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Systems Thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149319/from-bouncing-back-to-nurturing-emergence-reframing-the-concept-of-resilience-in-health-systems-strengthening
#2
Edwine W Barasa, Keith Cloete, Lucy Gilson
Recent health system shocks such as the Ebola disease outbreak have focused global health attention on the notion of resilient health systems. In this commentary, we reflect on the current framing of the concept of resilience in health systems discourse and propose a reframing. Specifically, we propose that: (1) in addition to sudden shocks, health systems face the ongoing strain of multiple factors. Health systems need the capacity to continue to deliver services of good quality and respond effectively to wider health challenges...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141646/physical-activity-and-the-environment-conceptual-review-and-framework-for-intervention-research
#3
REVIEW
Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, Rick Prins, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. METHODS: We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141632/declining-amenable-mortality-a-reflection-of-health-care-systems
#4
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Maria Pia Fantini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
BACKGROUND: Some studies have analyzed the association of health care systems variables, such as health service resources or expenditures, with amenable mortality, but the association of types of health care systems with the decline of amenable mortality has yet to be studied. The present study examines whether specific health care system types are associated with different time trend declines in amenable mortality from 2000 to 2014 in 22 European OECD countries. METHODS: A time trend analysis was performed...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141618/what-do-australian-consumers-pharmacists-and-prescribers-think-about-documenting-indications-on-prescriptions-and-dispensed-medicines-labels-a-qualitative-study
#5
Mona Garada, Andrew J McLachlan, Gordon D Schiff, Elin C Lehnbom
BACKGROUND: Documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels is not standard practice in Australia. However, previous studies that have focused on the content and design of dispensed medicines labels, have suggested including the indication as a safety measure. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers on documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted and mock-up of dispensed medicines labels were designed for participants...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139496/exploring-the-science-of-thinking-independently-together-faraday-discussion-volume-204-complex-molecular-surfaces-and-interfaces-sheffield-uk-july-2017
#6
M Samperi, B E Hirsch, Y A Diaz Fernandez
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces brought together theoreticians and experimentalists from both physical and chemical backgrounds to discuss the relevant applied and fundamental research topics within the broader field of chemical surface analysis and characterization. Main discussion topics from the meeting included the importance of "disordered" two-dimensional (2D) molecular structures and the utility of kinetically trapped states. An emerging need for new experimental tools to address dynamics and kinetic pathways involved in self-assembled systems, as well as the future prospects and current limitations of in silico studies were also discussed...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136493/systems-thinking-and-simulation-modeling-to-inform-childhood-obesity-policy-and-practice
#7
Kenneth E Powell, Debra L Kibbe, Rachel Ferencik, Chris Soderquist, Mary Ann Phillips, Emily Anne Vall, Karen J Minyard
OBJECTIVES: In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. METHODS: In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131187/automatic-obscuration-elimination-for-off-axis-mirror-systems
#8
Chen Xu, Dewen Cheng, Yongtian Wang
The degree of automation in optical design has always been improving, and several human-competitive automatic lens design programs have been developed. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such work on off-axis systems has been reported, which we think is largely due to the complicated unfeasible conditions caused by obscuration. Here, we propose a model to detect and evaluate the degree of obscuration for off-axis mirror systems and also a method to automatically eliminate the obscuration by structural optimization...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124107/a-general-neurologist-s-perspective-on-the-urgent-need-to-apply-resilience-thinking-to-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Grazyna Pomorska, Judith K Ockene
The goal of this article was to look at the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the lens of a socioecological resilience-thinking framework to help expand our view of the prevention and treatment of AD. This serious and complex public health problem requires a holistic systems approach. We present the view that resilience thinking, a theoretical framework that offers multidisciplinary approaches in ecology and natural resource management to solve environmental problems, can be applied to the prevention and treatment of AD...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121628/achieving-health-equity-in-aotearoa-strengthening-responsiveness-to-m%C3%A4-ori-in-health-research
#10
Papaarangi Reid, Sarah-Jane Paine, Elana Curtis, Rhys Jones, Anneka Anderson, Esther Willing, Matire Harwood
Excellent health research is essential for good health outcomes, services and systems. Health research should also build towards equity and in doing so ensure that no one is left behind. As recipients of government funding, researchers are increasingly required to demonstrate an understanding of their delegated responsibilities to undertake research that has the potential to address Māori health needs and priorities. These requirements form the basis of responsiveness to Māori in health research, and several research institutions have implemented systems to support their organisational approach to this endeavour...
