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Systems Dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550811/influence-of-solids-residence-time-and-carbon-storage-on-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-recovery-by-microalgae-across-diel-cycles
#1
D A Gardner-Dale, I M Bradley, J S Guest
Microalgal treatment systems could advance nutrient recovery from wastewater by achieving effluent nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels below the current limit of technology, but their successful implementation requires an understanding of how design decisions influence nutrient uptake over daily (i.e., diel) cycles. This work demonstrates the ability to influence microalgal N:P recovery ratio via solids residence time (SRT) while maintaining complete nutrient removal across day/night cycles through carbon storage and mobilization...
May 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550747/investigation-of-solvation-of-iron-nanoclusters-in-ionic-liquid-1-butyl-1-1-1-trimethylammonium-methane-sulfonate-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations-effect-of-cluster-size-at-different-temperatures
#2
Mohsen Abbaspour, Hamed Akbarzadeh, Parnian Yousefi, Mohammad Razmkhah
The systems composed of metal nanoclusters in ionic liquids are relevant for applications in lubrication, electrochemical devices, catalysis, and chemical processes. The mechanism of solvation and interactions of these systems are not understood at present. In this work, we have simulated iron nanoclusters with different sizes in ionic liquid 1-butyl-1,1,1-trimethylammonium methane sulfonate [N1114][C1SO3] at two temperatures (300 and 500K) and at atmospheric pressure. We have investigated the effects of cluster size and the temperature on some of the thermodynamics, structural and dynamical properties of the systems...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550727/multiple-remote-sensing-data-sources-to-assess-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-fire-incidence-over-campos-amaz%C3%A3-nicos-savanna-vegetation-enclave-brazilian-amazon
#3
Daniel Borini Alves, Fernando Pérez-Cabello
Fire activity plays an important role in the past, present and future of Earth system behavior. Monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal fire dynamics have a fundamental relevance in the understanding of ecological processes and the human impacts on different landscapes and multiple spatial scales. This work analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of burned areas in one of the biggest savanna vegetation enclaves in the southern Brazilian Amazon, from 2000 to 2016, deriving information from multiple remote sensing data sources (Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance, TRMM pluviometry and Vegetation Continuous Field tree cover layers)...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550405/projective-biomechanical-depth-matching-for-soft-tissue-registration-in-laparoscopic-surgery
#4
Daniel Reichard, Dominik Häntsch, Sebastian Bodenstedt, Stefan Suwelack, Martin Wagner, Hannes Kenngott, Beat Müller-Stich, Lena Maier-Hein, Rüdiger Dillmann, Stefanie Speidel
PURPOSE: A key component of computer- assisted surgery systems is the accurate and robust registration of preoperative planning data with intraoperative sensor data. In laparoscopic surgery, this image-based registration remains challenging due to soft tissue deformations. This paper presents a novel approach for biomechanical soft tissue registration of preoperative CT data with stereo endoscopic image data. METHODS: The proposed method consists of two registrations steps...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550295/effects-of-protein-corona-on-iapp-amyloid-aggregation-fibril-remodelling-and-cytotoxicity
#5
Emily H Pilkington, Yanting Xing, Bo Wang, Aleksandr Kakinen, Miaoyi Wang, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a peptide hormone co-synthesized and co-stored with insulin in pancreatic cells and also co-secreted to the circulation, is associated with beta-cell death in type-2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients IAPP is found aggregating in the extracellular space of the islets of Langerhans. Although the physiological environments of these intra- and extra-cellular compartments and vascular systems significantly differ, the presence of proteins is ubiquitous but the effects of protein binding on IAPP aggregation are largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550294/advantages-and-problems-of-nonlinear-methods-applied-to-analyze-physiological-time-signals-human-balance-control-as-an-example
#6
Wolfram Müller, Alexander Jung, Helmut Ahammer
Physiological processes are regulated by nonlinear dynamical systems. Various nonlinear measures have frequently been used for characterizing the complexity of fractal time signals to detect system features that cannot be derived from linear analyses. We analysed human balance dynamics ranging from simple standing to balancing on one foot with closed eyes to study the inherent methodological problems when applying fractal dimension analysis to real-world signals. Higuchi dimension was used as an example. Choice of measurement and analysis parameters has a distinct influence on the computed dimension...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550170/right-atrial-pressure-and-venous-return-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#7
