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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434182/recent-trends-in-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-police-detainees-in-new-zealand-2010-2015
#1
Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert, Helen Moewaka Barnes
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. AIMS: This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. METHOD: The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i...
April 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432376/mdma-does-not-alter-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test-in-humans
#2
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425496/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-increases-affiliative-behaviors-in-squirrel-monkeys-in-a-serotonin-2a-receptor-dependent-manner
#3
Elizabeth G Pitts, Adelaide R Minerva, Erika B Oliver, Jordan N Kohn, Meghan T Logun, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Leonard L Howell
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases sociality in humans and animals. Release of serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the increase in social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Despite the advantages of nonhuman primate models, no studies have examined the mechanisms of the social effects of MDMA in nonhuman primates. The behavior and vocalizations of four group-housed squirrel monkeys were examined following administration of MDMA, its enantiomers, and methamphetamine...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425095/psychomotor-tremor-and-proprioceptive-control-problems-in-current-and-former-stimulant-drug-users-an-accelerometer-study-of-heavy-users-of-amphetamine-mdma-and-other-recreational-stimulants
#4
Luke A Downey, Brenda Tysse, Talitha C Ford, Angela C Samuels, Rory P Wilson, Andrew C Parrott
The recreational use of various stimulant drugs has been implicated in the development of movement disorders through dysregulation of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems. The present study investigated psychomotor differences in current and former recreational stimulant drug users compared with nonusing controls. Sixty participants comprised 3 groups: 20 current stimulant drug users (CSUs; 11 men, aged 31.4 ± 9.1 years), 20 former stimulant drug users (FSUs; 5 men, aged 39.1 ± 8.5 years), and 20 nonuser controls (NUCs; 5 men, aged 35...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406348/motivations-for-using-mdma-ecstasy-molly-among-african-americans-implications-for-prevention-and-harm-reduction-programs
#5
Khary K Rigg
Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386520/behavioral-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intermittent-feeding-diet-on-the-orally-administrated-mdma-ecstasy-in-mice
#6
Zeinab Ebrahimian, Zeinab Karimi, Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Bahram Daraei, Mohsen Raza Haidari
Background: 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or MDMA (also known as "ecstasy" or "molly") is a commonly abused drug that affects behavior and can lead to neuronal damage. Intermittent feeding is an effective dietary protocol that promotes neuroprotection and improves behavioral outcomes in animal models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and histological outcomes of the effect of intermittent feeding on the orally administered MDMA in mice. Methods: The animals (male albino mice) were divided into four groups: ad libitum (AL), intermittent feeding (IF) (food given every other day), and AL and IF control groups...
January 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372480/multifaceted-empathy-of-healthy-volunteers-after-single-doses-of-mdma-a-pooled-sample-of-placebo-controlled-studies
#7
Kim Pc Kuypers, Patrick C Dolder, Johannes G Ramaekers, Matthias E Liechti
Previous placebo-controlled experimental studies have shown that a single dose of MDMA can increase emotional empathy in the multifaceted empathy test (MET) without affecting cognitive empathy. Although sufficiently powered to detect main effects of MDMA, these studies were generally underpowered to also validly assess contributions of additional parameters, such as sex, drug use history, trait empathy and MDMA or oxytocin plasma concentrations. The present study examined the robustness of the MDMA effect on empathy and investigated the moderating role of these additional parameters...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359886/sex-differences-in-the-strategies-of-spatial-learning-in-prenatally-exposed-rats-treated-with-various-drugs-in-adulthood
#8
Eva Macúchová, Kateryna Nohejlová, Mária Ševčíková, Ivana Hrebíčková, Romana Šlamberová
In the present study we investigated the sex differences in the effect of adult long-term drug treatment on cognitive functions of Wistar rats, which were prenatally exposed to MA (5mg/kg) or saline. Cognitive functions were tested as an ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), which consisted of three types of tests: "Place Navigation Test"; "Probe Test", and "Memory Recall Test". Adult animals were injected daily, after completion of the last trial, either with saline or cocaine (COC; 5mg/kg), MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; 5mg/kg), morphine (MOR; 5mg/kg), or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 2mg/kg)...
March 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357873/the-optimal-hotspots-of-dynamic-surfaced-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-d-sers-for-drugs-quantitative-detection
#9
Xiunan Yan, Pan Li, Binbin Zhou, Xianghu Tang, Xiaoyun Li, Shizhuang Weng, LiangBao Yang, Jinhuai Liu
Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) as a powerful qualitative analysis method has been widely applied in many fields. However, SERS for quantitative analysis still suffers from several challenges partially because of the absences of stable and credible analytical strategy. Here, we demonstrate that the optimal hotspots created from Dynamic Surfaced-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (D-SERS), which is based on nanoparticles transform from the wet state to the dry state to realize SERS measurement, can be used for quantitative SERS measurements...
