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Telomere reverse transcriptase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145503/zinc-sulfate-contributes-to-promote-telomere-length-extension-via-increasing-telomerase-gene-expression-telomerase-activity-and-change-in-the-tert-gene-promoter-cpg-island-methylation-status-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Nosratollah Zarghami
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#2
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130501/tert-promoter-hypermethylation-is-associated-with-metastatic-disease-in-abdominal-paraganglioma
#3
Fredrika Svahn, C Christofer Juhlin, Johan O Paulsson, Omid Fotouhi, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, Adam Stenman
Telomere maintenance, a hallmark of cancer for cell immortalization, is commonly achieved by telomerase activation through induction of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and abdominal paragangliomas (PGL) (together PPGL) are endocrine tumours for which TERT promoter mutations and telomerase activation have been previously reported [1]. Only 10-15% of PPGL metastasize, however in the absence of metastases, the identification of malignant disease is a diagnostic dilemma...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124890/new-perspectives-on-telomerase-rna-structure-and-function
#4
REVIEW
Cherie Musgrove, Linnea I Jansson, Michael D Stone
Telomerase is an ancient ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that protects the ends of linear chromosomes from the loss of critical coding sequences through repetitive addition of short DNA sequences. These repeats comprise the telomere, which together with many accessory proteins, protect chromosomal ends from degradation and unwanted DNA repair. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase (RT) that carries its own RNA to use as a template for repeat addition. Over decades of research, it has become clear that there are many diverse, crucial functions played by telomerase RNA beyond simply acting as a template...
November 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067016/pivotal-impacts-of-retrotransposon-based-invasive-rnas-on-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Laleh Habibi, Hamzeh Salmani
RNAs have long been described as the mediators of gene expression; they play a vital role in the structure and function of cellular complexes. Although the role of RNAs in the prokaryotes is mainly confined to these basic functions, the effects of these molecules in regulating the gene expression and enzymatic activities have been discovered in eukaryotes. Recently, a high-resolution analysis of the DNA obtained from different organisms has revealed a fundamental impact of the RNAs in shaping the genomes, heterochromatin formation, and gene creation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043869/identifying-the-biomarker-potential-of-telomerase-activity-and-shelterin-complex-molecule-telomeric-repeat-binding-factor-2-terf2-in-multiple-myeloma
#6
Raman Kumar, Rehan Khan, Nidhi Gupta, Tulika Seth, Atul Sharma, Mani Kalaivani, Alpana Sharma
Telomere length (TL) is maintained by telomere capping protein complex called shelterin complex. We studied the possible involvement and biomarker potential of shelterin complex molecules in naive multiple myeloma (MM) patients and controls. TL, relative telomerase activity (RTA), real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed in bonemarrow sample of 70 study subjects (patients = 50; controls = 20). Significantly lowered mean TL, increased RTA and higher mRNA expression of shelterin molecules were observed in patients, while PIN2/TERF1 interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) showed lower mRNA expression...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043638/telomerase-rna-imaging-in-budding-yeast-and-human-cells-by-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization
#7
David Guérit, Maxime Lalonde, Pascal Chartrand
Telomerase, the enzyme that elongates telomeres in most eukaryotes, is a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of a reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT in human, Est2 in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae), regulatory factors and a noncoding RNA called hTERC (in human) or TLC1 (in budding yeast). Telomerase trafficking is a major process in the biogenesis and regulation of telomerase action at telomeres. Due to its higher signal-to-noise ratio, imaging of the telomerase RNA moiety is frequently used to determine telomerase intracellular localization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017189/curcumin-affects-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-aging-through-tert-gene-expression
#8
Samaneh Pirmoradi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
Aging and losing cell survival is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Aging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, decrease in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Given that the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidants can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on proliferation, aging and TERT expression of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (rADSC)...
