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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#1
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#2
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889004/ecstasy-research-will-increasing-observational-data-aid-our-understanding-of-mdma
#3
Tim Amoroso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863142/identification-and-analytical-characterization-of-nine-synthetic-cathinone-derivatives-n-ethylhexedrone-4-cl-pentedrone-4-cl-%C3%AE-eapp-propylone-n-ethylnorpentylone-6-meo-bk-mdma-%C3%AE-pihp-4-cl-%C3%AE-php-and-4-f-%C3%AE-php
#4
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Tao Li, Zhendong Hua, Zhenhua Qian
Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are continuously confronted by analytical challenges when dealing with the new psychoactive substances phenomenon. In this study, the analytical characterization of nine synthetic cathinones is described: 2-(ethylamino)-1-phenylhexan-1-one (N-ethylhexedrone 1), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)pentan-1-one (4-Cl-pentedrone 2), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(ethylamino)pentan-1-one (4-Cl-α-EAPP 3), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propylaminopropan-1-one (propylone 4), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-ethylaminopentan-1-one (N-ethylnorpentylone 5), 1-(6-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-methylaminopropan-1-one (6-MeO-bk-MDMA 6), 4-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PiHP 7), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one (4-Cl-α-PHP 8), and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one (4-F-α-PHP 9)...
November 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861613/non-serotonergic-neurotoxicity-by-mdma-ecstasy-in-neurons-derived-from-mouse-p19-embryonal-carcinoma-cells
#5
Dina Popova, Andréas Forsblad, Sanaz Hashemian, Stig O P Jacobsson
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859780/decision-making-in-chronic-ecstasy-users-a-systematic-review
#6
Felix Betzler, Leonard Viohl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Different cognitive impairments have been reported as a result of long-term MDMA/ecstasy use. Increased impulsivity and altered decision-making have been shown to be associated with the development and maintenance of addictive disorders pointing towards the necessity to understand a potential impairment of decision-making due to MDMA use. Thus, assessing the long-term effects of MDMA is crucial in order to evaluate its controversially discussed therapeutic use. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the scientific literature on potential effects of chronic MDMA use on higher order decision-making processes in humans...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859039/potential-psychiatric-uses-for-mdma
#7
Berra B Yazar-Klosinski, Michael C Mithoefer
Phase 2 trials of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy have demonstrated initial safety and efficacy for treatment of PTSD, with potential for expansion to depression and anxiety disorders. In these trials, single doses of MDMA are administered in a model of medication-assisted psychotherapy, differing from trials involving daily drug administration without psychotherapy. This model presents an opportunity to utilize accelerated regulatory pathways, such as FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation, to most effectively and expeditiously test such novel approaches...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846654/-synthetic-drugs-an-overview-of-important-and-newly-emerging-substances
#8
F Betzler, A Heinz, S Köhler
Background: Synthetic drug use and abuse are on the rise. Governmental institutions report a shift in consumption from natural drugs to synthetic drugs, and show an increase in confiscation, particularly of methamphetamine and newly identified psychoactive substances. In addition, the media report an alarming increase in the rate of consumption and casualties resulting from the use of drugs such as "crystal meth" and warn against a flood of this and other designer drugs from eastern European countries. Objectives: The present article gives an overview of current popular and widely used synthetic drugs, both classical substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA) and new psychoactive substances ("designer drugs", "legal highs")...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826121/differential-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-methamphetamine-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-and-scopolamine-on-behavioral-repetition-versus-variation-in-rats
#9
Rebecca A Olsen, Anne C Macaskill, David N Harper
Acute administration of drugs of abuse, such as MDMA and methamphetamine, disrupts performance on many operant tasks, for example, those used to study memory. This might occur in part because drugs make behavior, in general, more repetitive or more variable, or because they produce a more global disruption to performance. The current study explored this across two experiments by employing Neuringer's 'reinforced variability' procedure. Varied behavior was reinforced at some times during the session and repetitive behavior at other times; lights signalled the behavior required...
