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Aline Akemi Ishikawa, Dayanne Mozaner Bordin, Eduardo Geraldo de Campos, Lucas Blanes, Philip Doble, Bruno Spinosa De Martinis
Vitreous humor (VH) shows excellent potential as a matrix of choice for postmortem analytical toxicology due to the ease of sampling and low metabolic activity. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid analytical method to identify and quantify 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine in VH. Samples were collected with a simple eye puncture procedure, followed by liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analysis via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Franziska Gaunitz, Sabrina Lehmann, Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis, Markus A Rothschild, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
This case report centres on the post-mortem distribution of the synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA and its metabolites in the case of a 27-year-old man found dead after falling from the 24th floor of a high-rise building. Toxicological analysis of post-mortem samples confirmed, besides consumption of the synthetic cannabinoids MDMB-CHMICA (1.7 ng/mL femoral blood) and EG-018, the abuse of THC (9.3 ng/mL femoral blood), amphetamine (1050 ng/mL femoral blood), MDMA (275 ng/mL femoral blood), and cocaine. Regarding EG-018 and cocaine, only traces were detected in heart blood as well as in the brain (EG-018) and urine (cocaine), respectively, which is why no quantification was conducted in the femoral blood sample...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ann E Klega, Jennifer Tickal Keehbauch
Approximately 10% of the U.S. population 12 years and older reported using illicit substances in 2015. This article reviews the clinical effects and treatment of persons who use cocaine, methamphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), synthetic cannabinoids, and synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). Cocaine blocks the reuptake of the monoamine transporters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Immediate clinical effects include increased energy and euphoria, as well as hypertension and arrhythmias...
July 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Quenten Highgate, Susan Schenk
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) preferentially increases synaptic serotonin (5HT). This response was attenuated following repeated exposure but there was recovery as a result of abstinence. Effects of abstinence on self-administration of many drugs have been documented but the impact on MDMA self-administration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effects of abstinence on MDMA and cocaine self-administration. METHODS: Six-hour daily MDMA or cocaine sessions were conducted until a total of 350 mg/kg had been self-administered...
September 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mami Nakamura, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Recreational drugs, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine, induce hyperthermia, which is affected by ambient temperature. 2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B-NBOMe), a selective agonist of 5-HT2A receptor used as a recreational drug, reportedly induces hyperthermia. This study aimed to verify whether 25B-NBOMe induces ambient temperature-dependent hyperthermia and to clarify its mechanism. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered intraperitoneal injection of 25B-NBOMe at an ambient temperature of 23°C or 29°C...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Susan Schenk, Quenten Highgate
Most studies on discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have been conducted using a relatively low dose (1.5 mg/kg), and those studies have invariably implicated serotonergic mechanisms. In contrast, dopaminergic mechanisms mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Some studies have suggested that the discriminative stimulus effects of a higher (3.0 mg/kg) dose of MDMA might rely on both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. This study aimed to determine effects of selective dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) antagonists on the discriminative stimulus properties of AMPH (0...
September 7, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Alicia L Danforth, Charles S Grob, Christopher Struble, Allison A Feduccia, Nick Walker, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Amy Emerson
RATIONALE: Standard therapeutic approaches to reduce social anxiety in autistic adults have limited effectiveness. Since 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy shows promise as a treatment for other anxiety disorders, a blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. OBJECTIVES: To explore feasibility and safety of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for reduction of social fear and avoidance that are common in the autistic population. METHODS: Autistic adults with marked to very severe social anxiety were randomized to receive MDMA (75 to 125 mg, n = 8) or inactive placebo (0 mg, n = 4) during two 8-h psychotherapy sessions (experimental sessions) in a controlled clinical setting...
September 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Michael Evans-Brown, Roumen Sedefov
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations international drug control conventions of 1961 and 1971 but that may pose similar threats to public health. Many of them are traded as "legal" replacements to controlled drugs such as cannabis, heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine, amphetamines, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Driven by globalization, there has been a large increase in the availability and, subsequently, harms caused by these substances over the last decade in Europe...
September 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Lan Guo, Pengsheng Li, Siyuan Pan, Ming Li, Wuquan Li, Xue Gao, Guoliang Huang, Yan Xu, Ciyong Lu
Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of illicit drug use. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use among Chinese adolescents, to assess the associations between different forms of childhood maltreatment and subsequent illicit drug use and to test whether the child's sex plays a moderating role in the associations. A secondary analysis was made of cross-sectional data collected from 10th to 12th graders from China who were sampled in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey...
August 25, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Gabriella Zsilla, Daniella E Hegyi, Mária Baranyi, E Sylvester Vizi
The addiction-related behavioural effects of drugs of abuse are mediated by the mesocorticolimbic monoamine systems. We investigated the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), mephedrone, β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) methylphenidate (MPH) on dopamine release from mouse perfused nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex slices. The fractional release of [3 H]-dopamine was measured at rest and in response to field stimulation. The distributions of [3 H]-dopamine and its metabolites were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography...
