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Patrick Vizeli, Matthias E Liechti
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases oxytocin, empathy, and prosociality. Oxytocin plays a critical role in emotion processing and social behavior and has been shown to mediate the prosocial effects of MDMA in animals. Genetic variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) may influence the emotional and social effects of MDMA in humans. The effects of common genetic variants of the OXTR (rs53576, rs1042778, and rs2254298 SNPs) on the emotional, empathogenic, and prosocial effects of MDMA were characterized in up to 132 healthy subjects in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled studies...
2018: PloS One
Kristin M Kostick, Jean J Schensul
This paper discusses motivations for the use of MDMA among young adults in intimate relationships living in resource poor environments, where structural constraints limit potential for economic mobility and impact upon interpersonal relations. Drawing from in-depth interviews with men and women in intimate relationships with one or more partners, we report the range of motivations for MDMA use and their association with indicators of relationship quality, specifically trust and romantic exclusivity. Findings demonstrate that both men and women use MDMA primarily for the purpose of sexual enjoyment...
June 18, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Sean B Dolan, Ritu A Shetty, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
BACKGROUND: Substituted piperazines comprise a substantial proportion of the novel psychoactive substance market. Among the most widely abused piperazine compounds are meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), tri-fluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and, especially, benzylpiperazine (BZP), which are commonly incorporated, either alone or in combination, in illicit "party pills" or "ecstasy" formulations. Illicit synthesis of BZP often results in production of an impure by-product dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP), which frequently appears alongside BZP in these formulations; however, despite its ubiquity, little information exists regarding the abuse liability of DBZP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Julian Maier, Felix P Mayer, Dino Luethi, Marion Holy, Kathrin Jäntsch, Harald Reither, Lena Hirtler, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti, Christian Pifl, Simon D Brandt, Harald H Sitte
(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction of 4,4'-DMAR with the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells and synaptic vesicles prepared from human striatum...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Rui Guo, Jianying Liao, Jiancheng Liang, Yang Li, Shusong Deng
OBJECTIVE: To assess preadolescents' emotional reactions and intended use of refusal responses to tobacco and ecstasy. METHODS: A total of 333 students from two junior schools in Baise City were recruited with cluster-sampling method, filled the questionnaire to assess a respondent's emotional reactions and refusal skills in response to an offer of tobacco and MDMA from Feb to Jul 2014. RESULTS: 88. 89%-93. 39% of preadolescents would more likely to use "say no"and "tell them you don't want it"...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Nicola Davies, William English, Johann Grundlingh
Since the 1980s, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been a popular recreational drug, used particularly among those who attend raves and nightclubs. Over the past 3 years, the popularity of this drug has once again increased and there has been an associated rise in deaths. The pathophysiology of MDMA toxicity is complex and much remains to be understood. This article aims to increase readers' knowledge of patient presentations, the pathophysiology behind life-threatening toxicity, current treatments and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a potential future treatment...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
T Plecko, K Berbalk, E Wieland, M Shipkova
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is increasingly used as an alternative sample matrix in drug of abuse (DOA) screening. Screening is commonly performed by immunoassays and results confirmed using laborious GC-MS based methods. Therefore, an easy to operate ion trap mass spectrometric (IT-MS) commercial screening method (Toxtyper, Bruker Daltronik, Bremen, Germany) combined with a laboratory-developed sample preparation procedure have been evaluated for their application to OF. METHODS: Oral fluid samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by HybridSPE-phospholipid extraction...
June 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
R Feio-Azevedo, V M Costa, D J Barbosa, A Teixeira-Gomes, I Pita, S Gomes, F C Pereira, M Duarte-Araújo, J A Duarte, F Marques, E Fernandes, M L Bastos, F Carvalho, J P Capela
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a widespread drug of abuse with known neurotoxic properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the differential toxic effects of MDMA in adolescent and aged Wistar rats, using doses pharmacologically comparable to humans. Adolescent (post-natal day 40) (3 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) and aged (mean 20 months old) (2 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) rats received MDMA intraperitoneally. Animals were killed 7 days later, and the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum brain areas were dissected, and heart, liver and kidneys were collected...