November 5, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803013/when-plenty-is-too-much-water-intoxication-in-a-patient-with-a-simple-urinary-tract-infection
#10
Laura Christine Lee, Maryann Noronha
Healthcare professionals frequently advise patients with simple infective illness to drink more fluids. Here, a 59-year-old woman with a urinary tract infection followed such advice resulting in hospital admission with symptomatic acute hyponatraemia. Water intoxication is well recognised as a cause of symptomatic hyponatraemia in endurance sports, MDMA use and psychogenic polydipsia. It has rarely been described outside of these circumstances. With normal renal function, it is difficult to overwhelm the excretory capacity for water...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799294/structure-activity-relationships-of-substituted-cathinones-with-transporter-binding-uptake-and-release
#11
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron J Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychological side effects including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Herein we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters (hDAT, hSERT, and hNET, respectively) heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-PPP, α-PBP, α-PHP, PV-8, 3,4-MDPPP, 3,4-MDPBP, 4-MePPP, α-PVP, 4-MeO- α-PVP, α-PVT and pentedrone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for pentylone...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794251/obesity-and-obstetric-complications-are-associated-with-rapid-cycling-in-italian-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Massimiliano Buoli, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Alice Caldiroli, Greta Silvia Carnevali, Marta Serati, Trisha Suppes, Terence A Ketter, A Carlo Altamura
BACKGROUND: Rapid cycling (RC) worsens the course of bipolar disorder (BD) being associated with poor response to pharmacotherapy. Previous studies identified clinical variables potentially associated with RCBD: however, in many cases, results were discordant or unreplicated. The present study was aimed to compare clinical variables between RC and non RC bipolar patients and to identify related risk factors. METHODS: A sample of 238 bipolar patients was enrolled from 3 different community mental health centers...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776329/amphetamine-and-derivatives-in-natural-weight-loss-pills-and-dietary-supplements-by-capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Vagner Bezerra Dos Santos, Daniela Daniel, Melina Singh, Claudimir Lucio do Lago
A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for amphetamine (AM), phentermine (PTM), methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in commercial samples of homeopathic and phytotherapic medicines and dietary supplements is presented. The samples were submitted to a modified QuEChERS extraction procedure (at apparent pH 13) followed by electrophoretic separation in 0.1molL(-1) formic acid electrolyte (pH 2...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775894/a-book-type-dried-plasma-spot-card-for-automated-flow-through-elution-coupled-with-on-line-spe-lc-ms-ms-bioanalysis-of-opioids-and-stimulants-in-blood
#14
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773601/mdma-decreases-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-gad-67-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-hippocampus-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility-role-for-glutamate
#15
Courtney L Huff, Rachel L Morano, James P Herman, Bryan K Yamamoto, Gary A Gudelsky
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation...
December 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769371/a-solid-colorimetric-sensor-for-the-analysis-of-amphetamine-like-street-samples
#16
A Argente-García, N Jornet-Martínez, R Herráez-Hernández, P Campíns-Falcó
A solid sensor obtained by embedding 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) into polydimethylsiloxane/tetraethylortosilicate/silicon dioxide nanoparticles composite has been developed to identify and determine amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). The analytes are derivatized inside the composite for 10 min to create a colored product which can be then quantified by measuring the diffuse reflectance or the color intensity after processing the digitalized image...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759752/pneumomediastinum-as-a-complication-of-mdma-3-4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine-ecstasy-ingestion
#17
Suleiman Ezoubi, Hassan Kahal, William Stephen Waring
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamfetamine, Ecstasy) is a widely used recreational drug. We present a case of pneumomediastinum as a complication of MDMA use in a 21-year-old man with no previous history of lung or gastrointestinal pathology. We have performed a literature review, and summarised the symptoms, signs, and prognosis for this under-recognised complication of a commonly used recreational drug. We recommend enquiring about illicit drug use in any patient presenting with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
2016: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725273/mdma-ecstasy-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-modulate-social-preference-in-rats-a-role-for-handling-and-oxytocin-receptors
#18
Linnet Ramos, Callum Hicks, Alex Caminer, Kalliu Couto, Rajeshwar Narlawar, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
In laboratory rats, peripheral administration of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) induces similar prosocial effects (i.e. increased adjacent lying) to the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), which are sensitive to vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) antagonism. Here, we employed a social preference paradigm to further compare the prosocial effects of OT, AVP and MDMA. We also investigated the possible involvement of the V1AR and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in rodent social preference...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720453/-new-patterns-of-substance-use-and-abuse-among-french-adolescents-a-knowledge-synthesis
#19
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716139/comparison-of-pharmaceutical-illicit-drug-alcohol-nicotine-and-caffeine-levels-in-wastewater-with-sale-seizure-and-consumption-data-for-8-european-cities
#20
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Stefania Salvatore, Emma Gracia-Lor, Richard Bade, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Felix Hernandez, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Malcolm Reid, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Pim de Voogt, Jorgen Bramness, Kevin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information...
October 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
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