRNA cleavage as well as translational repression. The cell-free system derived from tobacco BY-2 protoplasts has become a powerful tool not only for the analysis of RISC assembly mechanism but also for mechanistic dissection of plant RISC functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608333/in-vitro-formation-of-plant-rna-induced-silencing-complexes-using-an-extract-of-evacuolated-tobacco-protoplasts
#5
Taichiro Iki, Masayuki Ishikawa, Manabu Yoshikawa
Small RNA-mediated gene silencing is involved in a variety of biological processes among many eukaryotic organisms. The silencing effector, generally referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), comprises an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein and a small single-stranded guide RNA in its core. RISCs recognize target genes containing sequences complementary to the guide RNA and repress their expression transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally. In vitro systems that recapitulate RISC assembly are useful not only to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly process itself but also to dissect the downstream silencing pathways mediated by RISCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585968/isonucleotide-incorporation-into-middle-and-terminal-sirna-duplexes-exhibits-high-gene-silencing-efficacy-and-nuclease-resistance
#6
Yuan Ma, Shuang Liu, Yusi Wang, Yuanhe Zhao, Ye Huang, Lijun Zhong, Zhu Guan, Lihe Zhang, Zhenjun Yang
In this study, we introduced a pair of nucleotide enantiomers, d-/l-isonucleotides (d-/l-isoNA), to examine the interactions between siRNAs and their related proteins. The serum stability and gene-silencing activity of the modified siRNAs were systematically evaluated. Gene-silencing activity had a site-specific effect, and the incorporation of a single d-isoNA at the 8th position (counting from the 5'-terminus) in the antisense strand improved the gene-silencing activity by improving RISC loading and affecting the movement of the PIWI domain...
June 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582528/trends-in-obesity-and-diabetes-across-africa-from-1980-to-2014-an-analysis-of-pooled-population-based-studies
#7
(no author information available yet)
Background: : The 2016 Dar Es Salaam Call to Action on Diabetes and Other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) advocates national multi-sectoral NCD strategies and action plans based on available data and information from countries of sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. We estimated trends from 1980 to 2014 in age-standardized mean body mass index (BMI) and diabetes prevalence in these countries, in order to assess the co-progression and assist policy formulation. Methods: : We pooled data from African and worldwide population-based studies which measured height, weight and biomarkers to assess diabetes status in adults aged ≥ 18 years...
June 4, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540674/microrna-expression-protein-participants-in-microrna-regulation
#8
Valeria M King, Glen M Borchert
MiRNAs are ~20 nt small RNAs that regulate networks of proteins using a seed region of nucleotides 2-8 to complement the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. The biogenesis and function of miRNAs as translational repressors is facilitated by protein counterparts that process primary and precursor miRNAs to maturity (Drosha/DCGR8 and Dicer/TRBP respectively) and incorporate miRNAs into the protein complex RISC to recognize and repress target mRNAs (RISC proteins: Ago/TRBP1/TRBP2/DICER). Similarly, siRNAs through comparable mechanisms are loaded into the protein complex RITS to heterochromatin formation of DNA and suppress transcription of particular genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508081/evidence-and-mechanism-of-efficient-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-promoted-by-delocalized-excited-states
#9
Takuya Hosokai, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Hajime Nakanotani, Katsumi Tokumaru, Tetsuo Tsutsui, Akihiro Furube, Keirou Nasu, Hiroko Nomura, Masayuki Yahiro, Chihaya Adachi
The design of organic compounds with nearly no gap between the first excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states has been demonstrated to result in an efficient spin-flip transition from the T1 to S1 state, that is, reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), and facilitate light emission as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). However, many TADF molecules have shown that a relatively appreciable energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (~0.2 eV) could also result in a high RISC rate. We revealed from a comprehensive study of optical properties of TADF molecules that the formation of delocalized states is the key to efficient RISC and identified a chemical template for these materials...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499009/a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-inhibits-argonaute-1-function-by-precluding-target-rna-binding-to-pre-assembled-risc
#10
Erzsébet Kenesi, Alberto Carbonell, Rita Lózsa, Beáta Vértessy, Lóránt Lakatos
In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown...
