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Bernd Schultes, Ann-Kristin Panknin, Manfred Hallschmid, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Britta Wilms, Felix de Courbière, Hendrik Lehnert, Sebastian M Schmid
Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Ferdinand Binkofski, Michaela Loebig, Kathrin Reetz, Gianna Jahn, Uwe H Melchert, Ulrich Schweiger, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Brain energy consumption induced by electrical stimulation increases systemic glucose tolerance in normal-weight men. In obesity, fundamental reductions in brain energy levels, gray matter density, and cortical metabolism, as well as chronically impaired glucose tolerance, suggest that disturbed neuroenergetic regulation may be involved in the development of overweight and obesity. Here, we induced neuronal excitation by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham, examined cerebral energy consumption with (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and determined systemic glucose uptake by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp in 15 normal-weight and 15 obese participants...
June 2015: Diabetes
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Alina Kistenmacher, Nina Herzog, Marianka Schwarz, Ulrich Schweiger, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in appetite and food intake regulation. OBJECTIVE: Because previous data revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC reduces food cravings, we hypothesized that repetitive electric stimulation of the right DLPFC would lower food intake behavior in humans. DESIGN: In a single-blind, code-based, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, randomized crossover experiment, 14 healthy young men with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 20 to 25 were examined during 8 d of daily tDCS or a sham stimulation...
October 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K Jauch-Chara, K M Oltmanns
Hyperglycemia is a common phenomenon in the early phase of brain injury (BI). The management of blood glucose levels after BI, however, is subject of a growing debate. The occurrence of elevated blood glucose concentrations is linked to increased mortality and worse neurologic outcomes indicating the necessity for therapeutic glucose-lowering. Intensive glucose-lowering therapy, on the other hand, inevitably results in an increased rate of hypoglycemic episodes with detrimental effects on the injured brain...
December 26, 2014: Neuroscience
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Obesity is a global epidemic associated with a series of secondary complications and comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, sleep-breathing disorders, and certain forms of cancer. On the surface, it seems that obesity is simply the phenotypic manifestation of deliberately flawed food intake behavior with the consequence of dysbalanced energy uptake and expenditure and can easily be reversed by caloric restriction and exercise. Notwithstanding this assumption, the disappointing outcomes of long-term clinical studies based on this assumption show that the problem is much more complex...
March 2014: Progress in Neurobiology
Nina Herzog, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Franziska Hyzy, Annekatrin Richter, Alexia Friedrich, Christian Benedict, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Shortened nocturnal sleep impairs morning glucose tolerance. The underlying mechanism of this effect is supposed to involve a reduced fraction of slow wave sleep (SWS). However, it remains unanswered if impaired glucose tolerance occurs due to specific SWS reduction or a general disturbance of sleep. Sixteen healthy men participated in three experimental conditions in a crossover design: SWS suppression, rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep disturbance, and regular sleep. Selective sleep stage disturbance was performed by means of an acoustic tone (532Hz) with gradually rising sound intensity...
October 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sebastian M Schmid, Manfred Hallschmid, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Mareike C Kück, Hendrik Lehnert, Bernd Schultes
Sleep and endocrine function are known to be closely related, but studies on the effect of moderate sleep loss on endocrine axes are still sparse. We examined the influence of partial sleep restriction for 2 days on the secretory activity of the thyrotropic axis. Fifteen healthy, normal-weight men were tested in a balanced, cross-over study. Serum concentrations of thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) were monitored at 1-h intervals during a 15-h daytime period (08:00-23:00 h) following two nights of restricted sleep (bedtime 02:45-07:00 h) and two nights of regular sleep (bedtime 22:45-07:00 h), respectively...
April 2013: Journal of Sleep Research
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Sebastian M Schmid, Manfred Hallschmid, Kerstin M Oltmanns, Bernd Schultes
Total sleep deprivation (TSD) exerts strong modulatory effects on the secretory activity of endocrine systems that might be related to TSD-induced challenges of cerebral glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate whether TSD affects the course of male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis related hormones during a subsequent 240-min hypoglycemic clamp. Ten healthy men were tested on 2 different conditions, TSD and 7-hour regular sleep. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone, prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxin (fT4) were measured during baseline and a subsequent hypoglycemic clamp taking place in the morning...
2013: PloS One
Nina Herzog, Alexia Friedrich, Naoko Fujita, Steffen Gais, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns, Christian Benedict
Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption...
2012: PloS One
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Alexia Friedrich, Magdalena Rezmer, Uwe H Melchert, Harald G Scholand-Engler, Manfred Hallschmid, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ± 0.37 kg/m(2)) aged 22-28 years were intranasally administered insulin (40 IU) or placebo after an overnight fast...
September 2012: Diabetes
Sebastian M Schmid, Manfred Hallschmid, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Hendrik Lehnert, Bernd Schultes
BACKGROUND: Sleep loss has been shown to reduce secretory activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in men, but the determinants of this effect are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To discriminate the effects of sleep duration and sleep timing on serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL). METHODS: Fifteen young, healthy men (27·1 ± 1·3 years; BMI, 22·9 ± 0·3 kg/m(2) ) were examined in a condition of sleep time restriction to 4 h (bedtime, 02:45 -07:00 h) for two consecutive nights and in a control condition of 8 h regular sleep (bedtime, 22:45-07:00 h)...
