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Telomere reverse transcriptase

Reinier Snetselaar, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Jan C Grutters, Coline H M van Moorsel
The enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. In replicating cells, maintenance of telomere length is important for the preservation of vital genetic information and prevention of genomic instability. A common genetic variant in TERT , rs2736100 C/A, is associated with both telomere length and multiple diseases. Carriage of the C allele is associated with longer telomere length, while carriage of the A allele is associated with shorter telomere length. Furthermore, some diseases have a positive association with the C and some with the A allele...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Takuya Furuta, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Satoru Komaki, Fumiko Arakawa, Motohiro Morioka, Koichi Ohshima, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yasuo Sugita
Epithelioid glioblastoma (eGBM) is a rare variant of GBM which was adopted in the 2016 WHO classification. eGBM and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) sometimes show overlapping features histologically and genetically, such as epithelioid pattern and a highly frequent V600E mutation in the gene for vRAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), respectively. Accurate diagnosis of these rare tumors is challenging according to the new criteria in the revised 2016 WHO classification. It is an urgent task to elucidate the biological properties of the tumors and to select appropriate treatment...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Ricardo Leão, Joana Dias Apolónio, Donghyun Lee, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Limitless self-renewal is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is attained by telomere maintenance, essentially through telomerase (hTERT) activation. Transcriptional regulation of hTERT is believed to play a major role in telomerase activation in human cancers. MAIN BODY: The dominant interest in telomerase results from its role in cancer. The role of telomeres and telomere maintenance mechanisms is well established as a major driving force in generating chromosomal and genomic instability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Saumya R Bollam, Michael E Berens, Harshil D Dhruv
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-throughput genomic sequencing has identified alterations in the gene encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) as points of interest for elucidating the oncogenic mechanism of multiple different cancer types, including gliomas. In gliomas, the TERT promoter mutation (TPM) and resultant overexpression of TERT are observed mainly in the most aggressive (primary glioblastoma/grade IV astrocytoma) and the least aggressive (grade II oligodendroglioma) cases...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
D D Zhdanov, Yu A Gladilina, M V Pokrovskaya, S S Aleksandrova, D V Grishin, O V Podobed, N N Sokolov
The effect of apoptotic endonuclease EndoG on alternative splicing of mRNA of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) and telomerase activity in normal human lymphocytes were studied. Human CD4+ , CD8+ , B, and NK cells were transfected with a plasmid pEndoG-GFP containing EndoG gene or control plasmid pGFP. The levels of mRNA of EndoG or hTERT splicing variants were analyzed by real-time PCR. Protein content was assessed by Western blotting. Telomerase activity was measured by the telomere repeats amplification protocol...
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yaping Wang, Zhen Zhao, Zhiyong Zhu, Pingying Li, Xiaolin Li, Xiaohong Xue, Jie Duo, Yingcai Ma
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Jessica A Pilsworth, Dawn R Cochrane, Zhouchunyang Xia, Geraldine Aubert, Anniina E M Färkkilä, Hugo M Horlings, Satoshi Yanagida, Winnie Yang, Jamie L P Lim, Yi Kan Wang, Ali Bashashati, Jacqueline Keul, Adele Wong, Kevin Norris, Sara Y Brucker, Florin-Andrei Taran, Bernhard Krämer, Annette Staebler, Esther Oliva, Sohrab P Shah, Stefan Kommoss, Friedrich Kommoss, C Blake Gilks, Duncan M Baird, David G Huntsman
The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene is highly expressed in stem cells and silenced upon differentiation. Cancer cells can attain immortality by activating TERT to maintain telomere length and telomerase activity, which is a crucial step of tumorigenesis. Two somatic mutations in the TERT promoter (C228T; C250T) have been identified as gain-of-function mutations that promote transcriptional activation of TERT in multiple cancers, such as melanoma and glioblastoma. A recent study investigating TERT promoter mutations in ovarian carcinomas found C228T and C250T mutations in 15...
