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Systems Thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445209/intelligence-and-interleukin-6-in-older-adults-the-role-of-repetitive-thought
#1
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Rebecca G Reed, April B Scott
OBJECTIVE: Higher IQ correlates with lower systemic inflammation, consistent with an association between lower IQ and disease risk. The present study examined the role of repetitive thought (RT) in the relationship between IQ and interleukin (IL)-6. RT is thinking attentively, repeatedly, and frequently about oneself and one's world and is characterized by Valence (positive-negative), Purpose (searching-solving), and Total quantity (much-little). METHODS: Estimated IQ and RT dimension scores were assessed at baseline in a sample of older adults (N=120, Mage=74 years), who thereafter had blood drawn up to 10 times semiannually (n=799)...
April 26, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444705/under-what-circumstances-should-stress-incontinence-surgery-be-performed-at-the-same-time-as-prolapse-surgery-ici-rs-2015
#2
REVIEW
Vik Khullar, Ralf Anding, Dudley Robinson, David Castro-Diaz, Roger Dmochowski, Linda Cardozo
AIMS: An International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS) Think Tank in 2015 discussed and evaluated the evidence of when stress incontinence surgery should be performed with prolapse surgery and highlighted evidence gaps, with the aim of recommending further clinical and research proposals. METHODS: A review of the literature assessing randomized studies where women with vaginal prolapse have been randomized to vaginal prolapse surgery with or without continence surgery were evaluated...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444042/regionalization-in-the-sus-implementation-process-challenges-and-perspectives-in-the-critical-view-of-system-managers
#3
Andre Luis Bonifácio de Carvalho, Washington Luiz Abreu de Jesus, Isabel Maria Vilas Boas Senra
This article examines the regionalization process in the Brazilian Health System, identifying frameworks and challenges of this process from critical dialogue on the subject, contextualized by the experience of the management system and in the light of an established theoretical debate in the last decade. We used the thematic content analysis of legal and documentary surveys of the regionalization process in SUS, collated by elements of the historical and political context in the period. As evidence, it appears that the regionalization process has been incremental decentralization/deconcentration of management and health actions and services...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442480/structure-function-relations-in-physiology-education-where-s-the-mechanism
#4
Matthew E Lira, Stephanie M Gardner
Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such as structure-function relations, selectively neglect mechanisms by not mentioning this term explicitly. We explored how students characterized mechanisms and functions to shed light on how students make sense of these terms...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439530/using-cognitive-training-studies-to-unravel-the-mechanisms-by-which-the-approximate-number-system-supports-symbolic-math-ability
#5
Stephanie Bugden, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
A picture is emerging that preverbal nonsymbolic numerical representations derived from the approximate number system (ANS) play an important role in mathematical development and sustained mathematical thinking. Functional imaging studies are revealing developmental trends in how the brain represents number. We propose that combining behavioral and neuroimaging techniques with cognitive training approaches will help identify the fundamental relationship between the ANS and symbolic mathematics. Understanding this relationship should ultimately benefit educators by providing ways to harness the ANS and hopefully improve math readiness in young children...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435455/the-netpet-score-combining-fdg-and-somatostatin-receptor-imaging-for-optimal-management-of-patients-with-metastatic-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
EDITORIAL
Elif Hindié
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are often metastatic at the time of diagnosis. Metastatic well-differentiated (G1/G2) NET may display a wide range of behaviors, ranging from indolent to aggressive, even within apparently homogeneous categories. Thus, selecting the optimal treatment strategy is a challenging task. Somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) is the standard molecular imaging technique for well-differentiated NET. When performed with (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs (SRI-PET), it offers exquisite sensitivity for disease staging...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430137/parent-partner-co-parent-or-partnership-the-need-for-clarity-as-family-systems-thinking-takes-hold-in-the-quest-to-motivate-behavioural-change
#7
Chris May, Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows
Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child's primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within current resources, using modalities such text messaging, web-based resources and apps that extend intervention to parents not in attendance at face to face interactions. However, published research is often unclear as to which parent/s they targeted or engaged with, whether interventions planned to influence behaviours and capabilities across family systems, and how this can be achieved...
April 21, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#8
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426520/nursing-practice-research-and-education-in-the-west-the-best-is-yet-to-come
#9
Heather M Young, Susan Bakewell-Sachs, Linda Sarna
PURPOSE: This paper celebrates the 60th anniversary of the Western Institute of Nursing, the nursing organization representing 13 states in the Western United States, and envisions a preferred future for nursing practice, research, and education. BACKGROUND: Three landmark calls to action contribute to transforming nursing and healthcare: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010; the Institute of Medicine report Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health; and the report Advancing Healthcare Transformation: A New Era for Academic Nursing...
April 20, 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426186/issue-at-the-heart-of-advancing-the-de-adoption-of-low-value-care-proceedings-from-an-expert-roundtable
#10
Janet Weiner, Rebecka Rosenquist
Identifying and paying for value has become a recurrent theme of health care reforms. Its corollary, reducing the prevalence of, and resources directed to, ineffective or marginally effective care, has received far less attention. In July 2016, the University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (LDI) convened a diverse set of national leaders and stakeholders representing industry, think-tanks, provider and patient groups, and academic experts to tackle how health systems, payers, and providers can spur the ‘de-adoption’ of medical practices and technologies no longer considered valuable...