Per Werner Moller, Berhard Winkler, Samuel Hurni, Paul Philipp Heinisch, Andreas Martin Bloch, Soren Sondergaard, Stephan M Matthias Jakob, Jukka Takala, David Christian Berger
The relevance of right atrial pressure (RAP) as the back-pressure for venous return (QVR) and mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP) as up-stream pressure is controversial during dynamic changes of circulation. To examine the immediate response of QVR (sum of caval vein flows) to changes in RAP and pump function we used a closed chest, central cannulation, heart bypass porcine preparation (n=10) with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). MSFP was determined by clamping ECMO tubing with open or closed arterio-venous shunt at Euvolemia, Volume Expansion (9...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549920/dissecting-intrinsic-and-ligand-induced-structural-communication-in-the-%C3%AE-3-headpiece-of-integrins
#8
Angelo Felline, Michela Ghitti, Giovanna Musco, Francesca Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Graph theory is widely used to dissect structural communication in biomolecular systems. Here, graph theory-based approaches were applied to the headpiece of integrins, adhesion cell-surface receptors that transmit signals across the plasma membranes. METHODS: Protein Structure Network (PSN) analysis incorporating dynamic information either from molecular dynamics simulations or from Elastic Network Models was applied to the β3 domains from integrins αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 in their apo and ligand-bound states...
May 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549917/dendritic-cell-derived-exosomes-elicit-tumor-regression-in-autochthonous-hepatocellular-carcinoma-mouse-models
#9
Zhen Lu, Bingfeng Zuo, Renwei Jing, Xianjun Gao, Quan Rao, Zhili Liu, Han Qi, Hongxing Guo, HaiFang Yin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DEXs) form a new class of vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. However their potency in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in the clinic and responds poorly to immunotherapy, remains to be investigated. METHODS: Exosomes derived from α-fetoprotein (AFP) - expressing DCs (DEXAFP) were investigated in three different HCC mouse models systemically and tumor growth and microenvironment were monitored...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#10
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549599/accuracy-map-of-an-optical-motion-capture-system-with-42-or-21-cameras-in-a-large-measurement-volume
#11
Alexander M Aurand, Jonathan S Dufour, William S Marras
Optical motion capture is commonly used in biomechanics to measure human kinematics. However, no studies have yet examined the accuracy of optical motion capture in a large capture volume (>100m(3)), or how accuracy varies from the center to the extreme edges of the capture volume. This study measured the dynamic 3D errors of an optical motion capture system composed of 42 OptiTrack Prime 41 cameras (capture volume of 135m(3)) by comparing the motion of a single marker to the motion reported by a ThorLabs linear motion stage...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549379/dynamically-tunable-plasmon-induced-transparency-in-on-chip-graphene-based-asymmetrical-nanocavity-coupled-waveguide-system
#12
Pingping Qiu, Weibin Qiu, Zhili Lin, Houbo Chen, Junbo Ren, Jia-Xian Wang, Qiang Kan, Jiao-Qing Pan
A graphene-based on-chip plasmonic nanostructure composed of a plasmonic bus waveguide side-coupled with a U-shaped and a rectangular nanocavities has been proposed and modeled by using the finite element method in this paper. The dynamic tunability of the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) windows has been investigated. The results reveal that the PIT effects can be tuned via modifying the chemical potential of the nanocavities and plasmonic bus waveguide or by varying the geometrical parameters including the location and width of the rectangular nanocavity...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549328/enhanced-photocatalytic-hydrogen-production-from-aqueous-sulfide-sulfite-solution-by-zno0-6s0-4-with-simultaneous-dye-degradation-under-visible-light-irradiation
#13
Ka Him Chu, Liqun Ye, Wei Wang, Dan Wu, Donald Ka Long Chan, Cuiping Zeng, Ho Yin Yip, Jimmy C Yu, Po Keung Wong
Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) production was performed by visible-light-driven (VLD) ternary photocatalyst, zinc oxysulfide (ZnO0.6S0.4) in the presence of sulfide/sulfite (S2(2-)/SO3(2-)) sacrificing system, with simultaneous azo-dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5) degradation. Enhancement in both RV5 degradation and H2 production was achieved, with the promotion of H2 production after decolorization of RV5. The effect of initial concentration of RV5 was found to be influential on the enhancement of H2 during the simultaneous processes, with a maximum of 110% increase of H2 produced...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548923/tubb3-overexpression-has-a-negligible-effect-on-the-sensitivity-to-taxol-in-cultured-cell-lines
