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H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
D Yuan, X-M Liu, Z Fang, L-L Du, J Chang, S-H Lin
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) can cause chronic renal insufficiency and significantly reduce the life quality of patients with diabetes mellitus, and may eventually lead to death. The study investigated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors, which have important roles in the progress of DN and to explore effects of resveratrol on DN and the possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specific pathogen free (SPF) grade healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into different groups for different treatments...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Z Xing, H-Y Wang, W-Y Su, Y-F Liu, X-X Wang, P Zhan, T-F Lv, Y Song
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways closely involved in the occurrence and progression of several types of human malignancies. This research was undertaken to elucidate the important role of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Wnt3 expression in lung cancers and their respective normal tissues were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Then, Wnt3 was regulated with RNA interference (RNAi) technology in human lung cancer A549 cells, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion/metastasis, and apoptosis were evaluated...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-H Zhang, H-Y Zhang, S Lu, L-L Jiang, J Wu, Y-L Yang, S-A Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Gestational hypertension is a pregnancy complication that serious damages the maternal and child health. Early onset severe preeclampsia accounts for about 0.9% of the gestational hypertension disease. Conservative treatment is proposed in recent years to early onset severe preeclampsia through delay delivery. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia. Soluble endoglin (sEng) has been identified as a central factor to induce endothelium dysfunction of preeclampsia, while its specific mechanism is unclear...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ronald A Lubet, Vernon E Steele, M M Juliana, Ann Bode, Fariba Moeinpour, Clinton J Grubbs
Daily vs. weekly dosing with EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and lapatinib) and an AKT inhibitor (MK2206) were compared in two rodent breast cancer models. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered methylnitrosourea (MNU) at 50 days of age, and gefitinib (daily/weekly dosing at 10/70 mg/kg BW) or lapatinib (daily/weekly dosing at 75/525 mg/kg BW) were administered by gavage beginning 5 days after MNU. For the prevention studies, weekly or daily dosing with gefitinib or lapatinib reduced cancer multiplicity >75%, and all treatments reduced tumor weights by >90%...
March 14, 2018: Oncology Reports
Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Cristina Teixidó, Ana Giménez-Capitán, Miguel Ángel Molina-Vila, Vicente Peg, Niki Karachaliou, Alejandra Rodríguez-Capote, Josep Castellví, Rafael Rosell
CONTEXT: - Technologic advances have contributed to the increasing relevance of RNA analysis in clinical oncology practice. The different genetic aberrations that can be screened with RNA include gene fusions and splice variants. Validated methods of identifying these alterations include fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing, which can provide physicians valuable information on disease and treatment of cancer patients...
April 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Viktória Varga, János Németh, Orsolya Oláh, Valéria Tóth-Szűki, Viktória Kovács, Gábor Remzső, Ferenc Domoki
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has an established role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this study we sought to determine whether COX-2 was induced by asphyxia in newborn pigs, and whether neuronal COX-2 levels were affected by H2 treatment. Piglets were subjected to either 8 min of asphyxia or a more severe 20 min of asphyxia followed by H2 treatment (inhaling room air containing 2.1% H2 for 4 h). COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed on brain samples from surviving piglets 24 h after asphyxia...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Arndt Meyer, Shubhash Chandra Yadav, Karin Dedek
In the mammalian retina, gap junctions, made of connexin proteins, are found in all neuronal cell types and are important for the transmission of rod photoreceptor signals, spike synchronization, noise reduction, and signal averaging. There are several methods available to assess gap junctional coupling in the retina: simultaneous electrical recordings from two adjacent cells, cut-loading, and intracellular injection of gap junction-permeable tracers. Here, we focus on the latter as it allows precise targeting of the cell of interest and is suitable to assess tracer coupling in a wide variety of retinal cell types, e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chase B Hellmer, Tomomi Ichinose
Retinal first-order neurons, photoreceptors, receive visual inputs and convert them to neural signals. The second-order neurons, bipolar cells then sort out the visual signals and encode them through multiple neural streams. Approximately 15 morphological types of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different aspects of visual signals such as motion and color (Ichinose et al. J Neurosci 34(26):8761-8771, 2014; Euler et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(8):507-519, 2014). To investigate functional aspects of OFF bipolar cells, single cell recordings are preferred; however, bipolar cells in the mouse retina are small and hard to distinguish from other types of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Clint L Makino, Teresa Duda, Alexandre Pertzev, Rameshwar K Sharma
Our ability to see is based on the activity of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. Rods function when there is very little light, while cones operate at higher light levels. Photon absorption by rhodopsin activates a biochemical cascade that converts photic energy into a change in the membrane potential of the cell by decreasing the levels of a second messenger, cGMP, that control the gating of cation channels. But just as important as the activation of the cascade are the shut-off and recovery processes. The timing of shutoff and recovery ultimately affects sensitivity, temporal resolution and even the capacity for counting single photons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sally Agersborg, Christopher Mixon, Thanh Nguyen, Sramila Aithal, Sucha Sudarsanam, Forrest Blocker, Lawrence Weiss, Robert Gasparini, Shiping Jiang, Wayne Chen, Gregory Hess, Maher Albitar
PURPOSE: While HER2 testing is well established in directing appropriate treatment for breast cancer, a small percentage of cases show equivocal results by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Alternative probes may be used in equivocal cases. We present a single community-based institution's experience in further evaluating these cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 4255 samples were submitted for HER2 amplification testing by alternative probes, TP53, RAI1, and RARA...
