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Systems Thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#1
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#2
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528120/objective-evaluation-of-corneal-and-lens-clarity-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Kemal Tekin, Merve Inanc, Erdal Kurnaz, Elvan Bayramoglu, Emre Aydemir, Mustafa Koc, Zehra Aycan
PURPOSE: To investigate whether abnormal glucose metabolism and duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) affected the corneal and lens clarity in children with well-controlled Type 1 DM and to compare the results obtained with those in healthy children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. METHODS: This multicenter study enrolled 56 patients with DM and 51 control subjects. The duration of DM and the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of the patients in the DM group were recorded...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526927/sodium-thiosulphate-attenuates-brain-inflammation-induced-by-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-administration-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Gonzalo Acero, Miryam Nava Catorce, Ricardo González-Mendoza, Marco Antonio Meraz-Rodríguez, Luis Fernando Hernández-Zimbron, Roberto González-Salinas, Goar Gevorkian
It has been demonstrated that peripheral infections accompanied by neuroinflammation may modify brain development or affect normal brain aging and represent major risk factors for the development of neurological disorders. A wide range of synthetic and natural compounds with anti-inflammatory properties have been evaluated in animal models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. In the present study we have demonstrated for the first time that sodium thiosulphate (STS), a known antidote approved for treatment of certain medical conditions, is capable of reducing brain inflammation caused by systemic LPS administration...
May 19, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523211/survey-on-usage-of-medical-referral-information-in-japanese-physicians
#5
Hiroshi Watanabe, Michio Kimura, Kazuhiko Ohe
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this survey was to explore physicians' opinions to identify an adequate time range for clinical information to be provided with a referral that would help minimize wasteful retesting. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 193 physicians. Examining the degree of utilization of provided medical information, we determined the range of clinical information of referral documents. RESULTS: Less than three months of prescription history and blood sample test results in patient referral was most frequent...
April 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518006/cooling-effects-of-wearer-controlled-vaporization-for-extravehicular-activity
#6
Kunihiko Tanaka, Daiki Nagao, Kosuke Okada, Koji Nakamura
INTRODUCTION: The extravehicular activity suit currently used by the United States in space includes a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that controls thermal conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that self-perspiration for evaporative cooling (SPEC) garment effectively lowers skin temperature without raising humidity in the garment. However, the cooling effect is delayed until a sufficient dose of water permeates and evaporates. In the present study, we hypothesized that wearer-controlled vaporization improves the cooling effect...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517982/data-sharing-and-the-idea-of-ownership
#7
Jonathan Montgomery
Ideas about ownership are sometimes used in discussions of data sharing in personalised medicine. Personal health data are thought by many to be 'theirs'. Paradoxically, personalised medicine (at least in the context of genomics) relies on the aggregation of private data into a dataset that is held as a form of knowledge commons. When the notions of private and common property that lie behind this discourse are made explicit we can use thinking about the justifications and jurisprudence of property both to clarify the persuasiveness and limits of such claims, and also how they differ from other principles that are at stake in the interplay between individual and collective goods in the delivery of personalised medicine...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517949/cognitive-behavioral-treatments-for-criminogenic-thinking-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementation-within-the-veterans-health-administration
#8
Daniel M Blonigen, Allison L Rodriguez, Luisa Manfredi, Andrea Nevedal, Joel Rosenthal, James F McGuire, David Smelson, Christine Timko
Cognitive-behavioral treatments for criminogenic thinking (i.e., antisocial cognitions, attitudes, and traits) are regarded as best practices for reducing criminal recidivism among justice-involved adults. However, the barriers and facilitators to implementation of these treatments within large health care systems such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) are largely unknown. To address this gap, we conducted qualitative interviews with 22 Specialists from the VHA's Veterans Justice Programs who had been trained in a cognitive-behavioral treatment for criminogenic thinking (i...
May 18, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514909/what-can-action-learning-offer-a-beleaguered-system-a-narrative-representing-the-relationship
#9
James Traeger
Purpose This is an attempt to write an account of action learning that is as close to the ground on which it was practised as the author can make it. In that sense, the reader can read what follows below as a kind of autoethnography, a "representation as relationship" as Gergen and Gergen (2002, p. 11) call it. This is because in the opportunity of telling a story about his practice as an action learning facilitator, the author hopes to evoke that which is more akin to the contactful environment of quality action learning than any amount of abstract theorising...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514640/digital-disruption-syndromes
#10
Clair Sullivan, Andrew Staib
The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR)...
May 18, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511085/development-implementation-and-effects-of-an-integrated-web-based-teaching-model-in-a-nursing-ethics-course
#11
S-Y Chao, Y-C Chang, S C Yang, M J Clark
BACKGROUND: Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence...
