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Face perception

Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Giulia Marvaso, Barbara Vischioni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Delia Ciardo, Piero Fossati, Tommaso Giandini, Sara Morlino, Mauro Carrara, Paola Romanelli, Elvio Russi, Francesca Valvo, Riccardo Valdagni, Roberto Orecchia
Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items)...
October 21, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xiaoqian Yan, Andrew W Young, Timothy J Andrews
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the own-race advantage in facial expression perception. In Experiment 1, we investigated Western Caucasian and Chinese participants' perception and categorization of facial expressions of six basic emotions that included two pairs of confusable expressions (fear and surprise; anger and disgust). People were slightly better at identifying facial expressions posed by own-race members (mainly in anger and disgust). In Experiment 2, we asked whether the own-race advantage was due to differences in the holistic processing of facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Margaret Giorgio, Loraine Townsend, Yanga Zembe, Mireille Cheyip, Sally Guttmacher, Farzana Kapadia, Cathy Mathews
Female cross-border migrants experience elevated risks for HIV, and migrants in South Africa may face additional risks due to the country's underlying HIV prevalence. These risks may be mitigated by the receipt of social support. A behavioral risk-factor survey was administered using respondent-driven sampling. Multivariable regression models assessed the relationships between social support and two HIV outcomes: HIV serostatus and perceived HIV status. Low social support was not significantly associated with HIV status (aOR = 1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rachel Young, Melissa Tully, Marizen Ramirez
Background Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Method Public school administrators (N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention...
October 17, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Maria Teresa Turano, Maria Pia Viggiano
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Debbie Selby, Dori Seccaraccia, Jim Huth, Kristin Kurrpa, Margaret Fitch
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs') perception of their role in provision of spiritual care, in addition to attempting to identify a simple question(s) to help identify spiritual distress. BACKGROUND: Spirituality is well recognized as important to whole-person care, particularly in those with terminal illnesses. Understanding the role of front-line providers in the identification and management of spiritual distress, however, remains challenging...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Mónica Terán-Hernández, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Ana Cristina Cubillas-Tejeda
Objective To carry out a diagnosis of children's environmental health and an analysis of risk perception in indigenous communities of the Huasteca Sur region of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in order to design an intervention strategy in line with their needs. Methods The study used mixed methods research, carried out in two phases. It was conducted in three indigenous communities of Tancanhuitz municipality from January 2005 to June 2006. In the adult population, risk perception was analyzed through focus groups, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Sheng-Miauh Huang, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Yvonne Hsiung, Ling-Ming Tseng, Ping-Ho Chen, Chia Tai Hung
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that women with cancer experience infertility after cancer-related treatment. With the rapid progress in fertility science, women face diverse and uncertain choices regarding pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand the decision-making process regarding fertility choices among reproductive-age women with cancer in Taiwan. METHODS: Grounded theory methodology guided data collection using in-depth interviews with 18 women diagnosed and treated for cancer...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Nursing
Sophie L Cronin, Morgan L Spence, Paul A Miller, Derek H Arnold
Facial appearance can be altered, not just by restyling but also by sensory processes. Exposure to a female face can, for instance, make subsequent faces look more masculine than they would otherwise. Two explanations exist. According to one, exposure to a female face renormalizes face perception, making that female and all other faces look more masculine as a consequence-a unidirectional effect. According to that explanation, exposure to a male face would have the opposite unidirectional effect. Another suggestion is that face gender is subject to contrastive aftereffects...
October 17, 2016: Perception
Justin K Mogilski, Lisa L M Welling
Sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and coloration in human faces putatively signal information relevant to mate selection and reproduction. Although the independent contributions of these characteristics to judgments of attractiveness are well established, relatively few studies have examined whether individuals prioritize certain features over others. Here, participants (N = 542, 315 female) ranked six sets of facial photographs (3 male, 3 female) by their preference for starting long- and short-term romantic relationships with each person depicted...
October 17, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Wändi Bruine de Bruin
As the specter of climate change looms on the horizon, people will face complex decisions about whether to support climate change policies and how to cope with climate change impacts on their lives. Without some grasp of the relevant science, they may find it hard to make informed decisions. Climate experts therefore face the ethical need to effectively communicate to non-expert audiences. Unfortunately, climate experts may inadvertently violate the maxims of effective communication, which require sharing communications that are truthful, brief, relevant, clear, and tested for effectiveness...
October 17, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Cath Rogers, Laurence Lepherd, Rahul Ganguly, Sebastian Jacob-Rogers
PROBLEM: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly commonly diagnosed disability. People with ASD commonly report challenges in social interaction and a heightened sensory perception. These challenges may be particularly difficult for women during pregnancy, birthing and beyond. BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the experiences and needs of birthing women who have ASD. There is a large body of literature about women who have autistic children, but almost nothing about women who may have this disability themselves...
October 14, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Katherine K M Stavropoulos, Michaela Viktorinova, Adam Naples, Jennifer Foss-Feig, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: Difficulty with emotion perception is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is also associated with the broader autism phenotype. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the neural underpinnings of conscious and non-conscious perceptions of affect in typically developing individuals with varying levels of autistic-like traits, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ). We investigated the relationship between autistic traits and face processing efficiency using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Kunal Thakur, Anna Biberger, Alexandra Handrich, Mourad Farouk Rezk
INTRODUCTION: Enbrel(®) (etanercept: manufactured by Immunex Corporation, Newbury Park, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA) was the first biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Europe. More recently, an etanercept biosimilar (Benepali(®): manufactured by Biogen Inc, Cambridge, MA 02124, USA) was approved in the European Union. The perceptions and preferences of the Benepali autoinjector versus Enbrel MYCLIC autoinjector were evaluated by nurses from Europe...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Giulia Prete, Mara Fabri, Nicoletta Foschi, Luca Tommasi
We investigated hemispheric asymmetries in categorization of face gender by means of a divided visual field paradigm, in which female and male faces were presented unilaterally for 150 ms each. A group of 60 healthy participants (30 males) and a male split-brain patient (D.D.C.) were asked to categorize the gender of the stimuli. Healthy participants categorized male faces presented in the right visual field (RVF) better and faster than when presented in the left visual field (LVF), and female faces presented in the LVF than in the RVF, independently of the participants' sex...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Jane Dimmitt Champion, Carol F Roye
: Immigration from the Dominican Republic to the United States has grown rapidly. Yet, although adolescent pregnancy and obesity are common concerns among Hispanics, little is known specifically about Dominican adolescent health. This study was undertaken to assess Dominican-American adolescents' health concerns and their perceptions about their health promotion needs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Dominican-American adolescents (N=25) were recruited in a pediatric clinic in New York City which primarily serves a Dominican population...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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