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Muscle molecular metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928520/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-nutritional-support-and-exercise-training-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ramzi Lakhdar, Roberto A Rabinovich
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associates with several extra-pulmonary effects. Muscle dysfunction and wasting is one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary effects and contributes to exercise limitation and health related quality of life (HRQoL), morbidity as well as mortality. The loss of muscle mass is characterised by an impaired balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism) which relates to nutritional disturbances, muscle disuse and the presence of a systemic inflammation, among other factors...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928337/dysregulated-genes-targeted-by-micrornas-and-metabolic-pathways-in-bladder-cancer-revealed-by-bioinformatics-methods
#2
Lu Zhang, Cuihua Feng, Yamin Zhou, Qiong Zhou
The present study aimed to identify bladder cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes, and further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiling dataset GSE40355 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Limma package in R was used to identify differential expression levels. The Human microRNA Disease Database was used to identify bladder cancer-associated miRNAs and Target prediction programs were used to screen for miRNA target genes...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917242/mechanoadaptation-articular-cartilage-through-thick-and-thin
#3
Tonia L Vincent, Angus Wann
The articular cartilage is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical load. Its structure is largely defined by the mechanical environment and destruction in osteoarthritis is the pathophysiological consequence of abnormal mechanics. It is often overlooked that disuse of joints causes profound loss of volume in the articular cartilage, a clinical observation first described in polio patients and stroke victims. Through the 1980s, the results of studies exploiting experimental joint immobilisation supported this. Importantly, this substantial body of work was also the first to describe metabolic changes that resulted in decreased synthesis of matrix molecules, especially sulfated proteoglycans...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914093/the-role-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-in-lipid-metabolism-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Virginia Actis Dato, Gustavo Alberto Chiabrando
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent disorder which can be used to identify individuals with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and molecular alterations such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1—A member of the LDL receptor family) is an endocytic and signaling receptor that is expressed in several tissues...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898916/atad3-controls-mitochondrial-cristae-structure-influencing-mtdna-replication-and-cholesterol-levels-in-muscle
#5
Susana Peralta, Steffi Goffart, Sion L Williams, Francisca Diaz, Sofia Garcia, Nadee Nissanka, Estela Area-Gomez, Jaakko Pohjoismäki, Carlos T Moraes
Mutations in the mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase ATAD3A result in neurological syndromes in humans. In mice, the ubiquitous disruption of Atad3 was embryonic lethal, but a skeletal muscle specific conditional knockout (cKO) was viable. At birth, ATAD3 muscle cKO mice had normal weight, but from 2 months onwards showed progressive motor-impaired coordination and weakness. Loss of ATAD3 caused early and severe mitochondrial structural abnormalities, mitochondrial proliferation and muscle atrophy. There was dramatic reduction in mitochondrial cristae junctions and overall cristae morphology...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898649/bpc157-as-potential-agent-rescuing-from-cancer-cachexia
#6
Eun A Kang, Young Min Han, Jeong Min An, Yong Jin Park, Predrag Sikiric, Deok Hwan Kim, Kwang An Kwon, Yoon Jae Kim, Donghwa Yang, Hann Tchah, Ki Baik Hahm
Cancer cachexia, one of the metabolic syndromes caused by cancer, is a devastating and miserable condition encountered in more than 50% of terminal cancer patients presenting with significant weight loss associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and fat loss. Though cachexia may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, no significant treatment is still lacking and is of urgent unmet medical need in cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is essential for anticipating therapeutic approaches...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896984/lung-cancer-cachexia-can-molecular-understanding-guide-clinical-management
#7
Jonas Sørensen
Cachexia has been recognized for a long time as an adverse effect of cancer. It is associated with reduced physical function, reduced tolerance to anticancer therapy, and reduced survival. This wasting syndrome is mainly known for an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle leading to progressive functional impairment and is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. Cytokines derived from host immune system or the tumor itself is believed to play a role in promoting cancer cachexia...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892843/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-between-wei-and-yorkshire-pigs-using-rna-sequencing
#8
Jingen Xu, Chonglong Wang, Erhui Jin, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li, Qinggang Li
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important trait closely related to meat quality, which is highly variable among pig breeds from diverse genetic backgrounds. High-throughput sequencing has become a powerful technique for analyzing the whole transcription profiles of organisms. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying porcine meat quality, we adopted RNA sequencing to detect transcriptome in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Wei pigs (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Yorkshire pigs (a Western lean-type breed) with different IMF content...
