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delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC )

Christopher P L Grof
The therapeutic application of Cannabis is attracting substantial public and clinical interest. The Cannabis plant has been described as a veritable 'treasure trove', producing more than a hundred different cannabinoids, although the focus to date has been on the psychoactive molecule delta-9-tetraydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Other numerous secondary metabolites of Cannabis the terpenes, some of which share the common intermediary geranyl diphosphate (GPP) with the cannabinoids, are hypothesised to contribute synergistically to their therapeutic benefits, an attribute that has been described as the 'entourage effect'...
April 27, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Franjo Grotenhermen, Ethan Russo, Antonio Waldo Zuardi
This short communication examines the question whether the experimental data presented in a study by Merrick et al. are of clinical relevance. These authors found that cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of the cannabis plant devoid of psychotropic effects and of great interest for therapeutic use in several medical conditions, may be converted in gastric fluid into the psychoactive cannabinoids delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC to a relevant degree. They concluded that "the acidic environment during normal gastrointestinal transit can expose orally CBD-treated patients to levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids that may exceed the threshold for a positive physiological response...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Lorrine D Edwards, Katherine L Smith, Theodore Savage
A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tracy D Mahvan, Michelle L Hilaire, Allison Mann, Antoinette Brown, Becky Linn, Taylor Gardner, Beryen Lai
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the use of marijuana in the elderly. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of medications including drug use of potentially illegal drugs, including marijuana. The use of both recreational and medical marijuana has grown exponentially in the general population, including in older adults. As of 2017, marijuana for medical use is legal in 26 states and the District of Columbia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Internet search using the following terms: marijuana, cannabis, delta-9-tetrhydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabinoid, elderly, geriatric, and pharmacology...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
March 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Amélie Marsot, Christine Audebert, Laurence Attolini, Bruno Lacarelle, Joelle Micallef, Olivier Blin
PURPOSE: A randomized cross-over, double blind placebo controlled study of smoked cannabis was carried out on occasional cannabis smokers. The objective of this research was to describe the pharmacokinetic parameters of THC and its metabolites in plasma, oral fluid and urine, from samples obtained simultaneously to provide estimations of THC and metabolites concentrations after smoking a cannabis cigarette. METHODS: Blood, oral fluid and urine samples were collected until up to 72 h after smoking the cannabis cigarette (4% of delta-9-tetrathydrocannabinol (THC))...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Megan Brafford May, Ashley E Glode
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists...
2016: Cancer Management and Research
C J A Morgan, T P Freeman, J Powell, H V Curran
Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis-which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content-and also ± 7 days apart when drug-free...
February 16, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Justine Renard, Laura G Rosen, Michael Loureiro, Cleusa De Oliveira, Susanne Schmid, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Considerable evidence suggests that adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), the psychoactive component in marijuana, increases the risk of developing schizophrenia-related symptoms in early adulthood. In the present study, we used a combination of behavioral and molecular analyses with in vivo neuronal electrophysiology to compare the long-term effects of adolescent versus adulthood THC exposure in rats. We report that adolescent, but not adult, THC exposure induces long-term neuropsychiatric-like phenotypes similar to those observed in clinical populations...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Judy Peat, Brehon Davis, Clint Frazee, Uttam Garg
Maternal substance abuse is an ongoing concern and detecting drug use during pregnancy is an important component of neonatal care when drug abuse is suspected. Meconium is the preferred specimen for drug testing because it is easier to collect than neonatal urine and it provides a much broader time frame of drug exposure. We describe a method for quantifying 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in meconium. After adding a labeled internal standard (THC-COOH D9) and acetonitrile, samples are sonicated to release both free and conjugated THC-COOH...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sevasti Karampela, Constantinos Pistos, Konstantinos Moraitis, Vasilios Stoukas, Ioannis Papoutsis, Eleni Zorba, Michalis Koupparis, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
In a number of forensic toxicological cases, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolite 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) are frequently considered as contributor factors to the event. To that, a liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method is described for the identification and quantitation of THC and its metabolite THCA in the forensically important larvae of L. sericata. Larvae of Lucilia sericata were fortified with varying concentrations of THC and THCA covering the calibration range between 10 and 500pg/mg...
