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Systems Thinking

David H Molyneux, Laura Dean, Oluwatosin Adekeye, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
James A McClintic, Clifford L Snyder, Kimberly M Brown
OBJECTIVE: Although key clinical skills have been defined in the Core Entrustable Professional Activities, there is a need to improve medical school curricula with standardized training opportunities and assessments of these skills. Thus, we aimed to develop an innovative curriculum that emphasized critical thinking and clinical skills. We hypothesized that we would be able to observe measurable improvement on assessments of students' critical thinking and clinical skills after the implementation of the new curriculum...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Andrew MacQuarrie, Anthony Steed
360° images and video have become extremely popular formats for immersive displays, due in large part to the technical ease of content production. While many experiences use a single camera viewpoint, an increasing number of experiences use multiple camera locations. In such multi-view 360° media (MV360M) systems, a visual effect is required when the user transitions from one camera location to another. This effect can take several forms, such as a cut or an image-based warp, and the choice of effect may impact many aspects of the experience, including issues related to enjoyment and scene understanding...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Gregório Corrêa Patuzzi, Adrielle Priscilla Souza Lira, José Diego Marques Santos, Andrieli Oliveira Barros Reinisch, Aline Alves Veleda
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to discuss Brazilian undergraduate students'learning in the public health. METHODS: This is a descriptive, reflexive study, characterized as an experience report. Theoretical references of the Canadian and Brazilian health systems were used in order to analyze the public health and the impact of international educational exchange in professional qualification. RESULTS: There are theoretical and conceptual similarities in health systems, in the understanding of social determinants...
March 12, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Katherine Rouleau, Monique Bourget, Patrick Chege, Francois Couturier, Paula Godoy-Ruiz, Paul H Grand'Maison, Melanie Henry, Kerling Israel, Videsh Kapoor, Hendra Kurniawan, Louella Lobo, Mahamane Maiga, Samantha Pereira Franca, Lynda Redwood-Campbell, Jamie Rodas, Raman Sohal, Dawit Wondimagegn, Robert Woolard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a limited evidentiary base on the development of family medicine in different contexts and countries. The lack of evidence impedes our ability to compare and characterize family medicine models and identify areas of success that have led to the effective provision of care. This paper offers a comparative compilation and analysis of the development of family medicine training programs in seven countries: Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Kenya, and Mali...
March 8, 2018: Family Medicine
Goutham Rao, Paul Epner, Victoria Bauer, Anthony Solomonides, David E Newman-Toker
Diagnostic error is a serious public health problem to which knowledge gaps and associated cognitive error contribute significantly. Identifying diagnostic approaches to common problems in ambulatory care associated with more timely and accurate diagnosis and lower cost and harm associated with diagnostic evaluation is an important priority for health care systems, clinicians, and of course patients. Unfortunately, guidance on how best to approach diagnosis in patients with common presenting complaints such as abdominal pain, dizziness, and fatigue is lacking...
June 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Jennifer Kuzara, Anne Woodriff Sprinkel, Feven Tassew Mekuria, Marcie Rubardt, Fodié Maguiraga, Koman Sissoko, Philip Hastings
This study examines the design and implementation of a maternal mortality prevention intervention in central Mali. It uses Project Hope for Mothers and Newborns (PEMN) as a case study to examine the context around implementation, with special emphasis on the role of social, gender and power norms in meeting programme objectives. Interventions to strengthen the health system and workforce were coupled with a social norms change approach to catalyse the personal transformation of staff, community-level health workers and communities via critical reflection and dialogue on gender and social power norms related to maternal health...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Changxu Wu
Via building computational (typically mathematical and computer simulation) models, human performance modeling (HPM) quantifies, predicts, and maximizes human performance, human-machine system productivity and safety. This paper describes and summarizes the five key questions of human performance modeling: 1) Why we build models of human performance; 2) What the expectations of a good human performance model are; 3) What the procedures and requirements in building and verifying a human performance model are; 4) How we integrate a human performance model with system design; and 5) What the possible future directions of human performance modeling research are...