April 2018: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892824/thyroid-hormone-action-the-p43-mitochondrial-pathway
#9
Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello, François Casas, Gérard Cabello
The possibility that several pathways are involved in the multiplicity of thyroid hormone physiological influences led to searches for the occurrence of T3 extra nuclear receptors. The existence of a direct T3 mitochondrial pathway is now well established. The demonstration that TRα1 mRNA encodes not only a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor but also two proteins imported into mitochondria with molecular masses of 43 and 28 kDa has provided new clues to understand the pleiotropic influence of iodinated hormones...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883552/longissimus-dorsi-muscle-transcriptomic-analysis-of-yunling-and-chinese-simmental-cattle-differing-in-intramuscular-fat-content-and-fatty-acid-composition
#10
Hui-Min Zhang, H L Xia, H R Jiang, Y J Mao, K X Qu, B Z Huang, Y C Gong, Z P Yang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition vary significantly across beef cattle breeds, which play important roles in taste and nutritional value. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypic differences remain unknown. The present study compared meat quality traits between Yunling cattle and Chinese Simmental cattle. Yunling cattle showed a lower IMF content and proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), as well as higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and short chain fatty acids (sc-FA) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Chinese Simmental cattle...
June 8, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875623/reduction-of-movement-in-neurological-diseases-effects-on-neural-stem-cells-characteristics
#11
Raffaella Adami, Jessica Pagano, Michela Colombo, Natalia Platonova, Deborah Recchia, Raffaella Chiaramonte, Roberto Bottinelli, Monica Canepari, Daniele Bottai
Both astronauts and patients affected by chronic movement-limiting pathologies face impairment in muscle and/or brain performance. Increased patient survival expectations and the expected longer stays in space by astronauts may result in prolonged motor deprivation and consequent pathological effects. Severe movement limitation can influence not only the motor and metabolic systems but also the nervous system, altering neurogenesis and the interaction between motoneurons and muscle cells. Little information is yet available about the effect of prolonged muscle disuse on neural stem cells characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875163/biochemical-and-clinical-aspects-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#12
Sara Sadeghi Ellingwood, Alan Cheng
The synthesis of glycogen represents a key pathway for the disposal of excess glucose while its degradation is crucial for providing energy during exercise and times of need. The importance of glycogen metabolism is also highlighted by human genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in the enzymes involved. In this review, we provide a basic summary on glycogen metabolism and some of the clinical aspects of the classical Glycogen Storage Diseases. Disruptions in glycogen metabolism usually result in some level of dysfunction in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney and/or brain...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870805/mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-reverses-diabetes-related-coronary-vasodilator-dysfunction-a-unique-vascular-transcriptomic-signature
#13
Scott M Brown, Alex I Meuth, J Wade Davis, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender
Coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts and may be a proximate cause of cardiac dysfunction and mortality in diabetes; however, few effective treatments exist for these conditions. We recently demonstrated that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism reversed cardiovascular dysfunction in early-stage obesity/insulin resistance. The mechanisms underlying this benefit of MR antagonism and its relevance in the setting of long-term obesity complications like diabetes; however, remain unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated the impact of MR antagonism on diabetes-related coronary dysfunction and defines the MR-dependent vascular transcriptome in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat recapitulating later stages of human diabetes...
