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Muscle molecular metabolism

Naveed A Abbasi, Ozgur B Akan
Molecular communication is an important tool to understand biological communications with many promising applications in Internet of Bio-Nano Things (IoBNT). The insulinglucose system is of key significance among the major intrabody nanonetworks since it fulfills metabolic requirements of the body. Study of biological networks from information and communication theoretical (ICT) perspective is necessary for their introduction in the IoBNT framework. Therefore, the objective of this work is to provide and analyze for the first time in literature, a simple molecular communication model of the human insulin-glucose system from ICT perspective...
October 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Lu Liu, Huanxian Cui, Ruiqi Fu, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: The lipid from egg yolk is largely consumed in supplying the energy for embryonic growth until hatching. The remaining lipid in the yolk sac is transported into the hatchling's tissues. The gene expression profiles of fast- and slow-growing chickens, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY), were determined to identify global differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways related to lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major at hatching. RESULTS: Between these two breeds, the absolute and weight-specific amounts of total yolk energy (TYE) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pectoralis major of fast-growing chickens were significantly higher (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
John B Vincent
Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Xinli Hu, Rui-Ping Xiao
MG53 is a member of tripartite motif family (TRIM) that expressed most abundantly in striated muscle. Using rodent models, many studies have demonstrated the MG53 not only facilitates membrane repair after ischemia reperfusion injury, but also contributes to the protective effects of both pre- and post-conditioning. Recently, however, it has been shown that MG53 participates in the regulation of many metabolic processes, especially insulin signaling pathway. Thus, sustained overexpression of MG53 may contribute to the development of various metabolic disorders in striated muscle...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Adam Zabek, Robert Paslawski, Urszula Paslawska, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Katarzyna Drozdz, Sergio Polakof, Marzena Podhorska, Piotr Dziegiel, Piotr Mlynarz, Andrzej Szuba
The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs) received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG) for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs) was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG) for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs) received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG)...
2017: PloS One
Johnna F Varghese, Rohit Patel, Umesh C S Yadav
CONTEXT: Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological process and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Clinical research and epidemiological studies states that atherosclerosis is caused by an amalgamation of metabolic and inflammatory deregulation involving three important pathological events including endothelial dysfunction (ED), foam cell formation (FCF), and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVES: Research in recent years has identified metabolic syndrome, which involves factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes, to be responsible for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis...
October 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
Ziqiang Zhang, Jie Zhu, Yuanqiang Dong, Hongyuan Xu, Tao Jiang, Wenshuai Li, Diannan Xu, Liubin Shi, Jianghong Yu, Jun Zhang, Jianjun Du
Acute gastric lesions induced by stress are frequent occurrences in medical establishments. The gastric dramatic downrelated gene (GDDR) is a secreted protein, which is abundantly expressed in normal gastric epithelia and is significantly decreased in gastric cancer. In our previous study, it was found that GDDR aggravated stress‑induced acute gastric lesions. However, the role of GDDR in acute gastric lesions remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, RNA sequencing was performed in order to examine the gene expression profile regulated by GDDR in acute gastric lesions...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Weizhen Li, Hongqiang Zhang, Shuai Qi, Jian Qin, Hong Guan, Jianwei Li, Xiaorong An, Rong Du
Musclin is a bioactive factor that functions in regulating the muscle growth and metabolism. To investigate the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the gene, the 1.4 kb musclin promoter in sheep was cloned (GenBank accession: JX966391) and the sequence was analyzed to predict the motifs associated with muscle growth. Next the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was selected as the reporter gene and various wild-type and motif-mutant vectors were constructed. The transcriptional regulatory activities were compared by observing the fluorescence strength and detecting the EGFP mRNA expression in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with the vectors...
October 5, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Suifeng Liu, Feng Gao, Lei Wen, Min Ouyang, Yi Wang, Qiong Wang, Liping Luo, Zaijin Jian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcopenia is characterized by an age-related decline in skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the molecular pathways underlying sarcopenia remain elusive. The recent demonstration that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) favours muscle function related to insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism raises the question of whether this hormone may also regulate muscle mass. The present study explored the promotive effects of ucOC in proliferation and differentiation processes of C2C12 myoblasts as well as the possible signalling pathways involved...
October 5, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Matthew D W Piper, Linda Partridge
Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model in developing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ageing. Of particular note is its role in establishing the evolutionary conservation of reduced insulin and IGF-1-like signaling in promoting healthy ageing. Capitalizing on its many advantages for experimentation, more recent work has revealed how precise nutritional and genetic interventions can improve fly lifespan without obvious detrimental side effects. We give a brief summary of these recent findings as well as examples of how they may modify ageing via actions in the gut and muscle...
September 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xuefang Liang, Christopher L Souders, Jiliang Zhang, Christopher J Martyniuk
Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin compound that is the active ingredient of many biocides and antifouling agents. In addition to its well established role as an endocrine disruptor, TBT is also associated with adverse effects on the nervous system and behavior. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (0.01, 0.1, 1 nM) to determine how low levels affected development and behavior. Fish exposed to 1 nM TBT hatched earlier when compared to controls...