March 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Maria A T Bortolini, Suellen M Feitosa, Andreisa P M Bilhar, Gisela G R Salerno, Edmar Zanoteli, Manuel J Simões, Rodrigo A Castro
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: An animal model of vaginal distention (VD) was developed to reproduce the acute urethral injury and deficiency underlying stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Data on the chronic effects of urethral trauma and the recovery process are still scarce. We investigated acute, short- and long-term histomorphological and molecular changes in the urethra of rats post 12-h intermittent VD. METHODS: We evaluated the urethra of four groups of female rats (n = 72): control without trauma, 1 h, 7 days and 30 days post VD...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Yuan Ou, Kai Chen, Hao Cai, Hu Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Jian Wang, Wei Chen, Kui Luo
In this study, to enhance the therapeutic function and reduce the side-effects of doxorubicin (DOX), a biodegradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-DOX conjugate has been prepared through reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and conjugation chemistry, and the anticancer agent DOX was covalently linked to the polymeric vehicle through a pH-responsive hydrazone bond. The cellular mechanisms of the conjugate were explored, and the therapeutic indexes were studied as well...
March 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Behrang Kazeminezhad, Behdad Baradaran, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi
Introduction: Recently, hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) has been considered as a significantly important factor in determining the prognosis and estimating the probability of tumor cell invasions, recurrence, and lymph node metastasis in different cancers, including breast malignancies. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) study for HDGF was performed on paraffin-embedded blocks of patients with breast carcinoma in Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran, since 1387-1390 (74 cases); three separate pathologists read the slides after complete IHC staining...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Azfar Neyaz, Nuzhat Husain, Sameer Gupta, Swati Kumari, Aditi Arora, Namrata Puneet Awasthi, Kiran Preet Malhotra, Sanjeev Misra
Background: Gallbladder carcinoma, uncommon in most of the world, is frequent in South East Asia. It presents in advanced stages with limited therapeutic options. We investigated targetable predictive and prognostic Markers in 268 cases including 233 primary site lesions and 35 metastatic gallbladder carcinoma. Methods: EGFR, VEGF, HER2/Neu and p53 were assessed using immunohistochemistry. HER2/Neu was validated in a subset by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using tissue microarray (TMA)...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Marwan Hanafy, Martin Schwonzen, Cornelius Kuhnen, Bernhard Schley, Axel Wilke
We describe a primary leiomyosarcoma of bone located in the distal fibula in a 67- year-old man. Plain radiographs and computer tomography scan revealed a lytic destructive lesion in the distal metaepiphyseal region of the left fibula with little involvement of the surrounding soft tissues. The lesion was composed of proliferating spindle-shaped cells with very slim cytoplasm and narrow oval cigar shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated a strong positivity for actin and desmin, and weak positivity for caldesmon...
December 14, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
Shibin Song, Yimin Chen, Feng Han, Minghao Dong, Xin Xiang, Jianmei Sui, Yuming Li, Hua Yang, Jian Liu
Aloperine (ALO) exhibits neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress in vitro ; however, its protective effect in early brain injury (EBI) following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ALO in EBI, and its association with nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 and the antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) survival pathway. In the present study, an experimental SAH model was induced in rats following a prechiasmatic cistern injection...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ruolin Ma, Mohsen Seifi, Maria Papanikolaou, James F Brown, Jerome D Swinny, Anthony Lewis
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur when coordinated smooth muscle contractility is disrupted. Potassium (K+ ) channels regulate GI smooth muscle tone and are key to GI tract relaxation, but their molecular and functional phenotypes are poorly described. Here we define the expression and functional roles of mechano-gated K2P channels in mouse ileum and colon. Expression and distribution of the K2P channel family were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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