May 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473792/relationship-between-resilience-and-self-regulation-a-study-of-spanish-youth-at-risk-of-social-exclusion
#11
Raquel Artuch-Garde, Maria Del Carmen González-Torres, Jesús de la Fuente, M Mariano Vera, María Fernández-Cabezas, Mireia López-García
The ability to self-regulate behavior is one of the most important protective factors in relation with resilience and should be fostered especially in at-risk youth. Previous research has characterized these students as having behaviors indicating lack of foresight. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothetical relationship between these personal variables. It was hypothesized that self-regulation would be associated with and would be a good predictor of resilience, and that low-medium-high levels of self-regulation would lead to similar levels of resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467860/mitochondrial-mirnas-in-diabetes-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#12
Rohini Baradan, John M Hollander, Samarjit Das
Over the last two decades mi(cro)RNAs have emerged as one of the key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Most of the studies have highlighted that in the cytoplasm, miRNAs directly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of a mRNA. Conventional RISC (RNA Inducing Silencing Complex) formation results in the post-transcriptional inhibition. This process is known to contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Recent advancements with small RNA detection technologies have enabled us to identify miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment of the cells...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463111/risc-interacting-clearing-3-5-exoribonucleases-rices-degrade-uridylated-cleavage-fragments-to-maintain-functional-risc-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Zhonghui Zhang, Fuqu Hu, Min Woo Sung, Chang Shu, Claudia Castillo-González, Hisashi Koiwa, Guiliang Tang, Martin Dickman, Pingwei Li, Xiuren Zhang
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460570/medical-student-resilience-and-stressful-clinical-events-during-clinical-training
#14
Jennifer C Houpy, Wei Wei Lee, James N Woodruff, Amber T Pincavage
BACKGROUND: Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. OBJECTIVE: To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. DESIGN: Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456307/rna-interference-of-dicer-1-and-argonaute-1-increasing-the-sensitivity-of-aphis-gossypii-glover-hemiptera-aphididae-to-plant-allelochemical
#15
Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Xuewei Chen, Ying Liu, Qiuling Tang, Xiwu Gao
Plant allelochemicals are a group of important defensive agents of plants, which have been documented to be deleterious to insect herbivores. In the present study, we found that the expression level of Dicer-1 was significantly increased when Aphis gossypii adults fed on plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) incorporated artificial diets. Consider that miRNAs play great regulatory roles in various biological processes, this suggested that miRNAs may be related to the regulation of enzymes involved in metabolism of plant allelochemicals in A...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448993/the-long-non-coding-rna-xist-controls-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-by-modulating-mir-186-5p
#16
Haoyou Wang, Qiming Shen, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Yanbin Sun, Liming Wang, Xiaoxi Fan, Shun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428278/oncogenic-role-of-snd1-in-development-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Nidhi Jariwala, Devaraja Rajasekaran, Rachel G Mendoza, Xue-Ning Shen, Ayesha Siddiq, Maaged A Akiel, Chadia L Robertson, Mark A Subler, Jolene J Windle, Paul B Fisher, Arun J Sanyal, Devanand Sarkar
SND1, a subunit of the miRNA regulatory complex RISC, has been implicated as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that hepatocyte-specific SND1 transgenic mice (Alb/SND1 mice) develop spontaneous HCC with partial penetrance and exhibit more highly aggressive HCC induced by chemical carcinogenesis. Livers from Alb/SND1 mice exhibited a relative increase in inflammatory markers and spheroid-generating tumor-initiating cells (TIC). Mechanistic investigations defined roles for Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways in promoting TIC formation in Alb/SND1 mice...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408294/resilience-and-cross-network-connectivity-a-neural-model-for-post-trauma-survival
#18
Marcella Brunetti, Laura Marzetti, Gianna Sepede, Filippo Zappasodi, Vittorio Pizzella, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Literature on the neurobiological bases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) considers medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a core region of the Default Mode Network (DMN), as a region involved in response regulation to stressors. Disrupted functioning of the DMN has been recognized at the basis of the pathophysiology of a number of mental disorders. Furthermore, in the evaluation of the protective factors to trauma consequence, an important role has been assigned to resilience. Our aim was to investigate the specific relation of resilience and PTSD symptoms severity with resting state brain connectivity in a traumatized population using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution and documented advantages in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/the-pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#19
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlight their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RNA-induced silencing complex component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR (bin/amphiphysin/rvs) domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403944/shape-of-the-ogtt-glucose-curve-and-risk-of-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-the-egir-risc-cohort
#20
Melania Manco, Giuseppe Nolfe, Zoltan Pataky, Lucilla Monti, Francesca Porcellati, Rafael Gabriel, Asimina Mitrakou, Geltrude Mingrone
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the shape of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-glucose curve is a stable trait over time; it is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity, ß-cell function and risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and glucose tolerance (IGT) in the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort. METHODS: OGTT-glucose curve shape was classified as monophasic, biphasic, triphasic and anomalous in 915 individuals...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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