June 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870543/proteomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-to-exogenous-nitric-oxide
#14
Xiaoli Wang, Liang Li, Xing Wei, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Zhang, Ao Shi, Tao Liu, Xiaodi Yang, Qiang Fang
Trichinella spiralis mainly dwells in the muscle tissue of its host and is the main causative agent of trichinellosis in humans. Nitric oxide (NO), an important intracellular signaling molecule that may restrict pathogen growth in infected hosts, has been known for its anti-pathogenic activity, including resistance to T. spiralis. Herein, we applied label-free analysis to investigate the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor compound) on the proteome of T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML), followed by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway cluster analyses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867554/inhibited-carnitine-synthesis-causes-systemic-alteration-of-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#15
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xuan Qin, Pascal Degrace, Laurent Demizieux, Samwel M Limbu, Xin Wang, Mei-Ling Zhang, Dong-Liang Li, Zhen-Yu Du
Impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation has been correlated with many metabolic syndromes, and the metabolic characteristics of the mammalian models of mitochondrial dysfunction have also been intensively studied. However, the effects of the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation on systemic metabolism in teleost have never been investigated. In the present study, we established a low-carnitine zebrafish model by feeding fish with mildronate as a specific carnitine synthesis inhibitor [0.05% body weight (BW)/d] for 7 weeks, and the systemically changed nutrient metabolism, including carnitine and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation capability, and other molecular and biochemical assays of lipid, glucose, and protein metabolism, were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860328/metabolic-adaptation-of-pigs-to-a-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-lawsonia-intracellularis-dual-challenge
#16
Emma T Helm, Amanda C Outhouse, Kent J Schwartz, Steven M Lonergan, Shelby M Curry, Jack C M Dekkers, Nicholas K Gabler
Respiratory and enteric pathogens such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) reduce lean accretion and feed efficiency (FE) in growing pigs. However, the metabolic mechanism by which this occurs is still unknown. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to examine the metabolic adaptation of pigs presented with a dual Mh and LI challenge (MhLI). A secondary objective was to examine if selection for high FE, modeled by selection for low residual feed intake (RFI), alters molecular response to disease...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860301/nitric-oxide-in-red-blood-cell-adaptation-to-hypoxia
#17
Yajin Zhao, Xiang Wang, Milody Noviana, Man Hou
Nitric oxide (NO) appears to be involved in virtually every aspect of cardiovascular biology. Most attention has been focused on the role of endothelial-derived NO in basal blood flow regulation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle; however, it is now known that NO derived from red blood cells (RBCs) plays a fundamental role in vascular homeostasis by enhancing oxygen (O2) release at the cellular and physiological level. Hypoxia is an often seen problem in diverse conditions; systemic adaptations to hypoxia permit people to adjust to the hypoxic environment at high altitudes and to disease processes...
June 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790091/effects-of-acute-hyperglycemia-stress-on-plasma-glucose-glycogen-content-and-expressions-of-glycogen-synthase-and-phosphorylase-in-hybrid-grouper-epinephelus-fuscoguttatus-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-e-lanceolatus-%C3%A2
#18
Songlin Li, Chunyan Sang, Jiacan Zhang, Naisong Chen, Ziqiang Li, Pengfei Jin, Xuxiong Huang
In the present study, the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂), a typical carnivorous fish, was chosen as a model to investigate the regulation of glycogen metabolism owning to its characteristic of glucose intolerance. The variation of plasma glucose concentration, glycogen content, and expressions of glycogen metabolism-related genes under acute hyperglycemia stress were measured. Following glucose administration, plasma glucose concentration increased immediately, and the glucose level remained elevated for at least 12 h...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783952/differences-between-fast-and-slow-muscles-in-scallops-revealed-through-proteomics-and-transcriptomics
#19
Xiujun Sun, Zhihong Liu, Biao Wu, Liqing Zhou, Qi Wang, Wei Wu, Aiguo Yang
BACKGROUND: Scallops possess striated and catch adductor muscles, which have different structure and contractile properties. The striated muscle contracts very quickly for swimming, whereas the smooth catch muscle can keep the shells closed for long periods with little expenditure of energy. In this study, we performed proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of differences between the striated (fast) and catch (slow) adductor muscles in Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis reveals 1316 upregulated and 8239 downregulated genes in slow compared to fast adductor muscle...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780003/a-disease-associated-aifm1-variant-induces-severe-myopathy-in-knockin-mice
#20
Lena Wischhof, Anna Gioran, Dagmar Sonntag-Bensch, Antonia Piazzesi, Miriam Stork, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the AIFM1 gene have been identified in recessive X-linked mitochondrial diseases. Functional and molecular consequences of these pathogenic AIFM1 mutations have been poorly studied in vivo. METHODS/RESULTS: Here we provide evidence that the disease-associated apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) deletion arginine 201 (R200 in rodents) causes pathology in knockin mice. Within a few months, posttranslational loss of the mutant AIF protein induces severe myopathy associated with a lower number of cytochrome c oxidase-positive muscle fibers...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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