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Paleopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915106/insights-gained-from-ancient-biomolecules-into-past-and-present-tuberculosis-a-personal-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Helen D Donoghue
Ancient and historical tuberculosis (TB) can be recognized by its typical paleopathology in human remains. Using paleomicrobiology, it is possible to detect many more individuals infected with TB but with no visible lesions. Due to advances in molecular analysis over the past two decades, it is clear that TB was widespread in humans from the Neolithic period until the present day. Past human populations were associated with different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex, thereby elucidating early human migrations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902731/queen-nefertari-the-royal-spouse-of-pharaoh-ramses-ii-a-multidisciplinary-investigation-of-the-mummified-remains-found-in-her-tomb-qv66
#2
Michael E Habicht, Raffaella Bianucci, Stephen A Buckley, Joann Fletcher, Abigail S Bouwman, Lena M Öhrström, Roger Seiler, Francesco M Galassi, Irka Hajdas, Eleni Vassilika, Thomas Böni, Maciej Henneberg, Frank J Rühli
Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889860/rich-but-poor-life-in-the-roman-period-with-extreme-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
REVIEW
Željana Bašić, Ivan Jerković, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović
In a Sidonian sarcophagus, from the Late Antique/early Christian period, skeletal remains of two persons were found. One of them, male, 30-50 years old, was found almost completely ankylosed, with highly osteoporotic bones and prominent erosion of joint surfaces. We diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis based on the eroded odontoid process, mandibular condyles, distal humerus, proximal and distal ulna, as well ankylosed hand and foot bones. Despite the fact that ankyloses of vertebrae and sacroiliac joint could point towards ankylosing spondylitis, the lack of typical vertebral ankyloses and new bone formation led to exclusion...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866322/rare-case-of-an-ancient-craniofacial-osteosarcoma-with-probable-surgical-intervention
#4
Erika Molnár, Michael Schultz, Tyede H Schmidt-Schultz, Antónia Marcsik, Krisztina Buczkó, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biró, Zsolt Bernert, Daniel Baumhoer, Tamás Hajdu
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor both today and in antiquity. Nevertheless, it is a comparatively rare tumor. This paper describes a case of a highly aggressive craniofacial lesion from the 11th-12th centuries AD, most likely representing osteosarcoma. During the paleopathological study, macroscopic, endoscopic, radiological, scanning-electron and light microscopic investigations were performed. The skull of the approximately 40-50 year-old female revealed several pathological findings...
November 19, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834109/external-ear-canal-exostosis-and-otitis-media-in-temporal-bones-of-prehistoric-and-historic-chilean-populations-a-paleopathological-and-paleoepidemiological-study
#5
Mario Castro, Marcos Goycoolea, Verónica Silva-Pinto
CONCLUSIONS: External ear canal exostosis is more prevalent in northern coastal groups than in the highlands, suggesting that ocean activities facilitate the appearance of exostosis. However, southern coastal groups exposed to colder ocean water have a lesser incidence of exostosis, possibly due to less duration of exposure. There was a high incidence of otitis media in all groups of native population in Chile. One coastal group had a higher incidence, presumably due to racial factors...
November 11, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824742/hip-dislocation-and-dystocia-in-early-medieval-times-possible-evidence-of-labor-maneuver
#6
Assumpció Malgosa, Susana Carrascal, Giampaolo Piga, Albert Isidro
BACKGROUND: In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. CASE: In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750271/to-investigate-the-degenerative-alterations-of-the-spine-in-paleopathology
#7
Marta Licata, Giuseppe Armocida, Marco Broggini, Melania Borgo
The aim of this study was to investigate the degenerative markers at the spine in adult skeletons recovered from archaeological sites. The results of this study may allow us to make inferences about the etiology of the degenerative pathology, physical activity levels and life style in the community. The relevance of this research is that it constitutes a reliable data base to compare with future investigations.
September 18, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749216/on-the-history-of-gout-paleopathological-evidences-from-the-medici-family-of-florence
#8
Valentina Giuffra, Simona Minozzi, Angelica Vitiello, Antonio Fornaciari
OBJECTIVES: Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group...
