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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917125/what-makes-a-face-photo-a-good-likeness
#1
Kay L Ritchie, Robin S S Kramer, A Mike Burton
Photographs of people are commonly said to be 'good likenesses' or 'poor likenesses', and this is a concept that we readily understand. Despite this, there has been no systematic investigation of what makes an image a good likeness, or of which cognitive processes are involved in making such a judgement. In three experiments, we investigate likeness judgements for different types of images: natural images of film stars (Experiment 1), images of film stars from specific films (Experiment 2), and iconic images and face averages (Experiment 3)...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916507/cardiac-patients-experiences-and-perceptions-of-social-media-mixed-methods-study
#2
Stephanie R Partridge, Anne C Grunseit, Patrick Gallagher, Becky Freeman, Blythe J O'Hara, Lis Neubeck, Sarah Due, Glenn Paull, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Philayrath Phongsavan, Kellie Roach, Leonie Sadler, Helen Glinatsis, Robyn Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients' experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients' experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916469/activity-changes-in-the-left-superior-temporal-sulcus-reflect-the-effects-of-childcare-training-on-young-female-students-perceptions-of-infants-negative-facial-expressions
#3
Ayahito Ito, Katsuko Niwano, Motoko Tanabe, Yosuke Sato, Toshikatsu Fujii
In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916447/perception-of-caucasian-and-african-faces-in-5-to-9-month-old-caucasian-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#4
Susanna Timeo, Sabrina Brigadoi, Teresa Farroni
Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915993/marching-to-a-different-drummer-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-young-adolescents-who-challenge-gender-norms
#5
Chunyan Yu, Xiayun Zuo, Robert W Blum, Deborah L Tolman, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Sharmistha Basu, Rajib Acharya, Qiguo Lian, Chaohua Lou
PURPOSE: Little is known about how gender norms regulate adolescents' lives across different cultural settings. This study aims to illustrate what is considered as violating gender norms for boys and girls in four urban poor sites as well as the consequences that follow the challenging of gender norms. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a 15-country collaboration to explore gender norms and health in early adolescence. The current study analyzed narrative and in-depth interviews conducted in urban poor sites in two middle-income (Shanghai, China; and New Delhi, India) and two high-income countries (Baltimore, U...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915366/structural-encoding-processes-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-face-and-object-cognition-inferences-from-psychometric-test-performance-and-event-related-brain-potentials
#6
Hadiseh Nowparast Rostami, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt
The enhanced N1 component in event-related potentials (ERP) to face stimuli, termed N170, is considered to indicate the structural encoding of faces. Previously, individual differences in the latency of the N170 have been related to face and object cognition abilities. By orthogonally manipulating content domain (faces vs objects) and task demands (easy/speed vs difficult/accuracy) in both psychometric and EEG tasks, we investigated the uniqueness of the processes underlying face cognition as compared with object cognition and the extent to which the N1/N170 component can explain individual differences in face and object cognition abilities...
August 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914140/the-faces-of-group-members-share-physical-resemblance
#7
Eric Hehman, Jessica K Flake, Jonathan B Freeman
Perceivers form strong inferences of disposition from others' facial appearance, and these inferences guide a wide variety of important behaviors. The current research examines the possibility that similar-looking individuals are more likely to form groups with one another. We do so by testing a necessary downstream consequence of this process, examining whether the faces of individuals within groups more physically resemble one another than those in other groups. Across six studies, we demonstrate that individuals' group membership can be accurately classified both from ratings of members' faces, and from direct measurement of members' faces...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914063/identifying-the-interprofessional-agreement-between-community-pharmacists%C3%A2-and-general-practitioners%C3%A2-views-on-collaborative-practice-in-slovakia
#8
Ladislav Dubán, Tomáš Fazekaš, Magdaléna Fulmeková, Miroslava Snopková, Anna Oleárová, Magdaléna Kuželová
BACKGROUND: The collaboration of community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) has a positive effect on healthcare outcomes. There are still many countries, where no efforts have been made to enhance this type of teamwork. There is no evidence of how GPs and CPs collaborate in Slovakia. The objective of this study is to identify the current level of GPs and CPs teamwork in Slovakia and to identify the key factors, where these professions agree. METHODS: Two parallel electronic surveys were prepared and sent out by e-mail to CPs and GPs in Slovakia...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910609/categorical-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-non-clinical-social-anxiety
#9
Fanghui Qiu, Mingxiu Han, Yu Zhai, Shiwei Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to the well-established categorical perception (CP) of facial expressions, we decode complicated expression signals into simplified categories to facilitate expression processing. Expression processing deficits have been widely described in social anxiety (SA), but it remains to be investigated whether CP of expressions are affected by SA. The present study examined whether individuals with SA had an interpretation bias when processing ambiguous expressions and whether the sensitivity of their CP was affected by their SA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902528/serbian-medical-students-fertility-awareness-and-attitudes-towards-future-parenthood
#10
Isidora Vujčić, Tijana Radičević, Eleonora Dubljanin, Nataša Maksimović, Sandra Grujičić
OBJECTIVES: Medical students represent a group particularly at risk of involuntary childlessness due to their highly demanding careers and university curriculum. The aim of this study was to investigate Serbian medical students' attitudes towards future parenthood and their awareness of fertility issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among fourth year students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia, between 12 and 16 December 2016...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901911/defining-health-profession-regulators-roles-in-the-canadian-healthcare-system
#11
Joshua Tepper, Humayun Ahmed, Adalsteinn D Brown
Health professions regulation today faces a myriad of challenges, due to both the perceived performance of regulatory colleges, how health systems have evolved, and even larger political and economic shifts such as the renegotiation of NAFTA. In this issue of Healthcare Papers, Wilkie and Tzountzouris (2017) describe the work of the College of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Ontario (CMLTO) to redefine professionalism in the context of these challenges. Their paper, and the comments of the responding authors in this issue highlight that there, is an overarching perception that health regulatory structures - across a range of professions - are not working as effectively as they should...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900803/making-decisions-about-medication-use-during-pregnancy-implications-for-communication-strategies
#12
Molly M Lynch, Linda B Squiers, Katherine M Kosa, Suzanne Dolina, Jennifer Gard Read, Cheryl S Broussard, Meghan T Frey, Kara N Polen, Jennifer N Lind, Suzanne M Gilboa, Janis Biermann
Objective To explore women's perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with medication use during pregnancy and to better understand how women make decisions related to medication use in pregnancy. Methods We conducted online focus groups with 48 women who used medication during pregnancy or while planning a pregnancy, and 12 in-depth follow-up interviews with a subset of these women. Results We found that women were aware of general risks associated with medication use but were often unable to articulate specific negative outcomes...
