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Sumit R Monu, Yilin Ren, J X Masjoan Juncos, Kristopher Kutskill, Hong Wang, Nitin Kumar, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
Unilaterally nephrectomized rats (UNx) have higher glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) that can cause significant glomerular injury in the remnant kidney. PGC is controlled by the ratio of afferent (Af-Art) and efferent arteriole resistance. Af-Art resistance in turn is regulated by two intrinsic feedback mechanisms: 1) Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) that causes Af-Art constriction in response to increased NaCl in the macula densa and 2) connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) that causes Af-Art dilatation in response to an increase in NaCl transport in the connecting tubule via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Marzia Cavalli, Lucia Anna De Novi, Irene Della Starza, Luca Vincenzo Cappelli, Vittorio Nunes, Alessandro Pulsoni, Ilaria Del Giudice, Anna Guarini, Robin Foà
BCL2/IGH rearrangements were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at diagnosis in paired peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 67 patients with stage I/II follicular lymphoma (FL). Real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) were performed in cases with a major breakpoint region (MBR+) at diagnosis and after localized radiotherapy and rituximab administration in order to investigate the applicability of ddPCR. The overall ddPCR/RQ-PCR concordance was 81·9% (113/138 samples) and 97·5% in the 40/138 with quantifiable disease (RQ-PCR≥10(-5) )...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
Lorena Gómez-Aparicio, Jara Domínguez-Begines, Paul Kardol, José M Ávila, Beatriz Ibáñez, Luis V García
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) play a relevant role as drivers of species abundance, coexistence, and succession in plant communities. However, the potential contribution of PSFs to community dynamics in changing forest ecosystems affected by global change drivers is still largely unexplored. We measured the direction, strength and nature (biological vs. chemical) of PSFs experienced by coexisting tree species in two types of declining Quercus suber forests of southwestern Spain (open woodland vs. closed forest) invaded by the exotic soil pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Hyun Jung Lee, Dong Hoon Shin, GyuYou Noh, Young Keum Kim, Ahrong Kim, Nari Shin, Jung Hee Lee, Kyung Un Choi, Jee Yeon Kim, Chang Hun Lee, Mee Young Sol, Seo Hee Rha, Sung Woo Park
We evaluated the frequency of translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and how well the TFE3 immunoreactivity is concordant with TFE3 gene translocation status proved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and RT-PCR. TFE3 and Cathepsin K expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 185 RCC cases, and 48 cases either of more than weak expression of TFE3 or of positivity for Cathepsin K were done for FISH analysis and RT-PCR. All the RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by cloning and sequencing...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Li-Jia Dong, Jian-Xia Yang, Hong-Wei Yu, Wei-Ming He
The importance of plant-soil feedback (PSF) has long been recognized, but the current knowledge on PSF patterns and the related mechanisms mainly stems from laboratory experiments. We aimed at addressing PSF effects on community performance and their determinants using an invasive forb Solidago canadensis. To do so, we surveyed 81 pairs of invaded versus uninvaded plots, collected soil samples from these pairwise plots, and performed an experiment with microcosm plant communities. The magnitudes of conditioning soil abiotic properties and soil biotic properties by S...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Dinesh K Choudhry, B Randall Brenn, Karen Sacks, Suken Shah
BACKGROUND: Opioids are the mainstay of therapy for pain relief following posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery. Various adjunctive medications are being used to augment analgesia and to reduce opioid-related side effects. At our institution, we have sequentially added 2 adjuncts to a standard morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) regimen. The goal of our study was to evaluate pain control and the benefit of gabapentin and the combination of gabapentin and clonidine, whereas morphine PCA was in use in children following PSF surgery...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
A-L van Harmelen, R A Kievit, K Ioannidis, S Neufeld, P B Jones, E Bullmore, R Dolan, P Fonagy, I Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a key time period for the emergence of psychosocial and mental health difficulties. To promote adolescent adaptive ('resilient') psychosocial functioning (PSF), appropriate conceptualisation and quantification of such functioning and its predictors is a crucial first step. Here, we quantify resilient functioning as the degree to which an individual functions better or worse than expected given their self-reported childhood family experiences, and relate this to adolescent family and friendship support...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Nicholas J Vennart, Nicholas Bird, John Buscombe, Heok K Cheow, Ewa Nowosinska, Sarah Heard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify any improvement with the GE 'Sharp IR' point-spread function (PSF) reconstruction algorithm in addition to ordered subsets expectation maximum (OSEM) and time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction algorithms and establish the optimum parameters to be used in clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a range of experiments using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association image quality phantom filled with a 4 : 1 signal-to-background ratio...
April 7, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Satohiko Yanagisawa, Takehito Oshio, Mototoshi Kato, Motohiro Kano, Yuki Tsuji, Yasuhide Morikawa
PURPOSE: Although complete excision is the standard treatment for pyriform sinus fistula (PSF), it has recently been suggested that chemocauterization via the internal orifice of the fistula could be an effective non-invasive treatment for the condition. The present report describes the details of our experience and the efficacy of endoscopic chemocauterization for pediatric PSF. METHOD: Between January 2010 and June 2015, 4 patients were diagnosed with PSF and scheduled to undergo endoscopic chemocauterization...