June 4, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Jérémie Richard, Marc N Potenza, William Ivoska, Jeffrey Derevensky
Adolescence represents a significant developmental period during which experimentation with high-risk behaviors including substance use and gambling often occurs. These high-risk behaviors have been associated with multiple negative measures of social, academic and psychological functioning. Although associations have been established between alcohol use, marijuana use, mental health problems, and problem gambling in youth, research investigating possible associations between stimulant drug use and gambling is scarce...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Gianfranco Cervellin, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Ida Filice, Giuseppe Lippi
An enhanced risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been clearly documented in endurance athletes over the past decades. In this regard, we have recently described the 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes') syndrome, provided that other risk factors for AF and underlying conditions have been ruled out. We report here a paradigmatic case of PAFIYAMA syndrome. A 32 years old man was admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining for palpitations, lasting for 3 hours. He had never smoked and other risk factors for AF could be ruled out...
April 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Anthony S Gabay, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Ndaba Mazibuko, Matthew J Kempton, Paul D Morrison, David J Nutt, Mitul A Mehta
Disruptions in social decision-making are becoming evident in many psychiatric conditions. These are studied using paradigms investigating the psychological mechanisms underlying interpersonal interactions, such as the Ultimatum Game (UG). Rejection behaviour in the UG represents altruistic punishment - the costly punishment of norm violators - but the mechanisms underlying it require clarification. To investigate the psychopharmacology of UG behaviour, we carried out two studies with healthy participants, employing serotonergic agonists: psilocybin (open-label, within-participant design, N = 19) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design, N = 20)...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giorgia Miolo, Marianna Tucci, Luca Menilli, Giulia Stocchero, Susanna Vogliardi, Salvatore Scrivano, Massimo Montisci, Donata Favretto
Drugs incorporated into hair are exposed to the environment, and cosmetic and chemical treatments, with possible decreases in their content. Knowledge concerning the effect of sunlight on drug content in hair can be helpful to forensic toxicologists, in particular, when investigating drug concentrations above or below pre-determined cut-offs. Twenty authentic positive hair samples were selected which had previously tested positive for amphetamines and/or ketamine. Washed hair were divided into two identical strands, with the former exposed at 765 W/m² (300⁻800 nm spectrum of irradiance) for 48 h in a solar simulator, and the latter kept in the dark...
May 28, 2018: Brain Sciences
Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Balázs Szigeti, Adam R Winstock, David Erritzoe, Larissa J Maier
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies imply that the regular use of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the major constituent of ecstasy pills, alters the brain's serotonergic system in a dose-dependent manner. However, the relevance of these findings remains unclear due to limited knowledge about the ecstasy/MDMA use pattern of real-life users. AIMS: We examined the representativeness of ecstasy users enrolled in neuroimaging studies by comparing their ecstasy use habits with the use patterns of a large, international sample...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Andrea Cipriani, Philip J Cowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Allison A Feduccia, Lisa Jerome, Mark Wagner, Joy Wymer, Julie Holland, Scott Hamilton, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Amy Emerson, Rick Doblin
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in military personnel and first responders, many of whom do not respond to currently available treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treating chronic PTSD in this population. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 trial at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in the USA. We included service personnel who were 18 years or older, with chronic PTSD duration of 6 months or more, and who had a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-IV) total score of 50 or greater...
April 30, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Ana Correia-Branco, Elisa Keating, Fátima Martel
Our aim was to investigate the effect of some xenobiotics on placentation-related processes in an extravillous trophoblastic cell line (HTR-8/SVneo cells). Amphetamine, MDMA, theophylline, and fluoxetine, but not nicotine, cocaine, and caffeine, had a negative effect on cell proliferation rates, culture growth, viability, or migratory capacity. These compounds have a detrimental effect in placentation-related processes of HTR-8/SVneo cells.
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Quincy A Edwards, Tamanna Sultana, Sergei M Kulikov, Leah D Garner-O'Neale, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
There have been few reports in the peer-reviewed literature on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal wastewater from the Caribbean region. In this study of wastewater collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Barbados, caffeine and ibuprofen were detected at µg/L concentrations, whereas two steroid hormones (i.e. androstenedione, estrone) and several prescription pharmaceuticals were detected at ng/L concentrations. Among drugs of abuse, benzoylecgonine (i.e. metabolite of cocaine), MDMA (i...
May 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sascha B Thal, Miriam J J Lommen
The present paper discusses the current literature with regard to substance-assisted psychotherapy with Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the development from MDMA's early application in psychotherapy to its present and future role in the treatment of PTSD. It is further attempted to increase the attention for MDMA's therapeutic potential by providing a thorough depiction of the scientific evidence regarding its theorized mechanism of action and potential harms of its application in the clinical setting (e...
2018: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy
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