January 2018: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Martin Hitziger, Roberto Esposito, Massimo Canali, Maurizio Aragrande, Barbara Häsler, Simon R Rüegg
The One Health concept covers the interrelationship between human, animal and environmental health and requires multistakeholder collaboration across many cultural, disciplinary, institutional and sectoral boundaries. Yet, the implementation of the One Health approach appears hampered by shortcomings in the global framework for health governance. Knowledge integration approaches, at all stages of policy development, could help to address these shortcomings. The identification of key objectives, the resolving of trade-offs and the creation of a common vision and a common direction can be supported by multicriteria analyses...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Les R Folio, Laura B Machado, Andrew J Dwyer
Multimedia-enhanced radiology report (MERR) development is defined and described from an informatics perspective, in which the MERR is seen as a superior information-communicating entity. Recent technical advances, such as the hyperlinking of report text directly to annotated images, improve MERR information content and accessibility compared with text-only reports. The MERR is analyzed by its components, which include hypertext, tables, graphs, embedded images, and their interconnections. The authors highlight the advantages of each component for improving the radiologist's communication of report content information and the user's ability to extract information...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Carrie Ho-Kwan Yam, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Sian M Griffiths, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Objective: To assess public knowledge and expectations of the ways to assess doctors' competence to ensure patient safety. Design setting and participants: Telephone survey of a random sample of 1000 non-institutionalized Hong Kong residents. Measures and results: Only 5% of public were correct that doctors are not required to periodically be assessed, and 9% were correct that the doctors are not required to update knowledge and skills for renewing their license...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Jose Luis Vilchez
Cognition is an efficient but limited system that deals with mundane tasks. Daily life demands the system to save energy in order to be able to solve other more relevant tasks. Reasoning out every single problem would immeasurably increase our mental load and fatigue. Our minds avoid this waste of resources by taking shortcuts when reasoning. Outputs from previous episodes of reasoning turn into pieces of implicit information. These outputs go on to constitute the meanings that we give to things or circumstances, which in turn become the general framework where other reasonings occur...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Alison Kitson, Alan Brook, Gill Harvey, Zoe Jordan, Rhianon Marshall, Rebekah O'Shea, David Wilson
Many representations of the movement of healthcare knowledge through society exist, and multiple models for the translation of evidence into policy and practice have been articulated. Most are linear or cyclical and very few come close to reflecting the dense and intricate relationships, systems and politics of organizations and the processes required to enact sustainable improvements. We illustrate how using complexity and network concepts can better inform knowledge translation (KT) and argue that changing the way we think and talk about KT could enhance the creation and movement of knowledge throughout those systems needing to develop and utilise it...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel, Adrian Kay, Fran Baum, Lyndall Strazdins, Tamara Mackean
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? METHODS: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ozgur Haki Yuksel, Caglar Yildirim, Ahmet Urkmez, Nurver Ozbay, Fatih Uruc, Aytac Sahin, Serkan Akan, Ayhan Verit
OBJECTIVES: The most important treatment strategy for obstructive nephropathy is to protect renal tissue from the deleterious effects of fibrosis. Therefore, we sought to investigate the renoprotective effects of darbepoetin alfa on unilateral ureteral obstructions. METHODS: We used 12 female and 12 male 3-monthold Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 350 g. The rats were divided equally into sham, darbepoetin and control groups. With the exception of the sham group, left unilateral obstructions were applied to all of the rats...
March 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Philip A Huebner, Jon A Willits
Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary "deep learning" approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna Lartey, Janice Meerman, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni
BACKGROUND: The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Zhaowen Liu, Jie Zhang, Xiaohua Xie, Edmund T Rolls, Jiangzhou Sun, Kai Zhang, Zeyu Jiao, Qunlin Chen, Junying Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Jianfeng Feng
Creative thinking plays a vital role in almost all aspects of human life. However, little is known about the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying creative thinking. Based on a cross-validation based predictive framework, we searched from the whole-brain connectome (34,716 functional connectivities) and whole genome data (309,996 SNPs) in two datasets (all collected by Southwest University, Chongqing) consisting of altogether 236 subjects, for a better understanding of the brain and genetic underpinning of creativity...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Frank H Wilhelm
Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs...
March 5, 2018: Appetite
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