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Paleopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773338/taking-stock-a-systematic-review-of-archaeological-evidence-of-cancers-in-human-and-early-hominin-remains
#1
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724408/childhood-health-as-reflected-in-adult-urban-and-rural-samples-from-medieval-denmark
#2
C Primeau, P Homøe, N Lynnerup
This study examines the evidence of three skeletal markers relating to childhood health that leave permanent observable changes in the adult skeleton. Two are well known to paleopathology, namely Harris lines (HL) and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). The third skeletal marker is less commonly used; the permanent changes in the temporal bones, induced by chronic or recurrent infectious middle ear disease (IMED) in childhood. A total of 291 adult skeletons from an urban (n = 109) and a rural (n = 182) cemetery, from the Danish medieval period (1050-1536 CE) were included...
March 27, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672561/rich-table-but-short-life-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-in-danish-astronomer-tycho-brahe-1546-1601-and-its-possible-consequences
#3
Sacha Kacki, Petr Velemínský, Niels Lynnerup, Sylva Kaupová, Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Ctibor Povýšil, Martin Horák, Jan Kučera, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Jaroslav Podliska, Zdeněk Dragoun, Jiří Smolík, Jens Vellev, Jaroslav Brůžek
The exhumation of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was performed in 2010 to verify speculative views on the cause of his death. Previous analyses of skeletal and hair remains recovered from his grave refuted the presumption that he died from poisoning. These studies also outlined the possibility that he actually died from an acute illness, echoing the rather vague and inaccurate testimony of some historical records. We performed a detailed paleopathological analysis of Tycho Brahe's skeletal remains, along with a reconstruction of his diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis and an estimate of his physical status (relative body fat) based on medullar and cortical dimensions of the femoral shaft...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655998/four-possible-cases-of-osteomalacia-the-value-of-a-multidisciplinary-diagnostic-approach
#4
A E van der Merwe, B Veselka, H A van Veen, R R van Rijn, K L Colman, H H de Boer
Rickets and residual rickets are often encountered in Dutch archeological skeletal samples. However, no archeological Dutch paleopathological case of adult osteomalacia has been described in literature to date. This paper describes the first four archeological Dutch paleopathological cases of osteomalacia and assesses the value of the various modalities (macroscopic assessment, radiology and histology) that may be used for diagnosis. The skeletal remains investigated originate from the Meerenberg psychiatric hospital cemetery in Bloemendaal, the Netherlands, and date from 1891 - 1936...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609050/poisoning-histories-in-the-italian-renaissance-the-case-of-pico-della-mirandola-and-angelo-poliziano
#5
Gianni Gallello, Elisabetta Cilli, Fulvio Bartoli, Massimo Andretta, Lucio Calcagnile, Agustin Pastor, Miguel de la Guardia, Patrizia Serventi, Alberto Marino, Stefano Benazzi, Giorgio Gruppioni
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574849/a-century-of-paleopathology
#6
EDITORIAL
Anne L Grauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544621/la-ferrassie-1-new-perspectives-on-a-classic-neandertal
#7
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522533/quantitative-evaluation-of-maxillary-bone-deformation-by-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-leprosy
#8
Norio Kasai, Osamu Kondo, Koichi Suzuki, Yoshinori Aoki, Norihisa Ishii, Masamichi Goto
BACKGROUND: Facial deformation as a sequela of leprosy is caused not only by a saddle nose but also by regression of the maxilla, as well documented in paleopathological observations of excavated skeletal remains of patients with leprosy. However, maxillary changes in living patients have been evaluated only by the subjective visual grading. Here, we attempted to evaluate maxillary bone deformation in patients with leprosy using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). METHODS: Three-dimensional images centered on the maxilla were reconstructed using multiplanar reconstruction methods in former patients with leprosy (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 5); the anterior-posterior length of the maxilla (MA-P) was then measured...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496223/a-truncated-temporal-styloid-process-from-the-jordanian-ottoman-period-developmental-variant-or-fracture
#9
Margaret A Judd
Styloid process (SP) development and its role in an individual's lived experience plays a negligible role in paleopathological research, although a handful of possible Eagle's syndrome cases have been reported. Here, the development of the stylohyoid chain and the medical research of SP variants are reviewed to inform the differential diagnosis of a probable SP fracture in a young adult male associated with the Ottoman Period (13-19thC) in Jordan. The fracture surface of the right SP is smooth rather than irregular, the coloration is uniform with the surrounding cortical bone staining, and no new bone formation is visible...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496221/a-case-of-enchondroma-from-carolingian-necropolis-of-st-pere-de-terrassa-spain-an-insight-into-the-archaeological-record
#10
Hannah K M McGlynn, Miriam Montanes-Gonzalvo, Assumpció Malgosa, Giampaolo Piga, Albert Isidro
Enchondromas occur with an estimated modern incidence rate of 27.7% of benign bone tumors (Hauben and Hogendoorn, 2010), but few are represented in the paleopathological record. The medieval site of St. Pere in Spain has produced a convincing case. The diagnosis was confirmed by X-Ray, CT-scan and μ-CT scan. Therefore UF 755 from St. Pere - a male of more than 60 years old - can be confirmed as a femoral case of enchondroma, supported by evidence, in the paleopathological record.
