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Andreas Fehlner, Sebastian Hirsch, Martin Weygandt, Thomas Christophel, Eric Barnhill, Mykola Kadobianskyi, Jürgen Braun, Johannes Bernarding, Ralf Lützkendorf, Ingolf Sack, Stefan Hetzer
PURPOSE: To improve the resolution of elasticity maps by adapting motion and distortion correction methods for phase-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique for measuring mechanical tissue properties in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRE data of the brain were acquired with echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 3T (n = 14) and 7T (n = 18). Motion and distortion correction parameters were estimated using the magnitude images...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Kohei Ohashi, Takayuki Ishida
In radiography, when a blurred image caused by patient motion was acquired, radiologists retake an image as needed. However, retaking an image leads to extra radiation exposure to patients and reducing work efficiency. This study proposes the deblurring algorithm for blurred images caused by patient motion in radiography. In the proposed algorithm, we first take a video using an optical device during radiography. Second, we calculate the optical flow between each frame, and estimate a point spread function (PSF) based on the optical flows...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Fubiao Wang, Jianchao Liu, Lujian Zhou, Gang Pan, Zhaowei Li, Syed-Hassan-Raza Zaidi, Fangmin Cheng
To clarify the interaction between different antioxidant enzymes for monitoring oxidative stress and ROS burst in rice senescent leaves, we investigated the genotype-dependent alteration in temporal patterns of the O2(•-) production rate, H2O2 content, and ROS-scavenging enzyme activities during leaf senescence in two rice genotypes, namely, the premature senescence of flag leaf (psf) mutant and its wild type. Results showed that the psf mutant differed obviously from its wild type in leaf O2(•-) generation rate and H2O2 content accumulation, and the decreased activities of SOD, CAT, and APX in the psf leaves were strongly responsible for the increased ROS level and the accelerated leaf senescence...
October 11, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Cesar Romero, Sumit Monu, Glauber Cabral, Robert Knight, Oscar Carretero
OBJECTIVE: Renal hemodynamics is critical for regulation of glomerular filtration (GFR), sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP), and it depends on myogenic response, tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and connecting tubule-glomerular feedback (CTGF). CTGF dilates afferent arteriole in response to high sodium in connecting tubule (CNT), counteracting and resetting TGF; and increasing the plasma flow and glomerular pressure favoring sodium excretion. CTGF is initiated by epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activation in CNT and inhibited by ENaC blocker Benzamil...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Takuya Toyonaga, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Kenji Hirata, Kentaro Kobayashi, Osamu Manabe, Shiro Watanabe, Shunsuke Terasaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Naoya Hattori, Tohru Shiga, Yuji Kuge, Shinya Tanaka, Yoichi M Ito, Nagara Tamaki
PURPOSE: Metabolic activity and hypoxia are both important factors characterizing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to define metabolically active hypoxic volume, and investigate its clinical significance in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Glioblastoma patients (n = 32) underwent FMISO PET, FDG PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical intervention...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Samuel J Blake, Zhangkai Cheng, Shaghik Atakaramians, Steven Meikle, Minghui Lu, Philip Vial, Zdenka Kuncic
PURPOSE: A Geant4 model of a novel, water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device (EPID) prototype for radiotherapy imaging and dosimetry utilising an array of plastic scintillating fibres (PSFs) has been developed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to quantify the PSF-EPID imaging performance and to investigate design aspects affecting performance for optimisation. METHODS: Using the Geant4 model, the PSF-EPID's imaging performance for 6 MV photon beams was quantified in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE)...
October 13, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Mun Keong Kwan, Chee Kidd Chiu, Chris Yin Wei Chan
PURPOSE: To assess the pattern of intra-operative blood loss at various surgical stages comparing between single and two surgeons. METHODS: Lenke 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who underwent instrumented posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery from two centres between June 2014 and December 2015 were prospectively recruited into this study. The patients were grouped into Group 1 (single surgeon) and Group 2 (two surgeons). One to one matching using 'prospective propensity score-matched cohort patient sampling method' was done...
October 12, 2016: European Spine Journal
Dong Ik Park, Carine Dournes, Inge Sillaber, Manfred Uhr, John M Asara, Nils C Gassen, Theo Rein, Marcus Ising, Christian Webhofer, Michaela D Filiou, Marianne B Müller, Christoph W Turck
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). For unknown reasons a substantial number of patients do not show any improvement during or after SSRI treatment. We treated DBA/2J mice for 28 days with paroxetine and assessed their behavioral response with the forced swim test (FST). Paroxetine-treated long-time floating (PLF) and paroxetine-treated short-time floating (PSF) groups were stratified as proxies for drug non-responder and responder mice, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shota Takenaka, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Hiroyuki Aono, Takashi Kaito, Noboru Hosono
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The time of onset of postoperative upper limb palsy (ULP), also referred to as C5 palsy, varies among patients. Although some studies addressed the relationship between the time of onset of ULP and potential etiologies, no meta-analysis has been conducted regarding the association between the time of onset of ULP and other factors such as surgical procedure type and treated diseases. PURPOSE: To elucidate differences in the time of onset of ULP among spinal surgical procedures and treated diseases to understand its etiology...