November 2012: Clinical Endocrinology
Bernd Schultes, Sebastian M Schmid, Britta Wilms, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns, Manfred Hallschmid
Considering that lactate is known to interact with central glucose-sensing networks, we tested whether hyperlactatemia affects food intake in humans. According to a balanced within-subject 2×2 design, 12 healthy, fasted men (age: 20-40 years; BMI: 20-26 kg/m(2)) were intravenously infused lactate and saline, respectively, for 105 min during concomitant euglycemic and hypoglycemic, respectively, insulin infusion of 75 min. Ten minutes after the simultaneous end of infusions, free-choice food intake was assessed at 10:25 h...
June 2012: Appetite
A Friedrich, A K Ludwig, K Jauch-Chara, M Loebig, S Rudolf, S Tauchert, K Diedrich, U Schweiger, K M Oltmanns
AIMS: Plasma glucose levels influence growth hormone concentrations. Oral contraceptives are known to affect circulating growth hormone levels and glucose metabolism. While growth hormone plays an important role in hypoglycaemia counter-regulation, it has been shown that oral contraceptives increase growth hormone concentrations. In this context, we tested if serum growth hormone concentrations display a differential response on glycaemic variations in healthy women using oral contraceptives and those not using contraceptives...
March 2012: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Ferdinand Binkofski, Michaela Loebig, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Sigrid Bergmann, Uwe H Melchert, Harald G Scholand-Engler, Ulrich Schweiger, Luc Pellerin, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: Controlled transcranial stimulation of the brain is part of clinical treatment strategies in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, stroke, or Parkinson's disease. Manipulating brain activity by transcranial stimulation, however, inevitably influences other control centers of various neuronal and neurohormonal feedback loops and therefore may concomitantly affect systemic metabolic regulation. Because hypothalamic adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, which function as local energy sensors, are centrally involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes an excitation-induced transient neuronal energy depletion and thus influences systemic glucose homeostasis and related neuroendocrine mediators...
October 1, 2011: Biological Psychiatry
Volker Ott, Monique Friedrich, Simon Prilop, Hendrik Lehnert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Jan Born, Manfred Hallschmid
The anticipation of food intake comprises endocrine changes that according to animal experiments include a rise in HPA axis activity. In humans, HPA axis responses to food anticipation and withdrawal, although of clinical relevance, have not been thoroughly examined. We assessed neuroendocrine and psychological effects of food anticipation and of withholding anticipated food in healthy human subjects. Food anticipation was induced in 14 men at 0800 h by the announcement and subsequent presentation of a breakfast buffet...
July 6, 2011: Physiology & Behavior
Sebastian M Schmid, Manfred Hallschmid, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Britta Wilms, Hendrik Lehnert, Jan Born, Bernd Schultes
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies point to a strong association between short sleep duration and the development of diabetes. We examined the hypothesis that short-term sleep loss decreases glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and, if so, how these changes relate to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) secretory activity and markers of subclinical inflammation. DESIGN: In a balanced, within-subject design, circulating glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, ACTH, cortisol, and IL-6 levels were closely monitored during a 15-h daytime period following 2 nights of restricted sleep (02:45-07:00) and 2 nights of regular sleep (bedtime 22:45-07:00), respectively...
March 2011: Sleep
Kamila Jauch-Chara, André Schmoller, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and high body mass index (BMI) are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. METHOD: We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each...
2011: Nutrition Journal
Kamila Jauch-Chara, Bernd Schultes
Undetected nocturnal hypoglycaemia frequently occurs in patients with diabetes, having a negative influence on well-being, counterregulation against and awareness of subsequent hypoglycaemia, and even causing sudden death in some cases most likely by inducing cardiac arrhythmia. Sleep markedly weakens the neuroendocrine defence mechanism against hypoglycaemia by shifting the glycaemic threshold for counterregulatory activation to lower levels. While hypoglycaemia triggers awakening in healthy subjects, patients with type 1 diabetes frequently fail to awake in the presence of low plasma glucose levels...
October 2010: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
B Willenborg, A Schmoller, J Caspary, U H Melchert, H G Scholand-Engler, K Jauch-Chara, F Hohagen, U Schweiger, K M Oltmanns
CONTEXT: The risk to develop dementia is significantly increased in diabetes mellitus. Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, which is clinically applied in dementia, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects under hypoglycemic conditions in rats. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that memantine may prevent hypoglycemia-induced decrements in the cerebral high-energy phosphate, i.e. ATP, metabolism to exert its neuroprotective action under these conditions...
February 2011: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anke van Mark, Stephan W Weiler, Marcel Schröder, Andreas Otto, Kamila Jauch-Chara, David A Groneberg, Michael Spallek, Richard Kessel, Barbara Kalsdorf
AIM: Sleep disturbances induce proinflammatory immune responses, which might increase cardiovascular disease risk. So far the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep illnesses on the immune system have been investigated. The particular impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on specific immune responses has not been addressed so far. METHODS: Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index (PSQI) questionnaire and blood sampling was performed by 225 shift workers and 137 daytime workers...
2010: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
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