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Marta Licata, Giuseppe Armocida, Marco Broggini, Melania Borgo
The aim of this study was to investigate the degenerative markers at the spine in adult skeletons recovered from archaeological sites. The results of this study may allow us to make inferences about the etiology of the degenerative pathology, physical activity levels and life style in the community. The relevance of this research is that it constitutes a reliable data base to compare with future investigations.
September 18, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Valentina Giuffra, Simona Minozzi, Angelica Vitiello, Antonio Fornaciari
OBJECTIVES: Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group...
September 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anna Rohnbogner, Mary Elizabeth Lewis
OBJECTIVES: The current understanding of child morbidity in Roman England is dominated by studies of single sites/regions. Much of the data are derived from third to fifth century AD Poundbury Camp, Dorchester, Dorset, considered an unusual site due to high levels of non-adult morbidity. There is little understanding of children in rural areas, and whether Poundbury Camp was representative of Romano-British childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study provides the first large scale analysis of child health in urban and rural Roman England, adding to the previously published intra-site analysis of non-adult paleopathology at Poundbury Camp...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
A Gawlikowska-Sroka, J Szczurowski, B Kwiatkowska, P Konczewski, E Dzieciołowska-Baran, M Donotek, A Walecka, D Nowakowski
Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century...
September 11, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kamyar Ghabili, Jeffrey J Tosoian, Edward M Schaeffer, Christian P Pavlovich, Samad E J Golzari, Ghazal Khajir, Darian Andreas, Benjamin Benzon, Milena Vuica-Ross, Ashley E Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Urology
Alexander N Gabrovsky, Kelsey D O'Neill, Enrique Gerszten
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as the world's leading cause of death in the last century. An epidemiological focus of this disease that extends not only beyond the developed world but also far back into antiquity asks new questions about associated risk factors. Ancient mummies found in the Atacama desert are well preserved and show signs of cardiovascular disease as early as 1000B.C. in Peru and Chile. METHOD AND RESULTS: Gross and histopathological examination of specimens shows atherosclerosis, cardiomegaly, endocarditis, and myocardial fibrosis...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Nadia Benmoussa, Jennifer Kerner, Patrice Josset, Patrick Conan, Philippe Charlier
Joseph Gensoul was a pioneer of ENT surgery. In 1827, he performed the first total maxillectomy on 17-year-old boy. His work inspired many surgeons, who were previously unwilling to remove maxillary tumours. A paleopathological study performed in the Dupuytren museum allowed us to identify a skull from the early 19th century, with a large maxillar tumour. There were indications that this skull was operated according to Gensoul's technique. The aim of this study is to confirm that this patient had, in fact, received this surgical treatment...
July 4, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Pierre L Thillaud
Although its title is not vey clear, René Larger's book, Théorie de la Contre-évolution, published in 1917, is a major contribution to paleopathology, and pathocoenosis, a concept coined by M. D. Grmek in 1969 ; it offers a good occasion to have a new look on Lamarck's and Darwin's theories.
January 2016: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
Alexandra Boucherie, Dominique Castex, Caroline Polet, Sacha Kacki
OBJECTIVES: Harris lines (HLs) are defined as transverse, mineralized lines associated with temporary growth arrest. In paleopathology, HLs are used to reconstruct health status of past populations. However, their etiology is still obscure. The aim of this article is to test the reliability of HLs as an arrested growth marker by investigating their incidence on human metrical parameters. METHODS: The study was performed on 69 individuals (28 adults, 41 subadults) from the Dendermonde plague cemetery (Belgium, 16th century)...
June 24, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Michel Drancourt
The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Gunita Zariņa, Sabrina B Sholts, Alina Tichinin, Vita Rudovica, Arturs Vīksna, Austra Engīzere, Vitolds Muižnieks, Eric J Bartelink, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) in subadult skeletons from a 17(th) to 18(th) century cemetery in the historic town of Jēkabpils, Latvia...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Péter Zádori, Gábor Bajzik, Gergely Biró, Zsuzsanna Lelovics, Timea Balassa, Zsolt Bernert, Sándor Evinger, Hajdu Tamás, Antónia Marcsik, Erika Molnar, Brigitta Osz, György Pálfi, Katalin Wolff, Imre Repa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Introducing the multidisciplinary paleoradiology research at the Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology of the Kaposvár University, highlighting the cases with potential central nervous system involvement--from the scanning methods to the 3D printing--in order to draw attention to the historical background and clinical aspects of certain pathological conditions. METHODS: The authors developed the examination protocols for three different CT scanners...
March 30, 2016: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Kelsey D O''Neill, James Scott Banning, Woon N Chow, Enrique Gerszten
This study analyzed 19 naturally mummified pre-Columbian individuals excavated from desert regions of southern Peru and northern Chile. In the majority of autopsies of mummies, the spleen cannot be identified due to rapid autolysis and decomposition; therefore, our aim was to identify, in the cases in which the spleen was found, any normal and abnormal structures from mummified spleen tissues. The research consisted of gross and microscopic examinations of the spleen. Pathological features were identified, but no evidence of specific diseases was determined...
2016: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
B P Hedrick, C Gao, A R Tumarkin-Deratzian, C Shen, J L Holloway, F Zhang, K D Hankenson, S Liu, J Anné, P Dodson
We describe a Psittacosaurus specimen from the Lujiatun beds of the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, China with an abnormality on its left fibula. Although a large number of Psittacosaurus specimens are known, only a single example of a pathologic Psittacosaurus has been previously noted. The specific pathology in the current specimen is believed to be a healed fibular fracture as assessed through a combination of gross morphology, microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histology data. The fracture can be identified using microCT, but the degree of remodeling and the stage of fracture repair are best determined histologically...
July 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Rachel L V Holgate, Maryna Steyn
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease primarily affecting the spine. However, it is also associated with the ossification/calcification of tendon, ligament, and capsule insertions (entheses) occurring at multiple peripheral sites. The etiology of the condition is unknown, as the name suggests (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), although some correlations with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and age have been noted. Clinical diagnostic criteria have been adapted for paleopathological assessment of archeological skeletal remains, revealing some interesting patterns between monastic and lay populations; showing a higher incidence of DISH among individuals buried in monastic cemeteries...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Giulio Giovannetti, Andrea Guerrini, Piero A Salvadori
Computed tomography (CT) has long been used for investigating palaeontological specimens, as it is a nondestructive technique which avoids the need to dissolve or ionize the fossil sample. However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently gained ground as analytical tools for examination of palaeontological samples, by nondestructively providing information about the structure and composition of fossils. While MRI techniques are able to reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the trace fossil, MRS can provide information on the chemical composition of the samples...
July 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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