September 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900301/geometric-phase-generated-optical-illusion
#13
Fuyong Yue, Xiaofei Zang, Dandan Wen, Zile Li, Chunmei Zhang, Huigang Liu, Brian D Gerardot, Wei Wang, Guoxing Zheng, Xianzhong Chen
An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900264/measuring-spectral-inconsistency-of-multispectral-images-for-detection-and-segmentation-of-retinal-degenerative-changes
#14
Jian Lian, Yuanjie Zheng, Peiyong Duan, Wanzhen Jiao, Bojun Zhao, Yanju Ren, Dinggang Shen
Multispectral imaging (MSI) creates a series of en-face fundus spectral sections by leveraging an extensive range of discrete monochromatic light sources and allows for an examination of the retina's early morphologic changes that are not generally visible with traditional fundus imaging modalities. An Ophthalmologist's interpretation of MSI images is commonly conducted by qualitatively analyzing the spectral consistency between degenerated areas and normal ones, which characterizes the image variation across different spectra...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899438/facilitators-and-barriers-to-preparedness-partnerships-a-veterans-affairs-medical-center-perspective
#15
Susan Schmitz, Tamar Wyte-Lake, Aram Dobalian
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers faced by local US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) emergency managers (EMs) when collaborating with non-VA entities. METHODS: Twelve EMs participated in semi-structured interviews lasting 60 to 90 minutes discussing their collaboration with non-VAMC organizations. Sections of the interview transcripts concerning facilitators and barriers to collaboration were coded and analyzed...
September 13, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899202/a-serial-mediation-model-of-workplace-social-support-on-work-productivity-the-role-of-self-stigma-and-job-tenure-self-efficacy-in-people-with-severe-mental-disorders
#16
Patrizia Villotti, Marc Corbière, Carolyn S Dewa, Franco Fraccaroli, Hélène Sultan-Taïeb, Sara Zaniboni, Tania Lecomte
PURPOSE: Compared to groups with other disabilities, people with a severe mental illness face the greatest stigma and barriers to employment opportunities. This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between workplace social support and work productivity in people with severe mental illness working in Social Enterprises by taking into account the mediating role of self-stigma and job tenure self-efficacy. METHOD: A total of 170 individuals with a severe mental disorder employed in a Social Enterprise filled out questionnaires assessing personal and work-related variables at Phase-1 (baseline) and Phase-2 (6-month follow-up)...
September 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899101/retention-of-qualified-healthcare-workers-in-rural-senegal-lessons-learned-from-a-qualitative-study
#17
Mari Nagai, Noriko Fujita, Ibrahima S Diouf, Malick Salla
INTRODUCTION: Deployment and retention of a sufficient number of skilled and motivated human resources for health (HRH) at the right place and at the right time are critical to ensure people's right to access a universal quality of health care. Vision Tokyo 2010 Network, an international network of HRH managers at the ministry of health (MoH) level in nine Francophone African countries, identified maldistribution of a limited number of healthcare personnel and their retention in rural areas as overarching problems in the member countries...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893812/impact-of-scribes-on-physician-satisfaction-patient-satisfaction-and-charting-efficiency-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Risha Gidwani, Cathina Nguyen, Alexis Kofoed, Catherine Carragee, Tracy Rydel, Ian Nelligan, Amelia Sattler, Megan Mahoney, Steven Lin
PURPOSE: Scribes are increasingly being used in clinical practice despite a lack of high-quality evidence regarding their effects. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of medical scribes on physician satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and charting efficiency. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which physicians in an academic family medicine clinic were randomized to 1 week with a scribe then 1 week without a scribe for the course of 1 year...
September 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893343/physiotherapy-as-first-point-of-contact-service-for-patients-with-musculoskeletal-complaints-understanding-the-challenges-of-implementation
#19
Fiona Moffatt, Rob Goodwin, Paul Hendrick
BACKGROUND: Primary care faces unprecedented challenges. A move towards a more comprehensive, multi-disciplinary service delivery model has been proposed as a means with which to secure more sustainable services for the future. One seemingly promising response has been the implementation of physiotherapy self-referral schemes, however there is a significant gap in the literature regarding implementation. Aim This evaluation aimed to explore how the professionals and practice staff involved in the delivery of an in-practice physiotherapy self-referral scheme understood the service, with a focus on perceptions of value, barriers and impact...
September 12, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893160/relationship-between-ethical-ideology-and-moral-judgment-academic-nurse-educators-perception
#20
Ebtsam Aly Abou Hashish, Nadia Hassan Ali Awad
BACKGROUND: Ascertaining the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision among academic nurse educators at work appears to be a challenge particularly in situations when they are faced with a need to solve an ethical problem and make a moral decision. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision as perceived by academic nurse educators. METHODS: A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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