February 15, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Yi Liu, Feng Liu, Yizhao Cao, Huimin Xu, Yangxiu Wu, Su Wu, Dan Liu, Yong Zhao, Zhou Songyang, Wenbin Ma
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare pediatric disease characterized by various systemic disorders, including hematopoietic dysfunction. The mutation of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene has been proposed to be a major causative reason for SDS. Although SBDS patients were reported to have shorter telomere length in granulocytes, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we provide data to elucidate the role of SBDS in telomere protection. We demonstrate that SBDS deficiency leads to telomere shortening...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Diego J Páez-Moscoso, Lili Pan, Rutendo F Sigauke, Morgan R Schroeder, Wen Tang, Peter Baumann
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the non-coding telomerase RNA subunit (TR) constitute the core of telomerase. Here we now report that the putative F-box protein Pof8 is also a constitutive component of active telomerase in fission yeast. Pof8 functions in a hierarchical assembly pathway by promoting the binding of the Lsm2-8 complex to telomerase RNA, which in turn promotes binding of the catalytic subunit. Loss of Pof8 reduces TER1 stability, causes a severe assembly defect, and results in critically short telomeres...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Amanda K Mennie, Bettina A Moser, Toru M Nakamura
Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase complex that ensures stable maintenance of linear eukaryotic chromosome ends by overcoming the end replication problem, posed by the inability of replicative DNA polymerases to fully replicate linear DNA. The catalytic subunit TERT must be assembled properly with its telomerase RNA for telomerase to function, and studies in Tetrahymena have established that p65, a La-related protein 7 (LARP7) family protein, utilizes its C-terminal xRRM domain to promote assembly of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Laura C Collopy, Tracy L Ware, Tomas Goncalves, Sunnvør Í Kongsstovu, Qian Yang, Hanna Amelina, Corinne Pinder, Ala Alenazi, Vera Moiseeva, Siân R Pearson, Christine A Armstrong, Kazunori Tomita
Understanding the intricacies of telomerase regulation is crucial due to the potential health benefits of modifying its activity. Telomerase is composed of an RNA component and reverse transcriptase. However, additional factors required during biogenesis vary between species. Here we have identified fission yeast Lar7 as a member of the conserved LARP7 family, which includes the Tetrahymena telomerase-binding protein p65 and human LARP7. We show that Lar7 has conserved RNA-recognition motifs, which bind telomerase RNA to protect it from exosomal degradation...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Shenghan Lai, Christopher M Heaphy, Anthony J Rizzo, David D Celentano, Gary Gerstenblith, Ji Li, Richard D Moore, Glenn Treisman, Shaoguang Chen, Parker Foster, Thomas Kickler, Hong Lai
BACKGROUND: Although cocaine use may induce/accelerate HIV-associated comorbidities in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and that HIV itself may accelerate aging, the issue of whether cocaine use plays a role in HIV-associated aging in HIV-infected cocaine users has not been reported. The goals of this study were (1) to explore factor(s) associated with peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length, a marker of cellular replicative history, and telomere shortening in HIV-infected individuals, and (2) to assess whether cocaine use plays a role in accelerating telomere shortening in cocaine users with HIV infection...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Masashi Kumagai, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Toshikatsu Tamai, Masaaki Kitahara, Tatsuya Yamashita, Kuniaki Arai, Takeshi Terashima, Noriho Iida, Kazumi Fushimi, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a catalytic enzyme involved in telomere elongation. It is expressed in many tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of the present study was to identify major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted helper T cell epitopes derived from hTERT in patients with HCC. METHODS: TEPITOPE software was used to predict helper T cell epitopes based on the entire amino acid sequence of hTERT, and peptides were synthesized based on the predicted sequence...