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496217/paleopathological-evidence-of-paranasal-lesions-two-cases-of-frontal-sinus-osteomata-from-imperial-rome
#11
Giulia Riccomi, Simona Minozzi, Walter Pantano, Paola Catalano, Giacomo Aringhieri, Valentina Giuffra
The archaeological excavations carried out in 1999 in the Collatina necropolis of the Roman Imperial Age (1st-3rd centuries AD) (Rome, Italy) discovered the skeletal remains of two adult males with evidence of paranasal lesions. Both individuals showed postmortem damage in the frontal bone, through which it was possible to macroscopically detect an oblong new bone formation. In both specimens, radiological examination of the defects' morphology showed new pediculated-based bone formations. Radiology also confirmed the presence of benign osseous masses arising from the right frontal sinus and interpreted as osteomata...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496212/horse-riding-accidents-and-injuries-in-historical-records-of-joseon-dynasty-korea
#12
Ho Chul Ki, Eun-Kyoung Shin, Eun Jin Woo, Eunju Lee, Jong Ha Hong, Dong Hoon Shin
Only a few osteological reports describe bone injuries thought to have been caused by falls from horses. Nevertheless, anthropological study alone is insufficient for establishing the correlates of such equestrian accidents. We therefore reviewed the records in Seungjeongwon ilgi (Diaries of the Royal Secretariat) and Joseon wangjo silrok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty) of the Korea's Joseon period (1392-1910 CE). Although the mechanisms of trauma were diverse, the Joseon documents recorded many injuries caused by horse-riding accidents...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496208/developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-in-female-adult-individual-site-tres-cruces-i-salta-argentina-superior-formative-period-400-1000-ad
#13
Marcos Plischuk, María Eugenia De Feo, Bárbara Desántolo
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a developmental defect that prevents normal articulation between the acetabulum and the femoral head. This is an unusual condition, with a prevalence of 1-2 per thousand, and with only two poorly described skeletons documented in South American paleopathological literature. In this work we report an individual with such a condition, from the archeological site Tres Cruces I (Quebrada del Toro, Salta, Argentina). Several radiocarbon dates and associated materials date it to the Superior Formative (400-1000 AD)...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461958/gout-in-duke-federico-of-montefeltro-1422-1482-a-new-pearl-of-the-italian-renaissance
#14
Antonio Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Emanuele Armocida, Davide Caramella, Frank J Rühli, Francesco Maria Galassi
The article examines the truthfulness of historical accounts claiming that Renaissance Duke Federico of Montefeltro (1422-1482) suffered from gout. By direct paleopathological assessment of the skeletal remains and by the philological investigation of historical and documental sources, primarily a 1461 handwritten letter by the Duke himself to his personal physician, a description of the symptoms and Renaissance therapy is offered and a final diagnosis of gout is formulated. The Duke's handwritten letter offers a rare testimony of ancient clinical self-diagnostics and Renaissance living-experience of gout...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322158/archaeological-evidence-for-pott-s-disease-on-historical-populations-tomb-05-at-the-roman-circus-maqbara-as-an-example-of-social-solidarity-toledo-spain
#15
Arturo Ruiz-Taboada, Isabel Molero Rodrigo
World societies can often be characterized by their attitude towards elderly and illness. It is well known that most cultures were concerned about those who were not able to produce and take care of themselves. This brings to the development of social processes that involve such individuals within the community, resulting in groups who stick together, and at last, ensuring the survival of the group. The contextualization of many of those social processes might be studied through Physical Anthropology and Paleopathology...
February 1, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300782/the-paradox-of-hbv-evolution-as-revealed-from-a-16th-century-mummy
#16
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen associated with large-scale morbidity and mortality in humans. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the time-scale of its origin and evolution. Initial shotgun data from a mid-16th century Italian child mummy, that was previously paleopathologically identified as having been infected with Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox), showed no DNA reads for VARV yet did for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously, electron microscopy provided evidence for the presence of VARV in this sample, although similar analyses conducted here did not reveal any VARV particles...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250112/early-human-migrations-ca-13-000-years-ago-or-postcontact-europeans-for-the-earliest-spread-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-mycobacterium-lepromatosis-to-the-americas
#17
REVIEW
Samuel Mark
For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235091/upward-displacement-of-the-odontoid-process-into-the-foramen-magnum-a-paleopathological-case
#18
Paola Saccheri, Enrico Crivellato, Francesco Toso, Luciana Travan
An upward displacement of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum was observed in the skeletal remains of a young male unearthed from a 14th-17th century cemetery in the north-eastern Italy. Examination of skull bone vestiges and CT-SCAN analysis of the axis exhibited a clear-cut contact zone between the odontoid process and the anterior border of the foramen magnum. In addition, the odontoid process appeared backward deviated. Findings suggest a possible diagnosis of basilar impression/invagination. This anomalous contact may cause compression of neural and vascular structures with a multifaceted series of clinical symptoms...
December 13, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198404/paleopathological-rigor-and-differential-diagnosis-case-studies-involving-terminology-description-and-diagnostic-frameworks-for-scurvy-in-skeletal-remains
#19
Haagen D Klaus
Diverse pathological processes can produce overlapping or even indistinguishable patterns of abnormal bone formation or destruction, representing a fundamental challenge in the understanding of ancient diseases. This paper discusses increasing rigor in differential diagnosis through the paleopathological study of scurvy. First, paleopathology's use of descriptive terminology can strive to more thoroughly incorporate international standards of anatomical terminology. Second, improved observation and description of abnormal skeletal features can help distinguish between anemia or vitamin C deficiency...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198403/improving-the-use-of-historical-written-sources-in-paleopathology
#20
Piers D Mitchell
The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
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