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Paleopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888396/middle-and-late-holocene-micromammal-pathologies-from-cueva-tixi-tandilia-range-buenos-aires-province-argentina
#1
Leandro Luna, Claudia Aranda, Carlos Quintana
Paleopathology in bones of very small mammals has rarely been studied. Different types of osseous lesions of mammals weighing under 0.2kg, recovered from the Holocene strata of Cueva Tixi archaeological and paleontological site (Tandilia range, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), are described and discussed in this report. Several types of trauma, entheseal changes, degenerative joint diseases, and probable osteomyelitis were identified. The lesions were chronic, indicating that the animals were able to survive a period of convalescence, although in many cases the decreased capacity for locomotion likely was significant...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888394/three-cases-of-feet-and-hand-amputation-from-medieval-estremoz-portugal
#2
Teresa Fernandes, Marco Liberato, Carina Marques, Eugénia Cunha
Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888393/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-in-a-young-adult-male-from-berber-sudan-2nd-3rd-century-ce
#3
M Binder, M Saad
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a pathological condition characterised by extensive periosteal new bone formation (NBF) on the diaphyses of the long bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones. In modern clinical contexts, the secondary form of the disease is common and most often occurs secondary to intra-thoracic cancer and other forms of chronic pulmonary disease. Paleopathological evidence for HOA on the other hand has only occasionally been reported. Here we report a young adult male from the Meriotic cemetery at Berber in Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE) displaying widespread NBF on the diaphyses of the upper and lower limb bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as the pelvis and scapulae...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888388/a-case-of-concrescent-tooth-a-developmental-anomaly-in-a-19th-century-skull-from-uganda
#4
P Dąbrowski, D Nowakowski, A Gawlikowska-Sroka, I Maciuszczak, S Gronkiewicz
Dental abnormalities in archeological material such us concrescence or odontoma are rare cases often found accidentally, mostly during routine X-ray analysis or during macroscopic examination of the mastication apparatus. In this study, we present a rare case of concrescence between an upper left third molar and a supernumerary fourth molar in a 19th century skull from Uganda. Simultaneously, it is a critical revision of earlier studies on the same object (which considered this abnormality as an odontoma), using dental X-ray imaging and histological analysis...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888386/pediatric-chronic-osteomyelitis-in-the-outskirts-of-al-ushbuna-carnide-lisboa-portugal
#5
Ana Tavares, Calil Makhoul, Mário Monteiro, Francisco Curate
The skeletal remains of seven individuals (five non-adults and two adults) were recovered during an archeological intervention in the township of Carnide (Lisbon, Portugal). Funerary anthropology strongly suggests that the sample is from the Medieval Islamic period (8th - 12th centuries AD). This report presents a case of chronic osteomyelitis in a non-adult individual. The diagnostic is substantiated by the presence of pathognomonic signs of osteomyelitis, including the presence of cloacae and a sequestrum in the left tibia...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813480/paleogenetic-study-on-the-17th-century-korean-mummy-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Dong Hoon Shin, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Yusu Kim, Soong Deok Lee, Eunju Lee
While atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is known to be common among modern people exposed to various risk factors, recent paleopathological studies have shown that it affected ancient populations much more frequently than expected. In 2010, we investigated a 17th century Korean female mummy with presumptive ASCVD signs. Although the resulting report was a rare and invaluable conjecture on the disease status of an ancient East Asian population, the diagnosis had been based only on anatomical and radiological techniques, and so could not confirm the existence of ASCVD in the mummy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751941/did-king-philip-ii-of-ancient-macedonia-suffer-a-zygomatico-orbital-fracture-a-maxillofacial-surgeon-s-approach
#7
Panagiotis Stathopoulos
Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, succeeded his brother, Perdiccas III, to the throne of Macedonia in 360 BC. He has been described by historians as a generous king and military genius who managed to achieve his ambitious plans by expanding the Macedonian city-state over the whole Greek territory and the greater part of the Balkan Peninsula. The aim of our study was to present the evidence with regard to the facial injury of King Philip II of Macedonia and discuss the treatment of the wound by his famous physician, Critobulos...