February 6, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Mónica S Ventura Ferreira, Michaela Bienert, Katrin Müller, Björn Rath, Tamme Goecke, Christian Opländer, Till Braunschweig, Petra Mela, Tim H Brümmendorf, Fabian Beier, Sabine Neuss
BACKGROUND: Studies in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from the placenta are compared with multiple MSC types from other sources are rare. The chorionic plate of the human placenta is mainly composed of fetal blood vessels embedded in fetal stroma tissue, lined by trophoblastic cells and organized into chorionic villi (CV) structures. METHODS: We comprehensively characterized human MSC collected from postnatal human chorionic villi of placenta (CV-MSC) by analyzing their growth and proliferation potential, differentiation, immunophenotype, extracellular matrix production, telomere length, aging phenotype, and plasticity...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jens C Schmidt, Arthur J Zaug, Regina Kufer, Thomas R Cech
The reverse transcriptase telomerase adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends to counteract telomere shortening and thereby assures genomic stability in dividing human cells. Key parameters in telomere homeostasis are the frequency with which telomerase engages the chromosome end and the number of telomeric repeats it adds during each association event. To study telomere elongation in vivo we have established a live-cell imaging assay to track individual telomerase RNPs in CRISPR-edited HeLa cells. Using this assay and the drug imetelstat, which is a competitive inhibitor of telomeric DNA binding, we demonstrate that stable association of telomerase with the single-stranded overhang of the chromosome end requires telomerase-DNA base pairing...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Jonathan R Brestoff, Alexandre T Vessoni, Kirsten A Brenner, Geoffrey L Uy, John F DiPersio, Morey Blinder, Chad A Witt, Derek E Byers, Ramsey R Hachem, Elbert P Truclock, Dayna S Early, Milan J Anadkat, Amy Musiek, Cylen Javidan-Nejad, Dennis M Balfe, Ilana S Rosman, Chang Liu, Lingxin Zhang, George J Despotis, Marianna B Ruzinova, Jennifer K Sehn, Ina Amarillo, Jonathan W Heusel, Wojcieh Swat, Brian S Kim, Lukas D Wartman, Roger D Yusen, Luis F Z Batista
Familial pulmonary fibrosis is associated with loss-of-function mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and short telomeres. Interstitial lung diseases have become the leading indication for lung transplantation in the USA, and recent data indicate that pathogenic mutations in telomerase may cause unfavourable outcomes following lung transplantation. Although a rare occurrence, solid organ transplant recipients who develop acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have very poor survival. This case report describes the detection of a novel mutation in TERT in a patient who had lung transplantation for familial pulmonary fibrosis and died from complications of acute GVHD...
January 30, 2018: Thorax
Ake T Lu, Luting Xue, Elias L Salfati, Brian H Chen, Luigi Ferrucci, Daniel Levy, Roby Joehanes, Joanne M Murabito, Douglas P Kiel, Pei-Chien Tsai, Idil Yet, Jordana T Bell, Massimo Mangino, Toshiko Tanaka, Allan F McRae, Riccardo E Marioni, Peter M Visscher, Naomi R Wray, Ian J Deary, Morgan E Levine, Austin Quach, Themistocles Assimes, Philip S Tsao, Devin Absher, James D Stewart, Yun Li, Alex P Reiner, Lifang Hou, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Abraham Aviv, Alexia Cardona, Felix R Day, Nicholas J Wareham, John R B Perry, Ken K Ong, Kenneth Raj, Kathryn L Lunetta, Steve Horvath
DNA methylation age is an accurate biomarker of chronological age and predicts lifespan, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this genome-wide association study of 9907 individuals, we find gene variants mapping to five loci associated with intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) and gene variants in three loci associated with extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causal influences of menarche and menopause on IEAA and lipoproteins on IEAA and EEAA...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Abhishek Dey, Kausik Chakrabarti
Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liang Zeng, Yue-Li Wang, Fa Wang, Shi-Quan Cui, Liang Hu, Di-Nan Huang, Gan Hou
By using human genomic DNA as a template to clone protection of telomere 1 (POT1) promoter gene segments and construct the POT1 promoter luciferase report gene vector (pGL3-Control-POT1-promoter), the association between POT1, and the regulation of telomerase and telomere length was investigated. In the present study, two recombinant luciferase report gene vectors were constructed, which included different regions of the POT1 promoter. The plasmids were transformed into DH5α and the positive clones were obtained...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Tareq A Juratli, Christian Thiede, Mara V A Koerner, Shilpa S Tummala, Dirk Daubner, Ganesh M Shankar, Erik A Williams, Maria Martinez-Lage, Silke Soucek, Katja Robel, Tristan Penson, Mechthild Krause, Steffen Appold, Matthias Meinhardt, Thomas Pinzer, Julie J Miller, Dietmar Krex, Heather A Ely, Ian M Silverman, Jason Christiansen, Gabriele Schackert, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Matthias Kirsch, Priscilla K Brastianos, Daniel P Cahill
Background: Recent studies have reported mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) in meningiomas. We sought to determine the frequency, clonality and clinical significance of telomere gene alterations in a cohort of patients with progressive/higher-grade meningiomas. Methods: We characterized 64 temporally- and regionally-distinct specimens from 26 WHO grade III meningioma patients. On initial diagnoses, the meningiomas spanned all WHO grades (3 grade I, 13 grade II and 10 grade III)...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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