October 10, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900814/sub-fertile-sperm-cells-exemplify-telomere-dysfunction
#9
Tal Biron-Shental, Amir Wiser, Anat Hershko-Klement, Ofer Markovitch, Aliza Amiel, Arie Berkovitch
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate telomere homeostasis in sub-fertile compared to fertile human sperm. METHODS: This observational, comparative study included 16 sub-fertile men who required intracytoplasmic sperm injection and 10 fertile men. At least 100 sperm cells from each participant were assessed. Main outcome measures were telomere length and telomere aggregates. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) copy number and telomere capture were assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using immunohistochemistry...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895292/pathology-and-genomics-of-pediatric-melanoma-a-critical-reexamination-and-new-insights
#10
REVIEW
Armita Bahrami, Raymond L Barnhill
The clinicopathologic features of pediatric melanoma are distinct from those of the adult counterpart. For example, most childhood melanomas exhibit a uniquely favorable biologic behavior, save for those arising in large/giant congenital nevi. Recent studies suggest that the characteristically favorable biologic behavior of childhood melanoma may be related to extreme telomere shortening and dysfunction in the cancer cells. Herein, we review the genomic profiles that have been defined for the different subtypes of pediatric melanoma and particularly emphasize the potential prognostic value of telomerase reverse transcriptase alterations for these tumors...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893481/telomerase-based-anticancer-immunotherapy-and-vaccines-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Chahal Kailashiya, Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Telomerase is a Reverse Transcriptase that maintains the telomere length. It is absent in most somatic cells but is found in stem cells, germ cells and around 90% of cancers. It plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining cancer cells. Telomerase, a HLA class-I antigen, is able to stimulate cell mediated immune response by inducing cytotoxic T-cells. This property of telomerase is being exploited in targeting cancers by host's own immune responses; stimulated by various Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) derived vaccines...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889732/effects-of-water-extract-of-curcuma-longa-l-roots-on-immunity-and-telomerase-function
#12
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Vladimir Badmaev
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888820/design-and-synthesis-of-2-phenylpyrimidine-coumarin-derivatives-as-anticancer-agents
#13
Na Lv, Ming Sun, Chen Liu, Jiabin Li
A series of 2-phenylpyrimidine coumarin derivatives with potential telomerase-inhibiting activity was designed and synthesized. All of the compounds were screened for antiproliferative activity against CNE2, KB, and Cal27 cell lines in vitro. The results showed that most of the derivatives had a favorable effect on resisting tumor cell proliferation; compound 13, 3-(4-amino-5-oxo-5H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzenesulfonate, exhibited the best activity. Flow cytometry revealed that compound 13 can inhibit CNE2 proliferation...
October 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888037/myc-drives-overexpression-of-telomerase-rna-htr-terc-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Javier A Baena-Del Valle, Qizhi Zheng, David M Esopi, Michael Rubenstein, Gretchen K Hubbard, Maria C Moncaliano, Andrew Hruszkewycz, Ajay Vaghasia, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Sarah J Wheelan, Alan K Meeker, Christopher M Heaphy, Mindy K Graham, Angelo M De Marzo
Telomerase consists of at least two essential elements, an RNA component hTR or TERC that contains the template for telomere DNA addition, and a catalytic reverse transcriptase (TERT). While expression of TERT has been considered the key rate limiting component for telomerase activity, increasing evidence suggests an important role for the regulation of TERC in telomere maintenance and perhaps other functions in human cancer. By using three orthogonal methods including RNAseq, RT-qPCR, and an analytically validated chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay, we report consistent overexpression of TERC in prostate cancer...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886883/alternative-splicing-of-telomerase-catalytic-subunit-htert-generated-by-apoptotic-endonuclease-endog-induces-human-cd4-t-cell-death
#15
Dmitry D Zhdanov, Daria A Vasina, Vladimir A Grachev, Elena V Orlova, Valentina S Orlova, Marina V Pokrovskaya, Svetlana S Alexandrova, Nikolai N Sokolov
Telomerase activity is regulated by alternative splicing of its catalytic subunit human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA. Induction of a non-active spliced hTERT leads to inhibition of telomerase activity. However, very little is known about the mechanism of hTERT mRNA alternative splicing. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the apoptotic endonuclease EndoG in alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity. A strong correlation was identified between EndoG expression levels and hTERT splice variants in human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes...
