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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216850/adolescent-substance-use-behavior-and-suicidal-behavior-for-boys-and-girls-a-cross-sectional-study-by-latent-analysis-approach
#1
Peng-Wei Wang, Cheng-Fang Yen
BACKGROUND: Adolescent suicidal behavior may consist of different symptoms, including suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts. Adolescent substance use behavior may contribute to adolescent suicidal behavior. However, research on the relationships between specific substance use and individual suicidal behavior is insufficient, as adolescents may not use only one substance or develop only one facet of suicidal behavior. Latent variables permit us to describe the relationships between clusters of related behaviors more accurately than studying the relationships between specific behaviors...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216523/use-of-synthetic-stimulants-and-hallucinogens-in-a-cohort-of-electronic-dance-music-festival-attendees
#2
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#3
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214532/qualitative-and-quantitative-temporal-analysis-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-in-australia-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#4
Richard Bade, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
The combination of qualitative and quantitative bimonthly analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is presented. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight instrument equipped with Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) was used to qualitatively screen 346 compounds in influent wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in South Australia over a 14-month period. A total of 100 compounds were confirmed and/or detected using this strategy, with 61 confirmed in all samples including antidepressants (amitriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin), antipsychotics (amisulpride, clozapine), illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), and known drug adulterants (lidocaine and tetramisole)...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206921/acute-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-negative-emotion-processing
#6
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Laura Egloff, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are frequently used as cognitive enhancers in healthy people, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is proposed to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects. However, comparative data on the effects of MPH and modafinil on negative emotions in healthy subjects have been widely missing. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of MPH and modafinil on the neural correlates of fearful face processing using MDMA as a positive control...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205946/surveillance-of-drug-abuse-in-hong-kong-by-hair-analysis-using-lc-ms-ms
#7
K Wing Leung, Zack C F Wong, Janet Y M Ho, Ada W S Yip, Jerry K H Cheung, Karen K L Ho, Ran Duan, Karl W K Tsim
The aim of this study is to reveal the habits of drug abusers in hair samples from drug rehabilitation units in Hong Kong. With the application of LC-MS/MS technology, a total of 1,771 hair samples were analyzed during the period (Jan 2012 to Mar 2016) of hair testing service provided to fourteen drug rehabilitation units including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), rehabilitation centers and medical clinics. Hair samples were analyzed for abused drugs and their metabolites simultaneously, including ketamine, norketamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, codeine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine and methadone...
December 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204126/pharmacokinetic-ambulatory-and-hyperthermic-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxy-n-methylcathinone-methylone-in-rats
#8
Kristýna Štefková, Monika Židková, Rachel R Horsley, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Libor Uttl, Marie Balíková, Hynek Danda, Martin Kuchař, Tomáš Páleníček
Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198060/no-major-role-of-norepinephrine-transporter-gene-variations-in-the-cardiostimulant-effects-of-mdma
#9
Patrick Vizeli, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Matthias E Liechti
PURPOSE: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is used recreationally and frequently leads to sympathomimetic toxicity. MDMA produces cardiovascular and subjective stimulant effects that were shown to partially depend on the norepinephrine transporter (NET)-mediated release of norepinephrine and stimulation of α1-adrenergic receptors. Genetic variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of the NET gene (SLC6A2) may explain interindividual differences in the acute stimulant-type responses to MDMA in humans...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197244/systematic-assessment-of-different-solvents-for-the-extraction-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals-from-an-authentic-hair-pool
#10
Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Hair analysis has been established as a prevalent tool for retrospective drug monitoring. In this study, different extraction solvents for the determination of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair were evaluated for their efficiency. A pool of authentic hair from drug users was used for extraction experiments. Hair was pulverized and extracted in triplicate with seven different solvents in a one- or two-step extraction. Three one- (methanol, acetonitrile, and acetonitrile/water) and four two-step extractions (methanol two-fold, methanol and methanol/acetonitrile/formate buffer, methanol and methanol/formate buffer, and methanol and methanol/hydrochloric acid) were tested under accurately equal experimental conditions...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195124/corrigendum-to-the-external-gate-of-the-human-and-drosophila-serotonin-transporters-requires-a-basic-acidic-amino-acid-pair-for-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-translocation-and-the-induction-of-substrate-efflux-biochem-pharmacol-120-2016-46-55
#11
Natalie R Sealover, Bruce Felts, Charles P Kuntz, Rachel E Jarrard, Gregory H Hockerman, Patrick W Lamb, Eric L Barker, L Keith Henry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194289/lack-of-detection-of-new-amphetamine-like-drugs-using-conventional-urinary-immunoassays
#12
A Begeman, E J F Franssen
BACKGROUND: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam an on-site drug test, the Triage® TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT® II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semi-quantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse. The antibodies in these immunoassays are designed to detect classic drugs of abuse and its urinary metabolites...
