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Paleopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322158/archaeological-evidence-for-pott-s-disease-on-historical-populations-tomb-05-at-the-roman-circus-maqbara-as-an-example-of-social-solidarity-toledo-spain
#1
Arturo Ruiz-Taboada, Isabel Molero Rodrigo
World societies can often be characterized by their attitude towards elderly and illness. It is well known that most cultures were concerned about those who were not able to produce and take care of themselves. This brings to the development of social processes that involve such individuals within the community, resulting in groups who stick together, and at last, ensuring the survival of the group. The contextualization of many of those social processes might be studied through Physical Anthropology and Paleopathology...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300782/the-paradox-of-hbv-evolution-as-revealed-from-a-16th-century-mummy
#2
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen associated with large-scale morbidity and mortality in humans. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the time-scale of its origin and evolution. Initial shotgun data from a mid-16th century Italian child mummy, that was previously paleopathologically identified as having been infected with Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox), showed no DNA reads for VARV yet did for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously, electron microscopy provided evidence for the presence of VARV in this sample, although similar analyses conducted here did not reveal any VARV particles...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250112/early-human-migrations-ca-13-000-years-ago-or-postcontact-europeans-for-the-earliest-spread-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-mycobacterium-lepromatosis-to-the-americas
#3
REVIEW
Samuel Mark
For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235091/upward-displacement-of-the-odontoid-process-into-the-foramen-magnum-a-paleopathological-case
#4
Paola Saccheri, Enrico Crivellato, Francesco Toso, Luciana Travan
An upward displacement of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum was observed in the skeletal remains of a young male unearthed from a 14th-17th century cemetery in the north-eastern Italy. Examination of skull bone vestiges and CT-SCAN analysis of the axis exhibited a clear-cut contact zone between the odontoid process and the anterior border of the foramen magnum. In addition, the odontoid process appeared backward deviated. Findings suggest a possible diagnosis of basilar impression/invagination. This anomalous contact may cause compression of neural and vascular structures with a multifaceted series of clinical symptoms...
December 13, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198404/paleopathological-rigor-and-differential-diagnosis-case-studies-involving-terminology-description-and-diagnostic-frameworks-for-scurvy-in-skeletal-remains
#5
Haagen D Klaus
Diverse pathological processes can produce overlapping or even indistinguishable patterns of abnormal bone formation or destruction, representing a fundamental challenge in the understanding of ancient diseases. This paper discusses increasing rigor in differential diagnosis through the paleopathological study of scurvy. First, paleopathology's use of descriptive terminology can strive to more thoroughly incorporate international standards of anatomical terminology. Second, improved observation and description of abnormal skeletal features can help distinguish between anemia or vitamin C deficiency...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198403/improving-the-use-of-historical-written-sources-in-paleopathology
#6
Piers D Mitchell
The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198402/introduction-scientific-rigor-in-paleopathology
#7
Jane E Buikstra, Della C Cook, Katelyn L Bolhofner
This introductory chapter to the Special Issue on "Scientific Rigor in Paleopathology" serves to orient and introduce the chapters that follow through a detailed consideration of paleopathology as a 21st century intellectual field. In this vein, we first make the significant point that paleopathology is a profoundly interdisciplinary endeavor, encompassing aspects of the biomedical science, the humanities, and the social sciences. Thus, we suggest that no one practitioner can personally command the range of skills necessary for a 21st century paleopathologist...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083337/ethical-issues-in-paleopathological-and-anthropological-research-experiences
#8
Marta Licata, Francesca Monza
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In recent years, archaeologists and anthropologists involved in the study of human remains have had to take into consideration ethical issues, which have come to the fore. The aim of this study is to illustrate the ethical and religious issues involved in relation to the positions of researchers. METHOD: Ethical issues involve the different study phases of human remains: archaeological excavation, anthropological analysis and, finally, museum display...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023477/possible-cases-of-leprosy-from-the-late-copper-age-3780-3650-cal-bc-in-hungary
#9
Kitti Köhler, Antónia Marcsik, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biro, Tamás Szeniczey, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Tibor Marton, Helen D Donoghue, Tamás Hajdu
At the Abony-Turjányos dűlő site, located in Central Hungary, a rescue excavation was carried out. More than 400 features were excavated and dated to the Protoboleráz horizon, at the beginning of the Late Copper Age in the Carpathian Basin, between 3780-3650 cal BC. Besides the domestic and economic units, there were two special areas, with nine-nine pits that differed from the other archaeological features of the site. In the northern pit group seven pits contained human remains belonging to 48 individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940226/the-effect-of-leprotic-infection-on-the-risk-of-death-in-medieval-rural-denmark
#10
K Saige Kelmelis, Michael Holton Price, Jim Wood
INTRODUCTION: Paleopathological studies of leprosy in Danish skeletal collections show that many individuals suffered from this stigmatized disease during the Middle Ages. This study examines the risk of death associated with leprotic infection in individuals from the Danish rural cemetery of Øm Kloster (AD 1172-1536). Specifically, we modeled the influence of leprotic infection on age-specific mortality accounting also for sex and social status (lay person / monastic). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 311 adult individuals from the Øm Kloster skeletal collection housed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (ADBOU)...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888396/middle-and-late-holocene-micromammal-pathologies-from-cueva-tixi-tandilia-range-buenos-aires-province-argentina