March 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329723/analysis-of-synthetic-phenethylamine-street-drugs-using-direct-sample-analysis-coupled-to-accurate-mass-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Maura K McGonigal, Joshua A Wilhide, Philip B Smith, Noelle M Elliott, Frank L Dorman
Serious health complications and fatal overdoses have brought phenethylamine, otherwise known as 2C, drug abuse to the public's attention. These compounds are 2C-X series analogs of mescaline. The name "2C" results from the two carbons in the ethyl chain. The substituents on these emerging drugs are constantly changed in order to avoid listing as controlled substances. These synthetic drugs are marketed as having affects similar to LSD and MDMA and are typically consumed sublingually via blotter paper. Twenty-six commercially available standards were analyzed using a direct sample analysis technique coupled to accurate mass time of flight mass spectrometry...
March 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322979/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-ecstasy-produces-edema-due-to-bbb-disruption-induced-by-mmp-9-activation-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María Encarnación Fernández-Valle, Ana Rubio-Araiz, Rebeca Vidal, María Dolores Gutiérrez-López, Esther O'Shea, María Isabel Colado
The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats...
March 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319752/energy-drink-use-frequency-among-an-international-sample-of-people-who-use-drugs-associations-with-other-substance-use-and-well-being
#12
Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno, Jason Ferris, Adam Winstock
OBJECTIVE: The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. METHOD: Participants (n=74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether they wished to reduce alcohol use...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314643/acute-ascending-aortic-dissection-after-mdma-ecstasy-use-a-case-report
#13
Satoko Kanahara, Mostafa El-Refai, Nasser Lakkis, Rashed Tabbaa
Acute aortic dissection is rare among young patients in the absence of connective tissue disorders. One of the risk factors associated with aortic dissection among young patients is amphetamine use. We report a case of a 37-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension presenting with syncope and altered mental status who was found to have an acute DeBakey Type I aortic dissection after ingestion of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy. This is the second case in the literature describing aortic dissection in relation to MDMA use...
September 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295787/an-exploratory-wastewater-analysis-study-of-drug-use-in-auckland-new-zealand
#14
Foon Yin Lai, Chris Wilkins, Phong Thai, Jochen F Mueller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288287/airway-necrosis-and-barotrauma-after-ecstasy-mdma-inhalation
#15
Evi Van den Kerckhove, Laurence Roosens, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, Walter Verbrugghe, Jelle Aerts, Jef Huyskens, Hannelore Raemen, Philippe G Jorens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287228/pseudorotaxane-capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-detection-in-water
#16
Beatriz Lozano-Torres, Lluís Pascual, Andrea Bernardos, María D Marcos, Jan O Jeppesen, Yolanda Salinas, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Félix Sancenón
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
March 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254532/monitoring-mdma-metabolites-in-urban-wastewater-as-novel-biomarkers-of-consumption
#17
Iria González-Mariño, Ettore Zuccato, Miquel M Santos, Sara Castiglioni
Consumption of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been always estimated by measuring the parent substance through chemical analysis of wastewater. However, this may result in an overestimation of the use if the substance is directly disposed in sinks or toilets. Using specific urinary metabolites may overcome this limitation. This study investigated for the first time the suitability of a panel of MDMA metabolites as biomarkers of consumption, considering the specific criteria recently proposed, i...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231768/erratum-to-exploring-functional-data-analysis-and-wavelet-principal-component-analysis-on-ecstasy-mdma-wastewater-data
#18
Stefania Salvatore, Jørgen G Bramness, Jo Røislien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222475/ecstasy-intoxikation-mit-disseminierter-intravasaler-gerinnung-und-multiorganversagen
#19
Martina Jochum, Joachim Oeding, Denise Lackner, Hannes Lienhart
This case presents the clinical treatment of a patient with severe MDMA intoxication. The history of stimulating psychotropic substances is presented as well as the modes of action of current party drugs. Data from the Austrian Drug Report indicate a tendency away from "hard drugs" towards the consumption of cannabis and amphetamine derivates. The lethal outcome in our case demonstrates the risk potential of these substances and underlines the necessity of aggressive resuscitation efforts.
February 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212938/the-combined-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-and-selected-substituted-methcathinones-on-measures-of-neurotoxicity
#20
Nicholas B Miner, James P O'Callaghan, Tamara J Phillips, Aaron Janowsky
The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg...
February 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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