#14
Mihoko A Tame, Anna G Manjón, Daria Belokhvostova, Jonne A Raaijmakers, René H Medema
Microtubules are cellular targets for a variety of anticancer therapies because of their critical function in mitosis. Taxol belongs to a class of microtubule targeting agents that suppresses microtubule dynamics and interferes with the functioning of the mitotic spindle, thereby effectively blocking cell cycle progression of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Despite its antitumor activity, drug resistance remains a common obstacle in improving its overall clinical efficacy. Previous studies have shown that the expression of a specific β-tubulin isotype, βIII-tubulin/TUBB3, is dysregulated in drug-refractory tumors...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#15
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548861/emergent-optical-phononic-modes-upon-nanoscale-mesogenic-phase-transitions
#16
Dima Bolmatov, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Lewis Sharpnack, Dena M Agra-Kooijman, Satyendra Kumar, Alexey Suvorov, Ronald Pindak, Yong Q Cai, Alessandro Cunsolo
The investigation of phononic collective excitations in soft matter systems at the molecular scale has always been challenging due to limitations of experimental techniques in resolving low-energy modes. Recent advances in Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) enabled the study of such systems with unprecedented spectral contrast at meV excitation energies. In particular, it has become possible to shed light on the low-energy collective motions in materials whose morphology and phase behavior can easily be manipulated, such as mesogenic systems...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548858/theoretical-study-of-acetic-acid-association-based-on-hydrogen-bonding-mechanism
#17
Minhua Zhang, Lihang Chen, Huaming Yang, Jing Ma
Combining molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum chemistry (QM) simulation, the association mechanism of acetic acid systems were examined. DFT method was proposed to compare the hydrogen-bonding energy of variable acetic acid dimers, and definitely provided the stable dimers configuration. Geometry parameters of dimers were also obtained by QM calculations, which were taken as the characteristic criteria for further MD analysis. Proportion of different acetic acid dimers in gas phase was obtained by Radial distribution function (RDF) analysis, and cyclic dimer with two O=c-Hoacid hydrogen bonds was demonstrated as the most stable structure...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548847/simulating-the-electronic-circular-dichroism-spectra-of-photo-reversible-peptide-conformations
#18
Hugo Gattuso, Cristina García-Iriepa, Diego Sampedro, Antonio Monari, Marco Marazzi
Electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of peptides is one of the most important experimental char-acterization tools to get insights regarding their structure. Nevertheless, even though highly useful, the reliable simulations of CD spectra result in a complex task. Here, we propose a combination of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods with a semi-empirical Hamiltonian based on the Frankel excitons theory to efficiently describe the behavior of a 27-amino acid α-helical peptide in water...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548840/acceleration-of-crystal-growth-of-amorphous-griseofulvin-by-low-concentration-poly-ethylene-oxide-aspects-of-crystallization-kinetics-and-molecular-mobility
#19
Qin Shi, Chen Zhang, Yuan Su, Jie Zhang, Dongshan Zhou, Ting Cai
This study aims to investigate the crystallization behavior and molecular dynamics of amorphous griseofulvin (GSF) in the presence of low-concentration poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). We observe that the addition of 3 % w/w PEO remarkably increases the crystal growth rate of GSF by two orders of magnitude, in both the supercooled liquid and glassy states. The liquid dynamics of amorphous GSF in the presence and absence of PEO are characterized by dielectric spectroscopy. With an increase of the PEO content, the α-relaxation times of the systems decrease, indicating the increase of global molecular mobility...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548839/structural-distortions-and-charge-density-waves-in-iodine-chains-encapsulated-inside-carbon-nanotubes
#20
Hannu-Pekka Komsa, Ryosuke Senga, Kazutomo Suenaga, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
Atomic chains are perfect systems for getting fundamental insights into the electron dynamics and coupling between the electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in one dimensional metals. Depending on the band filling, they can exhibit Peierls instabilities (or charge density waves), where equally spaced chain of atoms with partially filled band is inherently unstable, exhibiting spontaneous distortion of the lattice that further leads to metal-insulator transition in the system. Here, using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we directly image the atomic structures of a chain of iodine atoms confined inside carbon nanotubes...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
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