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Clinical governance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551805/mitochondria-damage-and-kidney-disease
#1
Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin
The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548543/systematic-review-of-clinical-guidance-documents-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnostic-assessment-in-select-regions
#2
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Lana Y Andoni, Wendy J Ungar
Clinical guidance documents play an important role in ensuring access to high-quality autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment practices. The objective was to perform a systematic review of professional association and government clinical guidance documents for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment, analyzing their quality and content. The government search was limited to English-speaking, single-payer, publicly funded health systems. A quality appraisal was conducted by two appraisers using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation, second edition tool...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548193/-therapeutic-potential-of-cannabis-sativa
#3
Marcia Avello L, Edgar Pastene N, Pola Fernández R, Pia Córdova M
Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546766/abcb1-genetic-variants-in-leukemias-current-insights-into-treatment-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Ravindran Ankathil
Despite improvements in treatment of different types of leukemia, not all patients respond optimally for a particular treatment. Some treatments will work better for some, while being harmful or ineffective for others. This is due to genetic variation in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect gene expression or function and cause inherited interindividual differences in the metabolism and disposition of drugs. Drug transporters are one of the determinants governing the pharmacokinetic profile of chemotherapeutic drugs...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546632/bonfire-of-the-verities
#5
P Batchelor
The emphasis on ensuring improved governance within the UK dental care system continues to rely on the identification of poorly performing individuals. Such an approach, while addressing certain political expediencies, fails to take into account both the wider system issues and the extensive literature on how to influence performance in a positive way. If sustainable improvements in the qualities of care are to occur, an acknowledgement of the system's shortcomings by the main parties must be made and where individual performance has fallen below that regarded as acceptable, the contribution of the delivery system in general needs to be noted...
May 26, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546050/shared-decision-making-in-argentina-in-2017
#6
Mariela Barani, Karin Kopitowski, Carolina Carrara, María Victoria Ruiz Yanzi
Argentina is a high-middle income country located in Southern South America with an estimated population of 44 million inhabitants. The epidemiological profile of the population is characterised by an increase of non-communicable diseases. The health system is heterogeneous, fragmented and loosely integrated. There are no unified research agenda or government initiatives encouraging the implementation of and research on Shared Decision-Making (SDM). Progress has been made lately to respect patient autonomy through the enactment of the 'Patients' Rights Act', which expressly enshrines the right of patients to get information as a key element of decision-making...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544498/cancer-metastasis-through-the-prism-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-circulating-tumor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Douglas S Micalizzi, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
Metastasis of epithelial cancer cells to distal sites is a particularly critical stage of cancer progression that typically marks the incurability of the disease. It is governed by a complex series of events including invasion and intravasation of tumor cells into the stroma and blood, respectively. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotypic change marked by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of invasive mesenchymal properties, is implicated in the dissemination of tumor cells...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543865/adapting-the-eating-disorder-examination-for-use-during-pregnancy-preliminary-results-from-a-community-sample-of-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#8
Rebecca L Emery, Jennifer L Grace, Rachel P Kolko, Michele D Levine
OBJECTIVE: The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is a structured clinical interview that is widely used for assessing disordered eating. Although the EDE has been used in pregnant women, no standard pregnancy version has been developed. Accordingly, the present study aimed to document adaptations made to a pregnancy version of the EDE (EDE-PV) and to describe the internal reliability of this adapted version. METHOD: Three major modifications were made in the development of the EDE-PV...
May 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542834/dentists-restorative-decision-making-and-implications-for-an-amalgamless-profession-part-5-knowledge-factors
#9
G Alexander, M S Hopcraft, M J Tyas, R H K Wong
BACKGROUND: A phase-down of amalgam in Australia is possible given the Australian Government intends to ratify the Minamata Convention. There is little research as to the influence of a dentist's knowledge on decision-making, which may be of use when determining the impact of any change. METHODS: An online survey relating to aspects of and attitudes to use of direct restorative materials was distributed to all dentists who were members of the Australian Dental Association or Members or Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons...
May 25, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539341/advances-afoot-in-microbiology
#10
Robin Patel, Brad S Karon
In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well-written. (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology, 2017, https://www...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538916/policies-for-fostering-health-science-technology-and-innovation-in-brazil-and-the-role-of-clinical-research
#11
Marge Tenório, Guilherme Arantes Mello, Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana
The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of underlying issues that may be useful for a comprehensive review of the management of Health-Related Science, Technology and Innovation policies (ST&I/H), and its strategies and priorities. It is an analytical study supported by an extensive review of the technical and journalistic literature, clippings, legislation and federal government directives. The results show that the Healthcare Production Complex undeniably and increasingly needs science to maintain itself...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538668/biomechanical-modeling-of-pterygium-radiation-surgery-a-retrospective-case-study
#12
Bojan Pajic, Daniel M Aebersold, Andreas Eggspuehler, Frederik R Theler, Harald P Studer
Pterygium is a vascularized, invasive transformation on the anterior corneal surface that can be treated by Strontium-/Yttrium90 beta irradiation. Finite element modeling was used to analyze the biomechanical effects governing the treatment, and to help understand clinically observed changes in corneal astigmatism. Results suggested that irradiation-induced pulling forces on the anterior corneal surface can cause astigmatism, as well as central corneal flattening. Finite element modeling of corneal biomechanics closely predicted the postoperative corneal surface (astigmatism error -0...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537688/prevalence-of-alcohol-and-other-drugs-in-injured-drivers-and-their-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#13
F Cittadini, N De Giovanni, L Caradonna, G Vetrugno, A Oliva, N Fucci, C Zuppi, V L Pascali, M Covino
OBJECTIVE: Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). This issue has become an increasing concern for the governments of many European and North American countries, thereby encouraging the adoption of preventive policies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between major clinical outcomes and alcohol or drug abuse among drivers involved in MVAs who were referred to an Italian Emergency Department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive injured drivers who were admitted to the Emergency Department following an MVA during a period of one year...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537055/diabetes-prevention-in-australia-10-years-results-and-experience
#14
REVIEW
James A Dunbar
Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lifestyle modification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus but it was achieved at higher cost than can be sustained in routine health services. The first clinical trial to report was the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. This paper describes how Australia worked with Finnish colleagues to adapt the findings of that study to achieve a statewide diabetes prevention program. Small evaluative, effectiveness trials have been conducted in a number of countries to see if the results of the clinical trials can be replicated in routine health services...
