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Hepatotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909594/knowledge-of-the-research-assistants-regarding-local-anaesthetics-and-toxicity
#2
Derya Karasu, Canan Yılmaz, Şeyda Efsun Özgünay, Mürüvvet Dayıoğlu, Çağdaş Baytar, Gülsen Korfalı
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular system depression, respiratory arrest, coma, convulsions, loss of consciousness, muscle twitching, blurred vision, vertigo, dizziness and numbness of the tongue can be seen in local anaesthetic toxicity. Treatment includes 20% lipid solutions, airway control, symptomatic treatment for arrhythmia and convulsions. The aim of this study is to present the knowledge of research assistants, who used local anaesthetics in daily practice, regarding these medications and toxicity treatment and to raise awareness...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#3
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901623/autotransplantation-of-spleen-mitigates-drug-induced-liver-damage-in-splenectomized-mice
#4
Sabrine Teixeira Ferraz Grunewald, Alice Belleigoli Rezende, Bárbara Bruna Muniz Figueiredo, Ana Carolina de Paula Mendonça, Caroline de Souza Almeida, Erick Esteves de Oliveira, Flávia de Paoli, Henrique Couto Teixeira
PURPOSE: The spleen presents numerous functions, including the production of immunoglobulins and blood filtration, removing microorganisms and cellular debris. The spleen also has anatomical and functional relationship with the liver, but there are few studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of splenectomy and autologous spleen transplantation on both filtering functions of spleen and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups: splenectomized; splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in the greater omentum; sham operated control; and non-operated control...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900802/therapeutic-potential-of-carfilzomib-an-irreversible-proteasome-inhibitor-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#5
Abdulrazaq Alanazi, Saleh G Algfeley, Khaled A Al-Hosaini, Hesham M Korashy, Faisal Imam, Mahmoud N Nagi
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is often associated with hepatotoxicity. Carfilzomib (CFZ) shows multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory potential. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of CFZ against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of APAP (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Mice were given CFZ (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 1.5 h after APAP administration. Animals were sacrificed on 6 h and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896850/zebrafish-larva-as-a-reliable-model-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-membrane-remodeling-involvement-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-chemical-agents
#6
Normand Podechard, Martine Chevanne, Morgane Fernier, Arnaud Tête, Aurore Collin, Doris Cassio, Olivier Kah, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Odile Sergent
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896593/biochemical-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-the-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-submitted-to-different-protocols-of-anabolic-steroids
#7
Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Andressa Bueno, Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Raqueli Teresinha França, Cássia Bagolin da Silva, Márcia Silveira Netto Machado, Letícia do Santos Petry, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Cibele Lima Lhamas, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3)...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895804/erratum-to-18%C3%AE-glycyrrhetinic-acid-exerts-protective-effects-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-hepatotoxicity-potential-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-nrf2-upregulation
#8
Ayman M Mahmoud, Hussein S Al Dera
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s12263-015-0491-1.].
2016: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891510/tropisetron-protects-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-via-suppressing-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-modulating-the-activation-of-jnk-erk-mapk-pathways
#9
Fu-Chao Liu, Hung-Chen Lee, Chia-Chih Liao, Allen H Li, Huang-Ping Yu
Objectives. To investigate the protective effects of tropisetron on acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced liver injury in a mice model. Methods. C57BL/6 male mice were given tropisetron (0.3 to 10 mg/kg) 30 minutes before a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (300 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Twenty hours after APAP intoxication, sera alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and liver histopathological changes were examined...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890005/mechanism-based-inhibitors-from-phytomedicine-risks-of-hepatotoxicity-and-their-potential-hepatotoxic-substructures
#10
Lili Wang, Xin He, Chunhuan Jin, Gregory Ondieki
The adverse reactions and side effects associated with use of herbal medicines, especially their damaging effects on the liver have increasingly been reported worldwide. Some of the herbal ingredients have the potential risk of herb-induced liver injury but their hepatotoxicity mechanisms and associated risk factors are not well characterized until now. Xenobiotics are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes into highly reactive metabolites, which can covalently bind to the enzyme itself and subsequently cause mechanism-based inhibition (MBI)...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889621/identifying-non-toxic-doses-of-manganese-for-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-map-brain-areas-activated-by-operant-behavior-in-trained-rats
#11
Rita Gálosi, Csaba Szalay, Mihály Aradi, Gábor Perlaki, József Pál, Roy Steier, László Lénárd, Zoltán Karádi
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl2, at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels...
November 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888451/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-protects-liver-and-kidney-against-chromium-vi-induced-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#12
I İpek Boşgelmez, Gülin Güvendik
Acute hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compound exposure may lead to hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Cr(VI) reduction may generate reactive intermediates and radicals which might be associated with damage. We investigated effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pre- or post-treatment on oxidative stress and accumulation of Cr in liver and kidney of Cr(VI)-exposed mice. Intraperitoneal potassium dichromate injection (20 mg Cr/kg) caused a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in both tissues as compared to control (p < 0...
November 25, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873337/age-related-common-mirna-polymorphism-associated-with-severe-toxicity-in-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#13
Chao Fang, Xiang-Ping Li, Wei-Jing Gong, Na-Yiyuan Wu, Jie Tang, Ji-Ye Yin, Xi Li, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
Platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity severely impedes successful treatment in lung cancer patients. MicroRNAs (miRs) have a significant impact on the occurrence and survival rate of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between common miRNA variants and platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients. A total of 8 functional SNPs of miRNA were genotyped in 408 lung cancer patients by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. All the patients were histologically confirmed as lung cancer, and were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles...