August 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yunyun Yang, Junhui Wu, Jiewei Deng, Ke Yuan, Xi Chen, Ning Liu, Xiaowei Wang, Tiangang Luan
In this study, a slug-flow microextraction (SFME) coupled with paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) method was developed for rapid and on-site analysis of trace amphetamine-type illicit drugs including amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) in complex biological samples such as whole blood and raw urine. The method involved the application of SFME for rapid extraction of trace amphetamine-type illicit drugs from whole blood and raw urine samples, followed by PS for direct MS analysis under ambient and open-air conditions...
November 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ettore Ferrari Júnior, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
A d-SPE protocol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis using large volume injection-programmed temperature vaporization (LVI-PTV) was optimized for simultaneous quantification of 14 pesticides, drugs of abuse, prescription drugs and metabolites in human postmortem blood without derivatization. The validated method showed good repeatability, linearity, intermediate precision, and recovery. LOQs were 0.02 or 0.03μg/mL. The method showed to be fast and easy-to-implement in a forensic laboratory and was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 10 postmortem blood real samples...
September 2018: Forensic Science International
Barbara Budzynska, Artur Wnorowski, Katarzyna Kaszubska, Grazyna Biala, Marta Kruk-Słomka, Jacek Kurzepa, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA), a synthetic substance commonly known as ecstasy, is a worldwide recreational drug of abuse. As MDMA and nicotine activate the same neuronal pathways, we examined the influence of co-administration of nicotine (0.05 mg/kg) and MDMA (1 mg/kg) on cognitive processes, nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization and on processes linked with oxidative stress and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expression in the brain of male Swiss mice. For behavioral study the passive avoidance (PA) test and locomotor sensitization paradigm were used...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
John T Rodgers, Nadezhda Y Davydova, Erickson M Paragas, Jeffrey P Jones, Dmitri R Davydov
We investigate the mechanism of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), one of the most widespread recreational drugs of abuse. In an effort to unravel the kinetic mechanism of the formation of metabolic inhibitory complex (MIC) of CYP2D6 with MDMA-derived carbene we carried out a series of spectrophotometric studies paralleled with registration of the kinetics of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) in CYP2D6-incorporated proteoliposomes...
August 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Maude Beaudoin-Gobert, Elise Météreau, Sandra Duperrier, Stéphane Thobois, Léon Tremblay, Véronique Sgambato
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic and serotonergic degenerations alter pharmacological neurotransmission and structural markers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alteration of diffusion measures in key brain regions depict MPTP/MDMA lesions in the monkey model of PD. Whether dopatherapy impacts such diffusion measures remains an open question. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of l-DOPA treatment on diffusion alterations, PET imaging and immunohistochemical markers in MPTP/MDMA-intoxicated monkeys...
August 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Ylva S E Walldén, Caroline J Falconer, Majdah Raji Alotaibi, Ian S Blagbrough, Stephen M Husbands, Tom P Freeman
3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA;'ecstasy') produces prosocial subjective effects that may extend to affiliative feelings towards the self . Behavioural techniques can produce similar self-directed affiliation. For example, compassionate imagery (CI) and ecstasy reduce self-criticism and increase self-compassion to a similar extent, with the effects of CI enhanced in the presence of ecstasy. Here, we examine self-compassion and self-criticism in recreational users who consumed chemically verified MDMA in a within-subjects crossover study...
2018: Mindfulness
Ivona Krizman-Matasic, Ivan Senta, Petra Kostanjevecki, Marijan Ahel, Senka Terzic
A comprehensive study aimed at monitoring of temporal variability of illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine and cannabis) and therapeutic opiate methadone in a large-sized European city using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was conducted in the city of Zagreb, Croatia, during an 8-year period (2009-2016). The study addressed the impact of different sampling schemes on the assessment of temporal drug consumption patterns, in particular multiannual consumption trends and documented the possible errors associated with the one-week sampling scheme...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Petschner, Viola Tamasi, Csaba Adori, Eszter Kirilly, Romeo D Ando, Laszlo Tothfalusi, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used entactogenic drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions frequently described in otherwise healthy MDMA users. Meanwhile, in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients seem to benefit from therapeutic application of the drug, where damage in hippocampal cue extinction may play a role...
August 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Shahin Nilchi, Davood Behdarvand, Hoda Lavasani, Mohammadreza Rouini, Yalda H Ardakani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Mohammed Majrashi, Mohammed Almaghrabi, Maali Fadan, Ayaka Fujihashi, Wooseok Lee, Jack Deruiter, C Randall Clark, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
Designer drugs are synthetically formulated to mimic the psychostimulatory effects of an original controlled/illegal drug of abuse. Designer drugs have similar chemical structure or functional analog as compared to existing controlled psychostimulatory drugs. There is a substantial rise in the production and use of designer drugs globally. Piperazine designer drugs were synthesized as an alternative to MDMA and have shown to induce numerous toxic effects leading to huge health, safety, law enforcement & monetary problems, and lethality...
September 15, 2018: Life Sciences
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