November 29, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178010/psychedelics-and-reconsolidation-of-traumatic-and-appetitive-maladaptive-memories-focus-on-cannabinoids-and-ketamine
#13
REVIEW
Liana Fattore, Alessandro Piva, Mary Tresa Zanda, Guido Fumagalli, Cristiano Chiamulera
RATIONALE: Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis...
November 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171275/single-use-polyetheretherketone-peek-solid-phase-microextraction-transmission-mode-spme-tm-devices-for-rapid-screening-and-quantitation-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-and-urine-via-direct-analysis-in-real-time-tandem-mass-spectrometry-dart-ms-ms
#14
Tijana Vasiljevic, German Augusto Gómez-Riós, Janusz Pawliszyn
The analysis of oral fluid (OF) and urine samples to detect recent drug consumption has garnered considerable attention as alternative and less invasive biological matrices. Indeed, several groups have demonstrated that efficiently combining microex-traction and ambient ionization technologies can facilitate the rapid determination of target compounds in such biofluids at trace levels (low or sub ng mL-1). However, there is still a need for biocompatible devices that can both be implemented for in-vivo sampling and easily interfaced with mass-spectrometry (MS) analyzers...
November 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162429/studies-with-psychedelic-drugs-in-human-volunteers
#15
REVIEW
Edward M Sellers, Myroslava K Romach, Deborah B Leiderman
Scientific curiosity and fascination have played a key role in human research with psychedelics along with the hope that perceptual alterations and heightened insight could benefit well-being and play a role in the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. These motivations need to be tempered by a realistic assessment of the hurdles to be cleared for therapeutic use. Development of a psychedelic drug for treatment of a serious psychiatric disorder presents substantial although not insurmountable challenges...
November 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158882/the-mediating-role-of-a2a-adenosine-receptors-in-the-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptotic-hippocampal-cell-death-following-the-administration-of-mdma-in-rat
#16
Masoomeh Bakhshayesh, Fereshteh Golab, Fatemeh Kermanian, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Ronak Shabani, Elham Movahed, Majid Katebi
Introduction: The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug and a major source of substance abuse, which ultimately leads to sensations of well-being, elation and euphoria, moderate derealization/depersonalization, and cognitive disruptions, as well as intense sensory awareness. The mechanisms involved in memory impairment induced by MDMA are not completely understood. Methods: The current study used 40 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighted 200 to 250 g...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156401/nine-reasons-why-ecstasy-is-not-quite-what-it-used-to-be
#17
Jane Mounteney, Paul Griffiths, Alessandra Bo, Andrew Cunningham, Joao Matias, Alessandro Pirona
This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of change, linked with both supply and demand for the drug. Factors discussed include: innovation in production techniques; changes in precursor chemical availability; the role of online markets; competition with other stimulants and new psychoactive substances; the increased availability of high-strength MDMA; and the shift from subcultural towards more mainstream use of the drug...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152674/progress-and-promise-for-the-mdma-drug-development-program
#18
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143869/peripheral-endocannabinoid-concentrations-are-not-associated-with-verbal-memory-impairment-during-mdma-intoxication
#19
E Haijen, M Farre, R de la Torre, A Pastor, E Olesti, N Pizarro, J G Ramaekers, K P C Kuypers
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data have suggested involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Clinical research has shown that blockade of the 5-HT2 receptor nulls memory impairment during MDMA intoxication. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that the eCB and the 5-HT system interact. It was hypothesized that MDMA would cause an increase in eCB concentrations together with a decrease in memory performance, and that combining MDMA with a 5-HT2 receptor blocker ketanserin would lead to a counteraction of the MDMA effects on eCB concentrations and memory...
November 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#20
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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