#11
Leandro Luna, Claudia Aranda, Carlos Quintana
Paleopathology in bones of very small mammals has rarely been studied. Different types of osseous lesions of mammals weighing under 0.2kg, recovered from the Holocene strata of Cueva Tixi archaeological and paleontological site (Tandilia range, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), are described and discussed in this report. Several types of trauma, entheseal changes, degenerative joint diseases, and probable osteomyelitis were identified. The lesions were chronic, indicating that the animals were able to survive a period of convalescence, although in many cases the decreased capacity for locomotion likely was significant...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888394/three-cases-of-feet-and-hand-amputation-from-medieval-estremoz-portugal
#12
Teresa Fernandes, Marco Liberato, Carina Marques, Eugénia Cunha
Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888393/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-in-a-young-adult-male-from-berber-sudan-2nd-3rd-century-ce
#13
M Binder, M Saad
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a pathological condition characterised by extensive periosteal new bone formation (NBF) on the diaphyses of the long bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones. In modern clinical contexts, the secondary form of the disease is common and most often occurs secondary to intra-thoracic cancer and other forms of chronic pulmonary disease. Paleopathological evidence for HOA on the other hand has only occasionally been reported. Here we report a young adult male from the Meriotic cemetery at Berber in Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE) displaying widespread NBF on the diaphyses of the upper and lower limb bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as the pelvis and scapulae...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888388/a-case-of-concrescent-tooth-a-developmental-anomaly-in-a-19th-century-skull-from-uganda
#14
P Dąbrowski, D Nowakowski, A Gawlikowska-Sroka, I Maciuszczak, S Gronkiewicz
Dental abnormalities in archeological material such us concrescence or odontoma are rare cases often found accidentally, mostly during routine X-ray analysis or during macroscopic examination of the mastication apparatus. In this study, we present a rare case of concrescence between an upper left third molar and a supernumerary fourth molar in a 19th century skull from Uganda. Simultaneously, it is a critical revision of earlier studies on the same object (which considered this abnormality as an odontoma), using dental X-ray imaging and histological analysis...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888386/pediatric-chronic-osteomyelitis-in-the-outskirts-of-al-ushbuna-carnide-lisboa-portugal
#15
Ana Tavares, Calil Makhoul, Mário Monteiro, Francisco Curate
The skeletal remains of seven individuals (five non-adults and two adults) were recovered during an archeological intervention in the township of Carnide (Lisbon, Portugal). Funerary anthropology strongly suggests that the sample is from the Medieval Islamic period (8th - 12th centuries AD). This report presents a case of chronic osteomyelitis in a non-adult individual. The diagnostic is substantiated by the presence of pathognomonic signs of osteomyelitis, including the presence of cloacae and a sequestrum in the left tibia...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813480/paleogenetic-study-on-the-17th-century-korean-mummy-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Dong Hoon Shin, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Yusu Kim, Soong Deok Lee, Eunju Lee
While atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is known to be common among modern people exposed to various risk factors, recent paleopathological studies have shown that it affected ancient populations much more frequently than expected. In 2010, we investigated a 17th century Korean female mummy with presumptive ASCVD signs. Although the resulting report was a rare and invaluable conjecture on the disease status of an ancient East Asian population, the diagnosis had been based only on anatomical and radiological techniques, and so could not confirm the existence of ASCVD in the mummy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751941/did-king-philip-ii-of-ancient-macedonia-suffer-a-zygomatico-orbital-fracture-a-maxillofacial-surgeon-s-approach
#17
Panagiotis Stathopoulos
Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, succeeded his brother, Perdiccas III, to the throne of Macedonia in 360 BC. He has been described by historians as a generous king and military genius who managed to achieve his ambitious plans by expanding the Macedonian city-state over the whole Greek territory and the greater part of the Balkan Peninsula. The aim of our study was to present the evidence with regard to the facial injury of King Philip II of Macedonia and discuss the treatment of the wound by his famous physician, Critobulos...
September 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#18
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610786/a-brief-history-of-tuberculosis-in-the-czech-lands
#19
REVIEW
Lenka Vargová, Kateřina Vymazalová, Ladislava Horáčková
Tuberculosis currently remains a serious medical problem, therefore increased attention is being paid to this disease. Paleopathological studies focused on the monitoring of morbid changes in skeletal remains of historical populations facilitate a detailed study of the development of this disease. They provide direct evidence of the existence of tuberculosis and its past forms. In addition to literary and iconographic sources, the present study is focused on recording the findings of bone tuberculosis in historical osteological sets from the Czech Lands and is the starting point for their detailed review...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521910/life-not-death-epidemiology-from-skeletons
#20
George R Milner, Jesper L Boldsen
Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures that owe much to epidemiology. Of foremost importance is an emphasis on people, not skeletons. Transforming information gleaned from the dead, a biased sample of individuals who were once alive at each age, into a form that is informative about past life experiences has been a major challenge for bioarchaeologists, but recent work shows it can be done...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
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