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Yuki Kishimoto, Hideaki Morikawa, Shigeru Yamanaka, Yasushi Tamada
Non-woven mats of Bombyx mori silk fibroin were fabricated using electrospinning with an all aqueous solution at <10wt% without any co-existing water soluble polymer such as PEO. The fibroin aqueous solution electrospinnability was affected by the fibroin molecular weight and the spinning solution pH. Hot-water treatment without any alkaline reagent or soap produced higher molecular weight fibroin than the typical degumming process did. The higher molecular weight fibroin provided good electrospinnability...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Anastasia Rivkin
Objective. To describe a student-centered teaching method used to introduce a pharmacist patient care process (PPCP) during the first year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design. In the fall of 2014, a cohort of students (n=85) began an integrated pharmacotherapy (IPT) course sequence in the first semester of pharmacy school. The first course in this sequence laid the foundation for the delivery of care, focusing on the individual components of a PPCP. Faculty member used a variety of teaching methods in the course to introduce medication history taking, identification of drug-related problems, identifying components of a patient case, and learning/beginning to write subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) notes...
December 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Christopher F Lowe, Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Baljinder Sidhu, Gordon Ritchie, Azra Sharma, Willson Jang, Anna Wong, Jennifer Bilawka, Danielle Richards, Thomas Kind, David Puddicombe, Sylvie Champagne, Victor Leung, Marc G Romney
BACKGROUND: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. METHODS: A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Kristyna Gleghorn, Brandon Goodwin, Ramon Sanchez
Chordoma is a rare primary bone malignancy of notochord origin, representing 1-4% of malignant bone tumors. Typically, chordomas follow a slow progressive course with aggressive local extension, multiple recurrences, and metastases. Of particular interest to this case, cutaneous metastasis is exceedingly rare. Diagnosis of this entity can be a challenge due to the rarity of chordoma, as well as the infrequent presentation of distant cutaneous metastasis and non-specific clinical skin findings. We report a case of a 61-year-old male with a history of sacral chordoma treated by wide local excision 8 years prior to presentation developed a nodule on his scalp for 6 weeks...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
S A Kim, M S Rhee
The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap. The bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap containing 0.3% triclocarban were examined against 10 Gram-positive and 10 Gram-negative bacterial strains after exposure at 22°C and 40°C for 20 s. Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to both soaps than Gram-positive bacteria. However, with one exception (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 at 40°C), there was no significant difference between the effects of medicated and non-medicated soap at either temperature...
November 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Joshua T Swan, Carol M Ashton, Lan N Bui, Vy P Pham, Beverly A Shirkey, Jolene E Blackshear, Jimmy B Bersamin, Rubie May L Pomer, Michael L Johnson, Audrey D Magtoto, Michelle O Butler, Shirley K Tran, Leah R Sanchez, Jessica G Patel, Robert A Ochoa, Shaikh A Hai, Karen I Denison, Edward A Graviss, Nelda P Wray
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients. DESIGN: This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Catrin E Moore, Kristin Elwin, Nget Phot, Chanthou Seng, Saroeun Mao, Kuong Suy, Varun Kumar, Johanna Nader, Rachel Bousfield, Sanuki Perera, J Wendi Bailey, Nicholas J Beeching, Nicholas P J Day, Christopher M Parry, Rachel M Chalmers
BACKGROUND: In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bhaveen H Kapadia, Randa K Elmallah, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic infections are devastating postoperative complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA), with native skin flora commonly identified as causative organisms. We compared 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths to standard-of-care antiseptic bathing in patients before TJA, to evaluate periprosthetic infection risk at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial at a single institution of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
David O Akeju, Marianne Vidler, Olufemi T Oladapo, Diane Sawchuck, Rahat Qureshi, Peter von Dadelszen, Olalekan O Adetoro, Olukayode A Dada
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. METHODS: The study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria in 2011-2012...