April 19, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#12
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506152/a-participatory-systems-approach-to-design-for-safer-integrated-medicine-management
#13
Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Aneurin Canham, Ander Altuna-Palacios, James Ward, Ran Bhamra, Stephen Rogers, Amalin Dutt, Priyal Shah
It is recognised that whole systems approaches are required in the design and development of complex healthcare services. Application of a systems approach benefits from the involvement of key stakeholders. However, participation in the context of community based healthcare is particularly challenging due to busy and geographically distributed stakeholders. This study used action research to investigate what processes and methods were needed to successfully employ a participatory systems approach. Three participatory workshops planned and facilitated by method experts were held with 30 representative stakeholders...
May 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500984/the-need-for-academic-electronic-health-record-systems-in-nurse-education
#14
Joohyun Chung, Insook Cho
The nursing profession has been slow to incorporate information technology into formal nurse education and practice. The aim of this study was to identify the use of academic electronic health record systems in nurse education and to determine student and faculty perceptions of academic electronic health record systems in nurse education. A quantitative research design with supportive qualitative research was used to gather information on nursing students' perceptions and nursing faculty's perceptions of academic electronic health record systems in nurse education...
April 29, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499265/nanoagroparticles-emerging-trends-and-future-prospect-in-modern-agriculture-system
#15
REVIEW
Syed Baker, Tatiana Volova, Svetlana V Prudnikova, S Satish, Nagendra Prasad M N
Increment of technical knowledge has remarkably uplifted logical thinking among scientific communities to shape the theoretical concepts into near product-oriented research. The concept of nanotechnology has overwhelmed almost all forms of lives and has traded its applications in myriad fields. Despite rapid expansion of nanotechnology, sustainable competitions still do exist in the field of agriculture. In current scenario, agriculture is a manifestation demand to provide adequate nutrition for relentless growing global population...
April 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496502/the-effect-of-creative-tasks-on-electrocardiogram-using-linear-and-nonlinear-features-in-combination-with-classification-approaches
#16
Sahar Zakeri, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
Objective: Interest in the subject of creativity and its impacts on human life is growing extensively. However, only a few surveys pay attention to the relation between creativity and physiological changes. This paper presents a novel approach to distinguish between creativity states from electrocardiogram signals. Nineteen linear and nonlinear features of the cardiac signal were extracted to detect creativity states. Method: ECG signals of 52 participants were recorded while doing three tasks of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT/ figural B)...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496113/the-beneficial-role-of-mobility-for-the-emergence-of-innovation
#17
Giuliano Armano, Marco Alberto Javarone
Innovation is a key ingredient for the evolution of several systems, including social and biological ones. Focused investigations and lateral thinking may lead to innovation, as well as serendipity and other random discovery processes. Some individuals are talented at proposing innovation (say innovators), while others at deeply exploring proposed novelties, at getting further insights on a theory, or at developing products, services, and so on (say developers). This separation in terms of innovators and developers raises an issue of paramount importance: under which conditions a system is able to maintain innovators? According to a simple model, this work investigates the evolutionary dynamics that characterize the emergence of innovation...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495109/health-and-health-care-in-israel-an-introduction
#18
REVIEW
A Mark Clarfield, Orly Manor, Gabi Bin Nun, Shifra Shvarts, Zaher S Azzam, Arnon Afek, Fuad Basis, Avi Israeli
Starting well before Independence in 1948, and over the ensuing six decades, Israel has built a robust, relatively efficient public system of health care, resulting in good health statistics throughout the life course. Because of the initiative of people living under the British Mandate for Palestine (1922-48), the development of many of today's health services predated the state's establishment by several decades. An extensive array of high-quality services and technologies is available to all residents, largely free at point of service, via the promulgation of the 1994 National Health Insurance Law...
May 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493960/diagnostic-of-students-misconceptions-using-the-biological-concepts-instrument-bci-a-method-for-conducting-an-educational-needs-assessment
#19
Annie Champagne Queloz, Michael W Klymkowsky, Elsbeth Stern, Ernst Hafen, Katja Köhler
Concept inventories, constructed based on an analysis of students' thinking and their explanations of scientific situations, serve as diagnostics for identifying misconceptions and logical inconsistencies and provide data that can help direct curricular reforms. In the current project, we distributed the Biological Concepts Instrument (BCI) to 17-18-year-old students attending the highest track of the Swiss school system (Gymnasium). Students' performances on many questions related to evolution, genetics, molecular properties and functions were diverse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493429/trust-and-risk-a-model-for-medical-education
#20
Arvin Damodaran, Boaz Shulruf, Philip Jones
CONTEXT: Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust...
May 10, 2017: Medical Education
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