April 2017: LDI Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422918/reassessing-the-cardiac-box-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-thoracic-gunshot-wounds-and-cardiac-injury
#11
Rashi Jhunjhunwala, Michael J Mina, Elizabeth I Roger, Christopher J Dente, Michael Heninger, Jacquelyn S Carr, Stacy D Dougherty, Rondi B Gelbard, Jeffrey M Nicholas, Amy D Wyrzykowski, David V Feliciano, Bryan C Morse
BACKGROUND: High energy missiles can cause cardiac injury regardless of entrance site. This study assesses the adequacy of the anatomic borders of the current "cardiac box" to predict cardiac injury. METHODS: Retrospective autopsy review was performed to identify patients with penetrating torso gunshot wounds 2011-2013. Using a circumferential grid system around the thorax, logistic regression analysis was performed to detect differences in rates of cardiac injury from entrance/exit wounds in the "cardiac box" vs...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422273/a-survey-of-women-s-awareness-of-and-reasons-for-lack-of-postfracture-osteoporotic-care
#12
Denise M Boudreau, Onchee Yu, Akhila Balasubramanian, Heidi Wirtz, Andreas Grauer, Daria B Crittenden, Delia Scholes
OBJECTIVES: To identify women's beliefs and other factors associated with lack of osteoporosis (OP) pharmacotherapy (OP-RX) during the 6 months after a fragility fracture, including the woman's perspective on fracture risk, OP, and treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Group Health Cooperative, a mixed-model delivery system. PARTICIPANTS: Female Group Health Cooperative enrollees aged 55 and older with an OP-related fracture according to diagnostic and procedure codes from January 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014 (N = 985)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419830/creative-cognition-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-integrative-review-and-research-agenda
#13
REVIEW
Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Simon van Gaal, Roshan Cools, Carsten K W De Dreu
Creative cognition is key to human functioning yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are sparsely addressed and poorly understood. Here we address the possibility that creative cognition is a function of dopaminergic modulation in fronto-striatal brain circuitries. It is proposed that (i) creative cognition benefits from both flexible and persistent processing, (ii) striatal dopamine and the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with flexible processing, while (iii) prefrontal dopamine and the integrity of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is associated with persistent processing...
April 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417080/applying-a-systems-approach-to-thyroid-physiology-looking-at-the-whole-with-a-mitochondrial-perspective-instead-of-judging-single-tsh-values-or-why-we-should-know-more-about-mitochondria-to-understand-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Roy Moncayo, Helga Moncayo
Classical thinking in endocrine physiology squeezes our diagnostic handling into a simple negative feedback mechanism with a controller and a controlled variable. In the case of the thyroid this is reduced to TSH and fT3 and fT4, respectively. The setting of this tight notion has no free space for any additions. In this paper we want to challenge this model of limited application by proposing a construct based on a systems approach departing from two basic considerations. In first place since the majority of cases of thyroid disease develop and appear during life it has to be considered as an acquired condition...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413687/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-1-borderline-personality-disorder-as-a-limitation-of-resilience
#15
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
This paper sets out a recent transition in our thinking in relation to psychopathology associated with personality disorder, in an approach that integrates our thinking about attachment, mentalizing (understanding ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states) and epistemic trust (openness to the reception of social communication that is personally relevant and of generalizable significance) with recent findings on the structure of both adult and child psychopathology and resilience. In this paper - the first of two parts - we review evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or p factor underlies vulnerability for psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411739/qualitative-ergonomics-human-factors-research-in-health-care-current-state-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Rupa Sheth Valdez, Kerry Margaret McGuire, A Joy Rivera
The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409064/value-based-health-care-delivery-preventive-medicine-and-the-medicalization-of-public-health
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Vilhelmsson
The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a 'value-based health care delivery'. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup...
March 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408379/-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-in-lean-women-metabolism-and-inflammation-as-critical-modifiers-of-risk
#18
EDITORIAL
Gerald V Denis, Julie R Palmer
Why is obesity only weakly associated with certain "obesity-driven" cancers? Recent population studies identify cohorts of high body mass index (BMI) subjects with unexpectedly reduced risk for breast and colon cancer, and normal BMI subjects with unexpectedly elevated risk for breast cancer, provoking hard thinking about cellular and molecular mechanisms that most strongly couple obesity to cancer occurrence or progression. Emerging work suggests that abnormal metabolism and its associated chronic inflammation make the difference...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407718/perspectives-on-tactile-intervention-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-framework-to-guide-clinical-reasoning-and-future-research
#19
Megan L Auld, Leanne M Johnston
PURPOSE: Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to experience tactile impairments. Research evaluating specific interventions to manage this is, however, minimal. This paper seeks to consolidate current literature and provide a framework to help clinicians and researchers think strategically about tactile treatment selection and future research planning. METHOD: The framework is described via a novel analogy - "The Apartment Block Theory". The theory describes the relative effectiveness of three intervention strategies aimed at overcoming a poorly responsive tactile system: (1) Pressing the buzzer - providing repeated passive tactile stimulation at the periphery; (2) Sneaking in the door - providing active tactile-enhanced motor training that capitalises on the opportunity to provide high-dose tactile input during motor interventions; and (3) Connecting another way - providing visually enhanced touch strategies with the aim of enhancing tactile function, which can be compared to phoning the apartment as an alternative to using the buzzer...
April 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406376/thinking-fast-increases-framing-effects-in-risky-decision-making
#20
Lisa Guo, Jennifer S Trueblood, Adele Diederich
Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli...
April 2017: Psychological Science
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