June 8, 2016: Reproductive Health
Lior Feldman, Eran Galili, Yuval Cohen, Michael Hartal, Nirit Yavnai, Itamar Netzer
BACKGROUND: Hand disinfection with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is commonly used for preventing the spread of infection in medical institutions and the community, but studies on its use in military settings have been inconclusive. We examined the effects of CHG on morbidity in Israeli Navy ships. METHODS: This was a controlled, cluster randomized study that took place at a major naval base in Israel. Ships were randomly selected into the study (347 sailors) and primary control (350 sailors) groups...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Aruna Kumar, Aarti Sharma, Kailash C Upadhyaya
Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'...
June 2016: Current Genomics
Sarien Mertens, Liesbeth Gilissen, An Goossens
BACKGROUND: Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. OBJECTIVES: To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department...
July 2016: Contact Dermatitis
L C L Pinto, L M O Morais, A Q Guimarães, E D Almada, P M Barbosa, M A Drumond
Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community...
June 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Scott Freeman, Nnadozie O Okoroafor, Christopher M Gast, Mikhail Koval, David Nowowiejski, Eileen O'Connor, Robert D Harrington, John W Parks, Ferric C Fang
In a laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology majors, students plated bacteria from swabs of their facial skin under conditions that selected for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; added disks containing the antibiotics penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin; and measured zones of inhibition. Students also recorded demographic and lifestyle variables and merged this information with similar data collected from 9,000 other students who had contributed to the database from 2003 to 2011. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing performed at the Harborview Medical Center Microbiology Laboratory (Seattle, WA) indicated a high degree of accuracy for student-generated data; species identification with a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) Biotyper revealed that over 88% of the cells analyzed by students were S...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
D S Blanc, B Gomes Magalhaes, M Abdelbary, G Prod'hom, G Greub, J B Wasserfallen, P Genoud, G Zanetti, L Senn
BACKGROUND: During an environmental investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units, the liquid hand soap was found to be highly contaminated (up to 8 × 10(5)cfu/g) with this pathogen. It had been used over the previous five months and was probably contaminated during manufacturing. AIM: To evaluate the burden of this contamination on patients by conducting an epidemiological investigation using molecular typing combined with whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ji-Hyun Seo, Hyun-Hee Kong, Sun-Ju Im, HyeRin Roh, Do-Kyong Kim, Hwa-Ok Bae, Young-Rim Oh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was evaluation of the current status of medical students' documentation of patient medical records. METHODS: We checked the completeness, appropriateness, and accuracy of 95 Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan (SOAP) notes documented by third-year medical students who participated in clinical skill tests on December 1, 2014. Students were required to complete the SOAP note within 15 minutes of an standard patient (SP)-encounter with a SP complaining rhinorrhea and warring about meningitis...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Peerapat Thaisiam, Chairat Permpikul, Tepnimitr Judaeng, Bordeesuda Suiwongsa, Napaporn Apiradeewajeset, Teerawan Fakthongphan, Sunun Suddee, Wandee Laoagtipparos, Visanu Thamlikitkul
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of daily bathing with 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated washcloths in preventing multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-positive bacterial colonization and bloodstream infection. METHODS: A randomized, open-label controlled trial was conducted in 4 medical intensive care units (ICUs) in Thailand from December 2013 to January 2015. Patients were randomized to receive cleansing with non-antimicrobial soap (control group) or 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated washcloths used to wipe the patient's body once daily (chlorhexidine group)...
March 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Diana Isaacs, Cindy Leslie A Roberson, Lalita Prasad-Reddy
OBJECTIVE: To implement a chronic disease state simulation in an ambulatory care elective course and to assess the simulation's impact on students' perceptions of their empathy toward patients and of their counseling skills. DESIGN: The chronic disease state simulation occurred over 2 weeks. Students alternated playing the role of patient and pharmacist. As patients, students adhered to medication regimens, lifestyle modifications, and blood glucose or blood pressure monitoring...
November 25, 2015: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Sunju Im, Do-Kyong Kim, Hyun-Hee Kong, Hye-Rin Roh, Young-Rim Oh, Ji-Hyun Seo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX) for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students. METHODS: Third-year medical school students (n=313) in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts...
March 2016: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Eduardo Almeida da Silveira, Kirstin A Bubeck, Edisleidy Rodriguez Batista, Perrine Piat, Sheila Laverty, Guy Beauchamp, Marie Archambault, Yvonne Elce
This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery...
February 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
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