September 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Shin Fujimaki, Tamami Wakabayashi, Makoto Asashima, Tohru Takemasa, Tomoko Kuwabara
Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, termed as satellite cells, play essential roles in regeneration after muscle injury in adult skeletal muscle. Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common metabolic diseases, causes impairments of satellite cell function. However, the studies of the countermeasures for the DM-induced dysfunction of satellite cells have been poor. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic running exercise on satellite cell activation in diabetic mice focused on the molecular mechanism including Notch and Wnt signaling, which are contribute to the fate determination of satellite cells...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Wenchao Yu, Cheng He, Zhongqiang Cai, Fei Xu, Lei Wei, Jun Chen, Qiuyun Jiang, Na Wei, Zhuang Li, Wen Guo, Xiaotong Wang
The melanin pigmentation of the adductor muscle scar and the outer surface of the shell are among attractive features and their pigmentation patterns and mechanism still remains unknown in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. To study these pigmentation patterns, the colors of the adductor muscle scar vs. the outer surface of the shell on the same side were compared. No relevance was found between the colors of the adductor muscle scars and the corresponding outer surface of the shells, suggesting that their pigmentation processes were independent...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Peter P Nghiem, Luca Bello, William B Stoughton, Sara Mata López, Alexander H Vidal, Briana V Hernandez, Katherine N Hulbert, Taylor R Gourley, Amanda K Bettis, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Heather Heath-Barnett, Joe N Kornegay
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-chromosome-linked disorder and the most common monogenic disease in people. Affected boys are diagnosed at a young age, become non-ambulatory by their early teens, and succumb to cardiorespiratory failure by their thirties. Despite being a monogenic condition resulting from mutations in the DMD gene, affected boys have noteworthy phenotypic variability. Efforts have identified genetic modifiers that could modify disease progression and be pharmacologic targets. Dogs affected with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have absent dystrophin and demonstrate phenotypic variability at the functional, histopathological, and molecular level...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Elena Flowers, Christine Miaskowski, Yvette Conley, Marilyn J Hammer, Jon Levine, Judy Mastick, Steven Paul, Fay Wright, Kord Kober
PURPOSE: Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and its treatment. Investigation of molecular mechanisms associated with fatigue in oncology patients may identify new therapeutic targets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between gene expression and perturbations in biological pathways and evening fatigue severity in oncology patients who received chemotherapy (CTX). METHODS: The Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) and latent class analysis were used to identify evening fatigue phenotypes...
September 25, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Ryan M Carr, Elisa Enriquez-Hesles, Rachel Lo Olson, Aminah Jatoi, Jason Doles, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Cancer patients are commonly affected by cachexia, a wasting process involving muscle and fat. Specifically, loss of the muscle compartment has been associated with poor prognosis and suboptimal response to therapy. Nutritional support has been ineffective in treating this process leading to investigations into the underlying molecular processes governing muscle catabolism. In this commentary, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer-associated muscle metabolism and the epigenetic processes responsible for the muscle wasting phenotype...
September 25, 2017: Epigenomics
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Wen-Qiang Xia, Xin-Ru Wang, Yan Liang, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
The adaptation of herbivorous insects to various host plants facilitates the spread and outbreak of many important invasive pests, however, the molecular mechanisms that underneath this process are poorly understood. In the past three decades, two species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean, have invaded many countries. Their rapid and widespread invasions are partially due to their ability to infest a wide range of host plants. In this study, we determined the transcriptome and phenotypic changes of one Mediterranean whitefly population during its adaptation to tobacco, an unsuitable host plant...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mette Cathrine Ørngreen, John Vissing
Metabolic myopathies are disorders affecting utilization of carbohydrates or fat in the skeletal muscle. Adult patients with metabolic myopathies typically present with exercise-induced pain, contractures or stiffness, fatigue, and myoglobinuria. Symptoms are related to energy failure. Purpose of review In this review, the current treatment options, including exercise therapy, dietary treatment, pharmacological supplementation, gene transcription, and enzyme replacement therapy, are described. Recent findings Recognition of the metabolic block in the metabolic myopathies has started the development of new therapeutic options...
September 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sadhana A Samant, Abhinav Kanwal, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Riyue Bao, Mahesh P Gupta
Muscle wasting, also known as cachexia, is associated with many chronic diseases, which worsens prognosis of primary illness leading to enhanced mortality. Molecular basis of this metabolic syndrome is not yet completely understood. SIRT6 is a chromatin-bound member of the sirtuin family, implicated in regulating many cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, DNA repair to aging. SIRT6 knockout (SIRT6-KO) mice display loss of muscle, fat and bone density, typical characteristics of cachexia. Here we report that SIRT6 depletion in cardiac as well as skeletal muscle cells promotes myostatin (Mstn) expression...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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