April 7, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Petar N Petrov, Yoav Shechtman, W E Moerner
We report the use of a phase retrieval procedure based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to produce an improved, experimentally calibrated model of a point spread function (PSF) for use in three-dimensional (3D) localization microscopy experiments. The method estimates a global pupil phase function (which includes both the PSF and system aberrations) over the full axial range from a simple calibration scan. The pupil function is used to refine the PSF model and hence enable superior localizations from experimental data...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
Qian Yin, Ping Guo, Hanli Liu, Xin Zheng
Although advances in astronomical observation techniques and fiber optic technology have enabled two-dimensional (2D) multifiber spectrum images, astronomers often need one-dimensional (1D) spectroscopy to study physical and chemical properties of astronomical objects. Because of faint optical flux and light pollution, determining point spread functions (PSF) for large-scale multifiber spectroscopic telescopes is difficult. We propose a new optimal extraction method that uses blind deconvolution to extract 1D astronomical spectroscopy from 2D multifiber spectrum images without knowing the exact PSF...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
Dongok Ryu, Sug-Whan Kim, Robert P Breault
In this study, a new global earth system model is introduced for evaluating the optical performance of space instruments. Simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic results are provided using this global earth system model with fully resolved spatial, spectral, and temporal coverage of sub-models of the Earth. The sun sub-model is a Lambertian scattering sphere with a 6-h scale and 295 lines of solar spectral irradiance. The atmospheric sub-model has a 15-layer three-dimensional (3D) ellipsoid structure. The land sub-model uses spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) defined by a semi-empirical parametric kernel model...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
R F Egerton
We discuss the delocalization of the inelastic scattering of 60-300keV electrons in a thin specimen, for energy losses below 50eV where the delocalization length exceeds atomic dimensions. Analytical expressions are derived for the point spread function (PSF) that describes the radial distribution of this scattering, based on its angular distribution and a dielectric representation of energy loss. We also compute a PSF for energy deposition, which is directly related to the radiolysis damage created by a small-diameter probe...
March 22, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
Nurmohammed Patwary, Hasti Shabani, Ana Doblas, Genaro Saavedra, Chrysanthe Preza
In this paper, wavefront-encoded (WFE) computational optical sectioning microscopy (COSM) using a fabricated square cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask, designed to render the system less sensitive to depth-induced aberration, is investigated. The WFE-COSM system is characterized by a point spread function (PSF) that does not vary as rapidly with imaging depth compared to the conventional system. Thus, in WFE-COSM, image restoration from large volumes can be achieved using computationally efficient space-invariant (SI) algorithms, thereby avoiding the use of depth-variant algorithms...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Zhi Zheng, Weiping Wang, Xin Huang, Quan Lv, Wenling Fan, Wenkui Yu, Lei Li, Zhibing Zhang
Polysulfone (PSF) was grafted chemically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights (400, 2000, 10 000, and 20 000) and heparin to prepare PSF-PEG-Hep membranes (labeled as PSF-PEG400-Hep, PSF-PEG2000-Hep, PSF-PEG10 000-Hep, and PSF-PEG20 000-Hep). These membranes were synthesized via the following steps: (i) PSF chloromethylation; (ii) PEGylation; and (iii) heparin immobilization process. Water contact angle, critical water permeation pressure, ATR-FTIR, (1) H NMR, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to prove grafting success and to fix the optimal reaction parameters during chemical modification processes...
November 2016: Artificial Organs
Hazen P Babcock, Xiaowei Zhuang
The resolution of super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule localization is in part determined by the accuracy of the localization algorithm. In most published approaches to date this localization is done by fitting an analytical function that approximates the point spread function (PSF) of the microscope. However, particularly for localization in 3D, analytical functions such as a Gaussian, which are computationally inexpensive, may not accurately capture the PSF shape leading to reduced fitting accuracy...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fei Lan, Minlin Jiang, Quan Tao, Fanan Wei, Guangyong Li
A Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) image is sometimes difficult to interpret because it is a blurred representation of the true surface potential (SP) distribution of the materials under test. The reason for the blurring is that KPFM relies on the detection of electrostatic force, which is a long-range force compared to other surface forces. Usually, KPFM imaging model is described as the convolution of the true SP distribution of the sample with an intrinsic point spread function (PSF) of the measurement system...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Lina Cheng, Da-Wen Sun, Zhiwei Zhu, Zhihang Zhang
Effects of protein denaturation caused by high pressure freezing, involving Pressure-Factors (pressure, time) and Freezing-Factors (temperature, phase transition, recrystallization, ice crystal types), are complicated. In the current study, the conformation and functional changes of natural actomyosin (NAM) under pressure assisted freezing (PAF, (100,150,300,400,500MPa)P-20°C/25min), pressure shift freezing (PSF, (200MPa)P-20°C/25min), and immersion freezing ((0.1MPa)P-20°C/5min) after pressure was released to 0...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Md Murad Hossain, Christopher Moore, Caterina Gallippi
In transversely isotropic (TI) materials, mechanical properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio) are different along versus across the axis of symmetry (AoS). In this work, the feasibility of interrogating such directional mechanical property differences using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is investigated. We herein test the hypotheses that 1) ARFI-induced peak displacements (PDs) vary with TI material orientations when an asymmetrical ARFI excitation point spread function (PSF) is used, but not when a symmetrical ARFI PSF is employed; and 2) the ratio of PDs induced with the long axis of an asymmetrical ARFI PSF oriented along versus across the material's AoS is related to the degree of anisotropy of the material...
March 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Charline Lasnon, Blandine Enilorac, Hosni Popotte, Nicolas Aide
BACKGROUND: The clinical validation of the EARL harmonization program for standardised uptake value (SUV) metrics is well documented; however, its potential for defining metabolic active tumour volume (MATV) has not yet been investigated. We aimed to compare delineation of MATV on images reconstructed using conventional ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) with those reconstructed using point spread function modelling (PSF-reconstructed images), and either optimised for diagnostic potential (PSF) or filtered to meet the EANM/EARL harmonising standards (PSF7)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
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