September 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#8
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610786/a-brief-history-of-tuberculosis-in-the-czech-lands
#9
REVIEW
Lenka Vargová, Kateřina Vymazalová, Ladislava Horáčková
Tuberculosis currently remains a serious medical problem, therefore increased attention is being paid to this disease. Paleopathological studies focused on the monitoring of morbid changes in skeletal remains of historical populations facilitate a detailed study of the development of this disease. They provide direct evidence of the existence of tuberculosis and its past forms. In addition to literary and iconographic sources, the present study is focused on recording the findings of bone tuberculosis in historical osteological sets from the Czech Lands and is the starting point for their detailed review...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521910/life-not-death-epidemiology-from-skeletons
#10
George R Milner, Jesper L Boldsen
Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures that owe much to epidemiology. Of foremost importance is an emphasis on people, not skeletons. Transforming information gleaned from the dead, a biased sample of individuals who were once alive at each age, into a form that is informative about past life experiences has been a major challenge for bioarchaeologists, but recent work shows it can be done...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521908/differentiating-between-rhinosinusitis-and-mastoiditis-surgery-from-postmortem-medical-training-a-study-of-two-identified-skulls-and-hospital-records-from-early-20th-century-coimbra-portugal
#11
Bruno M Magalhães, Célia Lopes, Ana Luísa Santos
Differentiating between medical procedures performed antemortem, perimortem or postmortem in skeletal remains can be a major challenge. This work aims to present evidence of procedures to treat rhinosinusitis (RS) and mastoiditis, suggest criteria for the diagnosis of frontal sinus disease, and frame the individuals described in their medical historical context. In the International Exchange collection, the skull (878) of a 24-year-old male, who died in 1933 due to frontal sinusitis and meningitis, presents evidence of a trepanation above the right frontonasal suture, and micro/macroporosity on the superciliary arches...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521907/chronic-diseases-in-cats-from-the-medieval-site-of-qalh%C3%A3-t-oman
#12
Hervé Monchot, Claude Guintard
Paleopathological information observed in cats (Felis catus, L. 1758) is rarely described in zooarcheological assemblages. This article is intended to present different bone diseases (infections, degenerative and traumatic lesions) affecting several bones (i.e. femur, hip bone, skull, etc.) of at least two cats from the medieval harbor site of Qalhât (Oman) and to inform us about the health status of these felines.
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388022/a-history-of-caries-in-the-middle-ages-characteristics-and-cultural-profiles
#13
Delphine Carayon, Anne-Marie Grimond, Richard Donat, Aymat Catafau, Eric Crubezy, Remi Eclassan
In paleopathology, since the mid-1960s, caries and its characteristics have been studied on medieval teeth by many different teams in Europe, particularly in relation to the dietary and cultural habits of the populations concerned. The aims of this article are to propose a global study of caries within European medieval populations through various parameters such as prevalence, distribution, location, gender, and diet.
July 2016: Journal of the History of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375425/ct-osteoabsorptiometry-ct-oam-a-new-investigation-technique-in-the-field-of-mummy-research
#14
Anna Christina Hirsch, Gerhard Hotz, Wilfried Rosendahl, Valentin Zumstein, Frank J Rühli, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl
Introduction: The scientific study of mummies provides an insight into the life of past populations. Using CT-Osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM), a noninvasive technique based on conventional CT-data sets, it is possible to visualize the mineral density distribution in the subchondral bone plate, representing the long-term loading conditions of the articulation surface. The objective of the current study was to investigate the applicability of CT-OAM on mummies for the load analysis of joints as a new investigation technique in the field of mummy research...
April 4, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290308/osteochondral-lesions-and-partial-fractures-of-the-talus-in-paleopathology
#15
REVIEW
Yves Darton, Véronique Gallien, Élise Henrion, Mathias Dupuis, Isabelle Richard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290307/a-probable-case-of-legg-calv%C3%A3-perthes-disease-in-warring-states-era-china
#16
Elizabeth Berger, Liang Chen, Zhouyong Sun, Zhanwei Sun
Reports of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) in the paleopathological literature are rare. Here, the authors present a probable case of LCPD, which presents as abnormal morphology of the proximal femur. The condition was observed in an individual of the Warring States period in Shaanxi Province, China, and the morphology involves a "mushroom head" deformity of the proximal right femur and an enlarged acetabulum, along with a contralateral tibia, talus, and navicular that are enlarged and demonstrate periosteal new bone formation...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966111/concha-bullosa-in-paleoanthropological-material
#17
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, J Szczurowski, B Kwiatkowska, P Konczewski, E Dzieciołowska-Baran, M Donotek, A Walecka, D Nowakowski
Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940070/on-the-antiquity-of-legg-calv%C3%A3-perthes-disease-skeletal-evidence-in-iron-age-italy
#18
V S Manzon, Z Ferrante, M Giganti, E Gualdi-Russo
Legg-Calvé-Perthes is a very rare disease involving childhood osteochondrosis of the femoral head due to interruption of its blood supply. The etiology is unknown. The signs of the pathology are well described in the literature but few paleopathological cases have been reported, mostly dating from Late Antiquity to Early Middle Ages. Here we report on morphometric and radiological analyses of a skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy, 6th-3rd century BCE), to our knowledge the most ancient case of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease published thus far...
January 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915106/insights-gained-from-ancient-biomolecules-into-past-and-present-tuberculosis-a-personal-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Helen D Donoghue
Ancient and historical tuberculosis (TB) can be recognized by its typical paleopathology in human remains. Using paleomicrobiology, it is possible to detect many more individuals infected with TB but with no visible lesions. Due to advances in molecular analysis over the past two decades, it is clear that TB was widespread in humans from the Neolithic period and has remained so until the present day. Past human populations were associated with different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, thereby elucidating early human migrations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902731/queen-nefertari-the-royal-spouse-of-pharaoh-ramses-ii-a-multidisciplinary-investigation-of-the-mummified-remains-found-in-her-tomb-qv66
#20
Michael E Habicht, Raffaella Bianucci, Stephen A Buckley, Joann Fletcher, Abigail S Bouwman, Lena M Öhrström, Roger Seiler, Francesco M Galassi, Irka Hajdas, Eleni Vassilika, Thomas Böni, Maciej Henneberg, Frank J Rühli
Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated...
2016: PloS One
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