November 10, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120912/effects-of-a-system-thinking-based-simulation-program-for-congestive-heart-failure
#11
Hyeon-Young Kim, Eun Kyoung Yun
This study evaluated a system thinking-based simulation program for the care of patients with congestive heart failure. Participants were 67 undergraduate nursing students from a nursing college in Seoul, South Korea. The experimental group was given a 4-hour system-thinking program and a 2-hour simulation program, whereas the control group had a 4-hour case study and a 2-hour simulation program. There were significant improvements in critical thinking in both groups, but no significant group differences between educational methods (F = 3...
November 8, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#12
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120666/like-grandparents-like-parents-empirical-evidence-and-psychoanalytic-thinking-on-the-transmission-of-parenting-styles
#13
Pietro De Carli, Angela Tagini, Diego Sarracino, Alessandra Santona, Valentina Bonalda, Paola Elena Cesari, Laura Parolin
The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psychoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118735/divergent-thinking-in-parkinsonism-a-case-control-study
#14
Margherita Canesi, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Emanuele Cereda, Alessandra Ranghetti, Viviana Cereda, Federica Moroni, Gianni Pezzoli
Background: Creativity is a multidimensional phenomenon and an important component of human capacities. This ability is characterized by the involvement of several cognitive functions particularly linked to the prefrontal cortex. We compared divergent thinking, a measure of creativity, in patients affected by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), other parkinsonian syndromes, and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Creativity features were evaluated using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117509/heart-rate-variability-mediates-the-link-between-rumination-and-depressive-symptoms-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Luca Carnevali, Julian F Thayer, Jos F Brosschot, Cristina Ottaviani
Ruminative thinking about negative feelings has been prospectively associated with increases in depressive symptoms and heightened risk for new onsets of major depression. One putative pathophysiological mechanism underlying this link might be represented by autonomic nervous system dysfunction. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the interplay between rumination, autonomic function (as revealed by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis), and depressive symptoms in healthy young subjects, over a three-year period...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115995/developing-a-systems-based-framework-of-the-factors-influencing-dietary-and-physical-activity-behaviours-in-ethnic-minority-populations-living-in-europe-a-dedipac-study
#16
Michelle Holdsworth, Mary Nicolaou, Lars Jørun Langøien, Hibbah Araba Osei-Kwasi, Sebastien F M Chastin, F Marijn Stok, Laura Capranica, Nanna Lien, Laura Terragni, Pablo Monsivais, Mario Mazzocchi, Lea Maes, Gun Roos, Caroline Mejean, Katie Powell, Karien Stronks
BACKGROUND: Some ethnic minority populations have a higher risk of non-communicable diseases than the majority European population. Diet and physical activity behaviours contribute to this risk, shaped by a system of inter-related factors. This study mapped a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe, to inform research prioritisation and intervention development. METHODS: A concept mapping approach guided by systems thinking was used: i...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114864/the-multidimensional-politics-of-inequality-taking-stock-of-identity-politics-in-the-u-s-presidential-election-of-2016
#17
Leslie McCall, Ann Shola Orloff
Many Democrats hoped that a particular kind of identity politics - women's - would help Hillary Clinton win the White House. In the aftermath of the election, some commentators bemoaned the fact that a majority of white women had voted for Trump, and called it a kind of betrayal, underlining their expectation that women would naturally, on the basis of their gender identity, support a woman with women-friendly politics. Indeed, this kind of thinking about identity politics has been widespread with reference to a number of demographic groups...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114345/attitudes-towards-sub-domains-of-professionalism-in-medical-education-defining-social-accountability-in-the-globalizing-world
#18
David Ponka, Douglas Archibald, Jessica Ngan, Brendan Wong, Sharon Johnston
Background: Unmet health needs of populations around the world are a major contributor to lagging health outcomes globally. Medical professionals have a duty to address the health needs of their communities. In a globalizing world, the needs may seem limitless. Yet, most training involves immersion in one health system and its resources. How do practitioners reconcile this potentially limitless demand with their focused training and in understanding their duty to the populations they serve? Methods: A mixed-method design was used...
April 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113532/the-grounded-theory-of-trust-building
#19
Monir Ramezani, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Eesa Mohammadi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant)...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104368/community-recovery-following-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-toward-a-theory-of-cultural-resilience
#20
Hannah E Clarke, Brian Mayer
Culture plays an important role in communities' abilities to adapt to environmental change and crises. The emerging field of resilience thinking has made several efforts to better integrate social and cultural factors into the systems-level approach to understanding socialecological resilience. However, attempts to integrate culture into structural models often fail to account for the agentic processes that influence recovery at the individual and community levels, overshadowing the potential for agency and variation in community response...
2017: Society & Natural Resources
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