November 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872561/antioxidant-effects-of-captopril-against-lead-acetate-induced-hepatic-and-splenic-tissue-toxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#14
Badr A Aldahmash, Doaa M El-Nagar
Considering that lead caused a lot of health problems in the world, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of captopril as antioxidants to reduce liver and spleen toxicity induced by lead. Animals were divided into 3 groups, the 1st group served as control group, the 2nd group received 20 mg/kg of lead acetate and the 3rd group received 50 mg/kg of captopril one hour prior to lead administration for 5 days. Results showed that lead intake caused severe alterations in the liver and spleen manifested by hepatocytes degeneration, leukocytic infiltration, fibrosis in liver and moderate to severe liver pathological score...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872490/use-of-zebrafish-larvae-as-a-multi-endpoint-platform-to-characterize-the-toxicity-profile-of-silica-nanoparticles
#15
Duc-Hung Pham, Bert De Roo, Xuan-Bac Nguyen, Mattias Vervaele, Angela Kecskés, Annelii Ny, Daniëlle Copmans, Hanne Vriens, Jean-Pierre Locquet, Peter Hoet, Peter A M de Witte
Nanomaterials are being extensively produced and applied in society. Human and environmental exposures are, therefore, inevitable and so increased attention is being given to nanotoxicity. While silica nanoparticles (NP) are one of the top five nanomaterials found in consumer and biomedical products, their toxicity profile is poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of silica nanoparticles with diameters 20, 50 and 80 nm using an in vivo zebrafish platform that analyzes multiple endpoints related to developmental, cardio-, hepato-, and neurotoxicity...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871867/chronic-toxicity-evaluation-of-morinda-citrifolia-fruit-and-leaf-in-mice
#16
Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohamad Shalan, Noordin M Mustapha, Suhaila Mohamed
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) leaf and fruit are used as food and medicine. This report compares the chronic toxicity of Noni fruit and edible leaf water extracts (two doses each) in female mice. The 6 months study showed the fruit extract produced chronic toxicity effects at the high dose of 2 mg/ml drinking water, evidenced through deteriorated liver histology (hepatocyte necrosis), reduced liver length, increased liver injury marker AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and albumin reduction, injury symptoms (hypoactivity, excessive grooming, sunken eyes and hunched posture) and 40% mortality within 3 months...
November 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871602/hepatotoxicity-due-to-red-bush-tea-consumption-a-case-report
#17
Shamantha Reddy, Pragnyadipta Mishra, Sana Qureshi, Singh Nair, Tracey Straker
Many conventional drugs used today, including isoniazid, dapsone, and acetaminophen, are well recognized culprits of hepatotoxicity. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medical therapies, several herbal medicines, such as Ma-Huang, kava, and chaparral leaf, have been implicated as hepatotoxins. Hepatotoxicity may be the most frequent adverse reaction to these herbal remedies when taken in excessive quantities. A myriad of liver dysfunctions may occur including transient liver enzyme abnormalities due to acute and chronic hepatitis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871551/exposure-to-anesthetic-gases-among-operating-room-personnel-and-risk-of-genotoxicity-a-systematic-review-of-the-human-biomonitoring-studies
#18
REVIEW
Serkan Yılmaz, Nazan Çakırer Çalbayram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic gases have been used for a long time. Adverse effects of anesthetic gases to occupationally exposed people have been well documented in the literature. Due to low solubility, these gases are rapidly eliminated from the human body. Nevertheless, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and reproductive toxicological effects have been shown in many of the scientific works. However, there is no detailed systematic bio-monitoring review about genotoxicity risk among occupationally exposed people...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868466/double-blind-placebo-controlled-1-1-randomized-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-immunoxel-honey-lozenges-as-an-adjunct-immunotherapy-in-269-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Uyanga Batbold, Dmytro O Butov, Galyna A Kutsyna, Narantsetseg Damdinpurev, Elena A Grinishina, Otgonbayar Mijiddorj, Mikola E Kovolev, Khaliunaa Baasanjav, Tatyana S Butova, Munkhburam Sandagdorj, Ochirbat Batbold, Ariungerel Tseveendorj, Erkhemtsetseg Chunt, Svetlana I Zaitzeva, Hanna L Stepanenko, Natalia I Makeeva, Igor V Mospan, Volodymyr S Pylypchuk, John L Rowe, Peter Nyasulu, Vichai Jirathitikal, Allen I Bain, Marina G Tarakanovskaya, Aldar S Bourinbaiar
AIM: Safer and shorter antituberculosis treatment (ATT) regimens represent the unmet medical need. PATIENTS & METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned into two arms: the first (n = 137) received once-daily sublingual honey lozenge formulated with botanical immunomodulator Immunoxel and the second (n = 132) received placebo lozenges along with conventional ATT. Immunoxel and placebo arms were demographically similar: 102 versus 106 had drug-susceptible TB; 28 versus 20 multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); 7 versus 7 extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB); and 22 versus 20 TB-HIV...
November 21, 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868128/the-role-of-stim1-in-the-cr-vi-induced-ca-2-i-increase-and-cell-injury-in-l-02-hepatocytes
#20
Xing Yi, Yujing Zhang, Caigao Zhong, Xiali Zhong, Fang Xiao
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(vi)] is a potent cytotoxin and carcinogen. In recent years, drinking water contamination with Cr(vi) has become a worldwide problem of significant public health importance, thus much attention has been paid to the investigation of Cr(vi)-induced hepatotoxicity. The concentration of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]i) was found to be increased after Cr(vi) exposure, but the exact underlying mechanisms involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis imbalance remain poorly characterized. In the present study, by utilizing the antagonist of store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), small interfering RNA against stromal interaction molecule 1 (si-STIM1) and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that Cr(vi) induces [Ca(2+)]i increase, cell viability loss and transaminase (AST/ALT) leakage, and that these could be suppressed by both 2-APB and si-STIM1...
November 21, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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