February 2, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536653/infant-feeding-counseling-and-knowledge-are-the-key-determinants-of-prelacteal-feeding-among-hiv-exposed-infants-attending-public-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#15
Melaku Kindie Yenit, Haregewoyn Genetu, Amare Tariku
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that breastfeeding promotes optimal health and growth for infants and young children, inappropriate feeding practice, such as prelacteal feeding increases the risk of neonatal death and illness and remains a public health problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of prelacteal feeding and associated factors among HIV positive mothers with children aged 7-20 months attending government hospitals in North Gondar zone, northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535898/treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-a-literature-based-algorithm-for-use-in-the-public-health-care-system
#16
Ellen Luz Pereira Caires, Mailze Campos Bezerra, Ana Flávia Torquato de Araújo Junqueira, Sheila Márcia de Araújo Fontenele, Silvana Cristina de Albuquerque Andrade, Catarina Brasil d'Alva
Bisphosphonates are considered first-line agents in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on extensive experience of use, safety, and proven efficacy in reducing vertebral, non-vertebral and femur fractures. However, post-marketing reports based on the treatment of millions of patients/year over lengthy periods of time have revealed the occurrence of initially unexpected adverse effects, such as osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture, leading to the restriction of treatment duration with bisphosphonates by global regulatory agencies...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535854/influenza-a-world-of-discoveries-outbreaks-and-controversy
#17
Wendy S Barclay
Working in an area such as influenza is a free ticket into science communication, a pathway aided amply by the amazing evolutionary powers of the virus; regular outbreaks keep the media engaged and the audience keen. Everyone has heard of flu, and they probably already have an opinion: 'I don't take the vaccine, it gives me the flu anyway.' 'Didn't the government waste loads of money on that Tamiflu drug that doesn't work?' 'I've never had flu because I eat a banana every day and sleep with a boiled onion when I've sat next to someone on the train who was coughing...
May 23, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533774/the-role-of-ifn-%C3%AE-during-the-course-of-sepsis-progression-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#18
REVIEW
Gorjana Rackov, Rahman Shokri, Melchor Álvarez De Mon, Carlos Martínez-A, Dimitrios Balomenos
Sepsis is a complex biphasic syndrome characterized by both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune states. Whereas early sepsis mortality is caused by an acute, deleterious pro-inflammatory response, the second sepsis phase is governed by acute immunosuppression, which predisposes patients to long-term risk for life-threatening secondary infections. Despite extensive basic research and clinical trials, there is to date no specific therapy for sepsis, and mortality rates are on the rise. Although IFN-β is one of the most-studied cytokines, its diverse effects are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532470/health-care-professionals-attitudes-towards-evidence-based-medicine-in-the-workers-compensation-setting-a-cohort-study
#19
Nieke A Elbers, Robin Chase, Ashley Craig, Lyn Guy, Ian A Harris, James W Middleton, Michael K Nicholas, Trudy Rebbeck, John Walsh, Simon Willcock, Keri Lockwood, Ian D Cameron
BACKGROUND: Problems may arise during the approval process of treatment after a compensable work injury, which include excess paperwork, delays in approving services, disputes, and allegations of over-servicing. This is perceived as undesirable for injured people, health care professionals and claims managers, and costly to the health care system, compensation system, workplaces and society. Introducing an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) decision tool in the workers' compensation system could provide a partial solution, by reducing uncertainty about effective treatment...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531309/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-bone-and-renal-health-in-young-adults-infected-with-hiv-in-early-life
#20
Aylin B Unsal, Aviva S Mattingly, Sara E Jones, Julia B Purdy, James C Reynolds, Jeffrey B Kopp, Rohan Hazra, Colleen M Hadigan
Context: HIV antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is associated with renal and bone toxicity, but little is known about the potential cumulative effects in adults exposed to ARVs from birth. Objective: To prospectively evaluate renal and bone health in young adults with lifelong HIV and extensive ARV exposure. Design: Cross-sectional comparison of bone mineral density (BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone turnover and renal function in young adults infected with HIV in early life (n=65) to matched healthy controls (n=23) and longitudinal evaluation (mean follow-up 4...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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