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Telomere reverse transcriptase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312603/intratumoral-heterogeneity-and-tert-promoter-mutations-in-progressive-higher-grade-meningiomas
#1
Tareq A Juratli, Christian Thiede, Mara V A Koerner, Shilpa S Tummala, Dirk Daubner, Ganesh M Shankar, Erik A Williams, Maria Martinez-Lage, Silke Soucek, Katja Robel, Tristan Penson, Mechthild Krause, Steffen Appold, Matthias Meinhardt, Thomas Pinzer, Julie J Miller, Dietmar Krex, Heather A Ely, Ian M Silverman, Jason Christiansen, Gabriele Schackert, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Matthias Kirsch, Priscilla K Brastianos, Daniel P Cahill
Background: Recent studies have reported mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) in meningiomas. We sought to determine the frequency, clonality and clinical significance of telomere gene alterations in a cohort of patients with progressive/higher-grade meningiomas. Methods: We characterized 64 temporally- and regionally-distinct specimens from 26 WHO grade III meningioma patients. On initial diagnoses, the meningiomas spanned all WHO grades (3 grade I, 13 grade II and 10 grade III)...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290038/tight-co-twin-similarity-of-monozygotic-twins-for-htert-protein-level-of-t-cell-subsets-for-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-but-not-for-telomerase-activity
#2
Dóra Melicher, Anett Illés, Éva Pállinger, Árpád Ferenc Kovács, Levente Littvay, Ádám Domonkos Tárnoki, Dávid László Tárnoki, András Bikov, Mária Judit Molnár, Edit Irén Buzás, András Falus
Our study analyzed lymphocyte subpopulations of 32 monozygotic twins and compared the level of the catalytic reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) in T lymphocytes (Tly), helper- (Th), cytotoxic- (Tc) and regulatory T cell (Treg) subgroups. Four variables related to telomere and mitochondrial biology were simultaneously assessed, applying multi-parametric flow cytometry, TRAP-ELISA assay and qPCR standard curve method on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of genetically matched individuals...
December 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281671/short-telomere-length-in-ipf-lung-associates-with-fibrotic-lesions-and-predicts-survival
#3
Reinier Snetselaar, Aernoud A van Batenburg, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Karin M Kazemier, Suzan M Roothaan, Ton Peeters, Joanne J van der Vis, Roel Goldschmeding, Jan C Grutters, Coline H M van Moorsel
Telomere maintenance dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, the mechanism of how telomere length is related to fibrosis in the lungs is unknown. Surgical lung biopsies of IPF patients typically show a heterogeneous pattern of non-fibrotic and fibrotic areas. Therefore, telomere length (TL) in both lung areas of patients with IPF and familial interstitial pneumonia was compared, specifically in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine TL in non-fibrotic and fibrotic areas of 35 subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230030/silica-inhalation-altered-telomere-length-and-gene-expression-of-telomere-regulatory-proteins-in-lung-tissue-of-rats
#4
Mohammad Shoeb, Pius Joseph, Vamsi Kodali, Gul Mustafa, Breanne Y Farris, Christina Umbright, Jenny R Roberts, Aaron Erdely, James M Antonini
Exposure to silica can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Identification of molecular targets is important for the intervention and/or prevention of silica-induced lung diseases. Telomeres consist of tandem repeats of DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, preventing chromosomal fusion and degradation. Regulator of telomere length-1 (RTEL1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), genes involved in telomere regulation and function, play important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and length. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of silica inhalation on telomere length and the regulation of RTEL1 and TERT...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197683/long-range-telomere-regulation-of-gene-expression-telomere-looping-and-telomere-position-effect-over-long-distances-tpe-old
#5
Wanil Kim, Jerry W Shay
The human cellular reverse transcriptase, telomerase, is very tightly regulated in large long-lived species. Telomerase is expressed during early human fetal development, is turned off in most adult tissues, and then becomes reactivated in almost all human cancers. However, the exact mechanism regulating these switches in expression are not known. We recently described a phenomenon where genes are regulated by telomere length dependent loops (telomere position effects over long distances; TPE-OLD). The hTERT gene is ~ 1...
November 22, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197377/regulation-of-terra-on-telomeric-and-mitochondrial-functions-in-ipf-pathogenesis
#6
Yulin Gao, Jinjin Zhang, Yuxia Liu, Songzi Zhang, Youlei Wang, Bo Liu, Huizhu Liu, Rongrong Li, Changjun Lv, Xiaodong Song
BACKGROUND: Aging is a known risk factor of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the effects of advanced aging remain largely unknown. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) represents a type of long noncoding RNA. In this study, the regulatory roles of TERRA on human telomeres and mitochondria and IPF epithelial injury model were identified. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients with IPF (n = 24) and matched control individuals (n = 24)...
December 2, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194355/characterization-of-the-ebv-induced-persistent-dna-damage-response
#7
Amy Y Hafez, Micah A Luftig
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that is ubiquitous in the human population. Early after EBV infection in vitro, primary human B cells undergo a transient period of hyper-proliferation, which results in replicative stress and DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and, ultimately, senescence. In this study, we investigated DDR-mediated senescence in early arrested EBV-infected B cells and characterized the establishment of persistent DNA damage foci. We found that arrested EBV-infected B cells exhibited an increase in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs), which predominantly localized to markers of DNA damage, as well as telomeric DNA...