October 7, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Xu Li, Yanping Jia, Mingyue Ding, Ming Yuchi
For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N² connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions...
2016: Sensors
Qingwu Long, Liang Shen, Rongbiao Chen, Jiaqi Huang, Shu Xiong, Yan Wang
The development of suitable draw solution in forward osmosis (FO) process has attracted the growing attention for water treatment purpose. In this study, a series of organic phosphonate salts (OPSs) are synthesized by one-step Mannich-like reaction, confirmed by FTIR and NMR characterizations, and applied as novel draw solutes in FO applications. Their solution properties including osmotic pressures and viscosities, as well as their FO performance as a function of the solution concentration are investigated systematically...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Mun Keong Kwan, Chee Kidd Chiu, Teik Seng Chan, Kok Ian Chong, Siti Mariam Mohamad, Mohd Shahnaz Hasan, Chris Yin Wei Chan
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Cohort Study. OBJECTIVE: To determine and evaluate the trajectory of surgical wound pain from day 1 to day 14 after PSF surgery in AIS patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Information regarding how the post-operative pain improves with time offers invaluable information not only to the patients and parents but also to assist the clinician in managing post-operative pain. METHODS: AIS patients who were planned for elective PSF surgery from September 2015 to December 2015 were prospectively recruited into this study...
September 23, 2016: Spine
L V Nhu, Zhigang Fan, Shouqian Chen, Fanyang Dang
In this paper, we propose one method based on the use of both dark and dot point spread functions (PSFs) to extend depth of field in hybrid imaging systems. Two different phase modulations of two phase masks are used to generate both dark and dot PSFs. The quartic phase mask (QPM) is used to generate the dot PSF. A combined phase mask between the QPM and the angle for generating the dark PSF is investigated. The simulation images show that the proposed method can produce superior imaging performance of hybrid imaging systems in extending the depth of field...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Canjin Wang, Tao Sun, Tingfeng Wang, Rui Wang, Jin Guo, Yuzhen Tian
The images captured by an airborne range-gated imaging system are degraded by many factors, such as light scattering, noise, defocus of the optical system, atmospheric disturbances, platform vibrations, and so on. The characteristics of low illumination, few details, and high noise make the state-of-the-art restoration method fail. In this paper, we present a restoration method especially for range-gated imaging systems. The degradation process is divided into two parts: the static part and the dynamic part...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Cesar Romero, Sumit Monu, Glauber Cabral, Robert Knight, Oscar Carretero
OBJECTIVE: Renal hemodynamics is critical for regulation of glomerular filtration (GFR), sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP), and it depends on myogenic response, tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and connecting tubule-glomerular feedback (CTGF). CTGF dilates afferent arteriole in response to high sodium in connecting tubule (CNT), counteracting and resetting TGF; and increasing the plasma flow and glomerular pressure favoring sodium excretion. CTGF is initiated by epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activation in CNT and inhibited by ENaC blocker Benzamil...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David Svoboda, Vladimir Ulman
The proper analysis of biological microscopy images is an important and complex task. Therefore, it requires verification of all steps involved in the process, including image segmentation and tracking algorithms. It is generally better to verify algorithms with computer-generated ground truth datasets, which, compared to manually annotated data, nowadays have reached high quality and can be produced in large quantities even for 3D time-lapse image sequences. Here, we propose a novel framework, called MitoGen, which is capable of generating ground truth datasets with fully 3D time-lapse sequences of synthetic fluorescence-stained cell populations...
September 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Man Kyu Choi, Sung Bum Kim, Chang Kyu Park, Hridayesh P Malla, Sung Min Kim
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between trunk muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion using pedicle screw fixation (PLIF-PSF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although trunk muscles of the lumbar spine contribute to spinal stability and alignment, effect of trunk muscles on spinal fusion rate and time to fusion is unclear. METHODS: A total of 192 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent PLIF-PSF at L3-L4 or L4-L5 were included...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Peng Xiao, Mathias Fink, A Claude Boccara
We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function (PSF) width/spatial resolution of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations. In these systems, aberrations mostly induce a reduction of the signal level that leads to a loss of the signal-to-noise ratio without broadening the system PSF. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations...
September 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Xinhua Chen, Jiankang Zhou, Weimin Shen
Wavefront coding system can realize defocus invariance of PSF/OTF with a phase mask inserting in the pupil plane. Ideally, the derivative of the PSF/OTF with respect to defocus error should be close to zero as much as possible over the extended depth of field/focus for the wavefront coding system. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression for the computation of the derivative of PSF. With this expression, the derivative of PSF based merit function can be used in the optimization of the wavefront coding system with any type of phase mask and aberrations...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Mathew D Schur, Gideon W Blumstein, Derek A Seehausen, Patrick A Ross, Lindsay M Andras, David L Skaggs
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia may be associated with increased blood loss due to the effects of temperature on clotting but this has not been evaluated in the setting of pediatric posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between intraoperative hypothermia and estimated blood loss (EBL) or transfusion requirements in pediatric patients undergoing PSF. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing PSF for scoliosis at a single institution between 6/2004 and 3/2012 was performed...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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