December 2015: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Peter B Chase, Jeff Hawkins, Jarrod Mosier, Ernest Jimenez, Keith Boesen, Barry K Logan, Frank G Walter
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoid use has increased in many states, and medicinal and/or recreational marijuana use has been legalized in some states. These changes present challenges to law enforcement drug recognition experts (DREs) who determine whether drivers are impaired by synthetic cannabinoids or marijuana, as well as to clinical toxicologists who care for patients with complications from synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Our goal was to compare what effects synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana had on performance and behavior, including driving impairment, by reviewing records generated by law enforcement DREs who evaluated motorists arrested for impaired driving...
2016: Clinical Toxicology
Damiano Paolicelli, Vita Direnzo, Alessia Manni, Mariangela D'Onghia, Carla Tortorella, Stefano Zoccolella, Valentina Di Lecce, Antonio Iaffaldano, Maria Trojano
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was approved as add-on therapy for spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We show our 40-week postmarketing experience regarding efficacy and safety of THC/CBD spray in an Italian cohort of 102 MS patients. Patients were evaluated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for spasticity, the Ambulation Index (AI), and Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW) at the beginning of treatment and then every 3 months...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lesley A Smith, Fredric Azariah, Verna T C Lavender, Nicola S Stoner, Silvana Bettiol
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has a long history of medicinal use. Cannabis-based medications (cannabinoids) are based on its active element, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and have been approved for medical purposes. Cannabinoids may be a useful therapeutic option for people with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that respond poorly to commonly used anti-emetic agents (anti-sickness drugs). However, unpleasant adverse effects may limit their widespread use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis-based medications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer...
November 12, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Leigh V Panlilio, Eric B Thorndike, Spyros P Nikas, Shakiru O Alapafuja, Tiziano Bandiera, Benjamin F Cravatt, Alexandros Makriyannis, Daniele Piomelli, Steven R Goldberg, Zuzana Justinova
RATIONALE: Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. OBJECTIVES: We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid-enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown...
February 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Marjan de Vries, Dagmar C M Van Rijckevorsel, Kris C P Vissers, Oliver H G Wilder-Smith, Harry Van Goor
AIM: We aimed to assess the analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of a single dose of Δ9-THC in patients with chronic abdominal pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: This was a randomized, single dose, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two way crossover study in patients suffering from abdominal pain as result of CP (n = 24), post hoc subdivided into opioid and non-opioid users. Δ9-THC (8 mg) or active placebo (5 mg/10 mg diazepam) was administered orally in a double dummy design...
March 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Eran Lavi, David Rekhtman, Yackov Berkun, Isaiah Wexler
UNLABELLED: The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations...
March 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jean-Perre Goullé, Michel Guerbet
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, a drug which is commonly smoked This paper focuses on the pharmacokinetics of THC. The average THC content in cannabis plant material has risen by a factor offour over the past 20 years, from 4% to 16%. This increase has important implications not only for the pharmacokinetics but also for the pharmacology of THC The mean bioavailability of THC in smoked cannabis is about 25%. In a cigarette containing 3.55% of THC, a peak plasma level of about 160 ng/mL occurs approximately 10 min after inhalation...
March 2014: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Maren Kleine-Brueggeney, Robert Greif, Rudolf Brenneisen, Natalie Urwyler, Frank Stueber, Lorenz G Theiler
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cannabinoids can prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has also been suggested for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), but evidence is very limited and inconclusive. To evaluate the effectiveness of IV THC in the prevention of PONV, we performed this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with patient stratification according to the risk of PONV. Our hypothesis was that THC would reduce the relative risk of PONV by 25% compared with placebo...
November 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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