October 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839469/rbfox3-promotes-tumor-growth-and-progression-via-htert-signaling-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Tianze Liu, Wenbin Li, Wenjing Lu, Miao Chen, Meihua Luo, Changlin Zhang, Yixin Li, Ge Qin, Dingbo Shi, Binyi Xiao, Huijuan Qiu, Wendan Yu, Lan Kang, Tiebang Kang, Wenlin Huang, Xinfa Yu, Xiaojun Wu, Wuguo Deng
Activation of the telomere maintenance mechanism is a key hallmark of cancer. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, which is highly expressed in more than 80% of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the exact mechanisms by which hTERT is up-regulated in HCCs and promotes tumor growth and progression is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to discover the novel molecular targets that modulate hTERT signaling and HCC growth. In this study, we pulled down and identified RBFOX3 (RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog 3) as a novel hTERT promoter-binding protein in HCC cells using biotin-streptavidin-agarose pull-down and proteomics approach, and validated it as a regulatory factor for hTERT signaling and tumor growth in HCCs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833123/telomere-length-variation-in-tumor-cells-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-potential-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Li-Jie Ma, Xiao-Ying Wang, Meng Duan, Long-Zi Liu, Jie-Yi Shi, Liang-Qing Dong, Liu-Xiao Yang, Zhi-Chao Wang, Zhen-Bin Ding, Ai-Wu Ke, Ya Cao, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Qiang Gao
The role of telomere dysfunction and aberrant telomerase activities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been overlooked for many years. This study aimed to delineate the variation and prognostic value of telomere length in HCC. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and qPCR were used to evaluate telomere length in HCC cell lines, tumor tissues, and isolated non-tumor cells within the tumor. Significant telomere attrition was found in tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) compared to their normal counterparts, but not in intratumor leukocytes or bile duct epithelial cells...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813500/telomere-biology-and-telomerase-mutations-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Flávia S Donaires, Natália F Scatena, Raquel M Alves-Paiva, Joshua D Podlevsky, Dhenugen Logeswaran, Barbara A Santana, Andreza C Teixeira, Julian J-L Chen, Rodrigo T Calado, Ana L C Martinelli
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at linear chromosome termini, protecting chromosomes against end-to-end fusion and damage, providing chromosomal stability. Telomeres shorten with mitotic cellular division, but are maintained in cells with high proliferative capacity by telomerase. Loss-of-function mutations in telomere-maintenance genes are genetic risk factors for cirrhosis development in humans and murine models. Telomerase deficiency provokes accelerated telomere shortening and dysfunction, facilitating genomic instability and oncogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765565/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-promotes-chemoresistance-by-suppressing-cisplatin-dependent-apoptosis-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#19
Zhengpei Zhang, Ling Yu, Guo Dai, Kezhou Xia, Gaiwei Liu, Qi Song, Chunjie Tao, Tian Gao, Weichun Guo
Cisplatin is one of the most efficacious antimitotic drugs used in the treatment of a range of malignant tumors. However, treatment failures are common due to the development of chemoresistance. In addition to its telomere maintenance function, telomerase plays a pro-survival role, inducing decreased apoptosis and increased resistance against DNA damage. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is critical to improve treatment outcomes. Previously, our group showed higher telomerase reverse transcriptase(TERT) expression in cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma cells...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732250/structural-biology-of-telomerase-and-its-interaction-at-telomeres
#20
REVIEW
Yaqiang Wang, Juli Feigon
Telomerase is an RNP that synthesizes the 3' ends of linear chromosomes and is an important regulator of telomere length. It contains a single long non-coding telomerase RNA (TER), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), and other proteins that vary among organisms. Recent progress in structural biology of telomerase includes reports of the first cryo-electron microscopy structure of telomerase, from Tetrahymena, new crystal structures of TERT domains, telomerase RNA structures and models, and identification in Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme of human homologues of telomere-associated proteins that have provided a more unified view of telomerase interaction at telomeres as well as insights into the role of telomerase RNA in activity and assembly...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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