December 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145503/zinc-sulfate-contributes-to-promote-telomere-length-extension-via-increasing-telomerase-gene-expression-telomerase-activity-and-change-in-the-tert-gene-promoter-cpg-island-methylation-status-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Nosratollah Zarghami
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#9
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130501/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-promoter-hypermethylation-is-associated-with-metastatic-disease-in-abdominal-paraganglioma
#10
LETTER
Fredrika Svahn, C Christofer Juhlin, Johan O Paulsson, Omid Fotouhi, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, Adam Stenman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124890/new-perspectives-on-telomerase-rna-structure-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Cherie Musgrove, Linnea I Jansson, Michael D Stone
Telomerase is an ancient ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that protects the ends of linear chromosomes from the loss of critical coding sequences through repetitive addition of short DNA sequences. These repeats comprise the telomere, which together with many accessory proteins, protect chromosomal ends from degradation and unwanted DNA repair. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase (RT) that carries its own RNA to use as a template for repeat addition. Over decades of research, it has become clear that there are many diverse, crucial functions played by telomerase RNA beyond simply acting as a template...
November 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067016/pivotal-impacts-of-retrotransposon-based-invasive-rnas-on-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Laleh Habibi, Hamzeh Salmani
RNAs have long been described as the mediators of gene expression; they play a vital role in the structure and function of cellular complexes. Although the role of RNAs in the prokaryotes is mainly confined to these basic functions, the effects of these molecules in regulating the gene expression and enzymatic activities have been discovered in eukaryotes. Recently, a high-resolution analysis of the DNA obtained from different organisms has revealed a fundamental impact of the RNAs in shaping the genomes, heterochromatin formation, and gene creation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043869/identifying-the-biomarker-potential-of-telomerase-activity-and-shelterin-complex-molecule-telomeric-repeat-binding-factor-2-terf2-in-multiple-myeloma
#13
Raman Kumar, Rehan Khan, Nidhi Gupta, Tulika Seth, Atul Sharma, Mani Kalaivani, Alpana Sharma
Telomere length (TL) is maintained by telomere capping protein complex called shelterin complex. We studied the possible involvement and biomarker potential of shelterin complex molecules in naive multiple myeloma (MM) patients and controls. TL, relative telomerase activity (RTA), real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed in bonemarrow sample of 70 study subjects (patients = 50; controls = 20). Significantly lowered mean TL, increased RTA and higher mRNA expression of shelterin molecules were observed in patients, while PIN2/TERF1 interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) showed lower mRNA expression...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043638/telomerase-rna-imaging-in-budding-yeast-and-human-cells-by-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization
#14
David Guérit, Maxime Lalonde, Pascal Chartrand
Telomerase, the enzyme that elongates telomeres in most eukaryotes, is a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of a reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT in human, Est2 in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae), regulatory factors and a noncoding RNA called hTERC (in human) or TLC1 (in budding yeast). Telomerase trafficking is a major process in the biogenesis and regulation of telomerase action at telomeres. Due to its higher signal-to-noise ratio, imaging of the telomerase RNA moiety is frequently used to determine telomerase intracellular localization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017189/curcumin-affects-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-aging-through-tert-gene-expression
#15
Samaneh Pirmoradi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
Aging and losing cell survival is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Aging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, decrease in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Given that the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidants can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on proliferation, aging and TERT expression of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (rADSC)...
October 10, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900814/sub-fertile-sperm-cells-exemplify-telomere-dysfunction
#16
Tal Biron-Shental, Amir Wiser, Anat Hershko-Klement, Ofer Markovitch, Aliza Amiel, Arie Berkovitch
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate telomere homeostasis in sub-fertile compared to fertile human sperm. METHODS: This observational, comparative study included 16 sub-fertile men who required intracytoplasmic sperm injection and 10 fertile men. At least 100 sperm cells from each participant were assessed. Main outcome measures were telomere length and telomere aggregates. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) copy number and telomere capture were assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using immunohistochemistry...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895292/pathology-and-genomics-of-pediatric-melanoma-a-critical-reexamination-and-new-insights
#17
REVIEW
Armita Bahrami, Raymond L Barnhill
The clinicopathologic features of pediatric melanoma are distinct from those of the adult counterpart. For example, most childhood melanomas exhibit a uniquely favorable biologic behavior, save for those arising in large/giant congenital nevi. Recent studies suggest that the characteristically favorable biologic behavior of childhood melanoma may be related to extreme telomere shortening and dysfunction in the cancer cells. Herein, we review the genomic profiles that have been defined for the different subtypes of pediatric melanoma and particularly emphasize the potential prognostic value of telomerase reverse transcriptase alterations for these tumors...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893481/telomerase-based-anticancer-immunotherapy-and-vaccines-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Chahal Kailashiya, Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Telomerase is a Reverse Transcriptase that maintains the telomere length. It is absent in most somatic cells but is found in stem cells, germ cells and around 90% of cancers. It plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining cancer cells. Telomerase, a HLA class-I antigen, is able to stimulate cell mediated immune response by inducing cytotoxic T-cells. This property of telomerase is being exploited in targeting cancers by host's own immune responses; stimulated by various Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) derived vaccines...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889732/effects-of-water-extract-of-curcuma-longa-l-roots-on-immunity-and-telomerase-function
#19
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Vladimir Badmaev
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888820/design-and-synthesis-of-2-phenylpyrimidine-coumarin-derivatives-as-anticancer-agents
#20
Na Lv, Ming Sun, Chen Liu, Jiabin Li
A series of 2-phenylpyrimidine coumarin derivatives with potential telomerase-inhibiting activity was designed and synthesized. All of the compounds were screened for antiproliferative activity against CNE2, KB, and Cal27 cell lines in vitro. The results showed that most of the derivatives had a favorable effect on resisting tumor cell proliferation; compound 13, 3-(4-amino-5-oxo-5H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzenesulfonate, exhibited the best activity. Flow cytometry revealed that compound 13 can inhibit CNE2 proliferation...
October 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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