September 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726818/paleopathology-of-human-infections-old-bones-antique-books-ancient-and-modern-molecules
#9
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726782/paleomicrobiology-of-human-tuberculosis
#10
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704524/do-leprosy-and-tuberculosis-generate-a-systemic-inflammatory-shift-setting-the-ground-for-a-new-dialogue-between-experimental-immunology-and-bioarchaeology
#11
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696351/poundbury-camp-in-context-a-new-perspective-on-the-lives-of-children-from-urban-and-rural-roman-england
#12
Anna Rohnbogner, Mary Elizabeth Lewis
OBJECTIVES: The current understanding of child morbidity in Roman England is dominated by studies of single sites/regions. Much of the data are derived from third to fifth century AD Poundbury Camp, Dorchester, Dorset, considered an unusual site due to high levels of non-adult morbidity. There is little understanding of children in rural areas, and whether Poundbury Camp was representative of Romano-British childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study provides the first large scale analysis of child health in urban and rural Roman England, adding to the previously published intra-site analysis of non-adult paleopathology at Poundbury Camp...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614624/concha-bullosa-in-paleoanthropological-material
#13
A Gawlikowska-Sroka, J Szczurowski, B Kwiatkowska, P Konczewski, E Dzieciołowska-Baran, M Donotek, A Walecka, D Nowakowski
Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century...
September 11, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591810/the-history-of-prostate-cancer-from-antiquity-review-of-paleopathological-studies
#14
Kamyar Ghabili, Jeffrey J Tosoian, Edward M Schaeffer, Christian P Pavlovich, Samad E J Golzari, Ghazal Khajir, Darian Andreas, Benjamin Benzon, Milena Vuica-Ross, Ashley E Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537730/paleopathology-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-south-american-mummies
#15
Alexander N Gabrovsky, Kelsey D O'Neill, Enrique Gerszten
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as the world's leading cause of death in the last century. An epidemiological focus of this disease that extends not only beyond the developed world but also far back into antiquity asks new questions about associated risk factors. Ancient mummies found in the Atacama desert are well preserved and show signs of cardiovascular disease as early as 1000B.C. in Peru and Chile. METHOD AND RESULTS: Gross and histopathological examination of specimens shows atherosclerosis, cardiomegaly, endocarditis, and myocardial fibrosis...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504475/from-first-to-latest-imaging-technology-revisiting-the-first-mummy-investigated-with-x-ray-in-1896-by-using-dual-source-computed-tomography
#16
REVIEW
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376644/a-1842-skull-from-dupuytren-s-museum-of-paris-an-original-artifact-of-joseph-gensoul-first-maxillectomy-technique
#17
Nadia Benmoussa, Jennifer Kerner, Patrice Josset, Patrick Conan, Philippe Charlier
Joseph Gensoul was a pioneer of ENT surgery. In 1827, he performed the first total maxillectomy on 17-year-old boy. His work inspired many surgeons, who were previously unwilling to remove maxillary tumours. A paleopathological study performed in the Dupuytren museum allowed us to identify a skull from the early 19th century, with a large maxillar tumour. There were indications that this skull was operated according to Gensoul's technique. The aim of this study is to confirm that this patient had, in fact, received this surgical treatment...
July 4, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349126/-not-available
#18
Pierre L Thillaud
Although its title is not vey clear, René Larger's book, Théorie de la Contre-évolution, published in 1917, is a major contribution to paleopathology, and pathocoenosis, a concept coined by M. D. Grmek in 1969 ; it offers a good occasion to have a new look on Lamarck's and Darwin's theories.
January 2016: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338787/normal-growth-altered-growth-study-of-the-relationship-between-harris-lines-and-bone-form-within-a-post-medieval-plague-cemetery-dendermonde-belgium-16th-century
#19
Alexandra Boucherie, Dominique Castex, Caroline Polet, Sacha Kacki
OBJECTIVES: Harris lines (HLs) are defined as transverse, mineralized lines associated with temporary growth arrest. In paleopathology, HLs are used to reconstruct health status of past populations. However, their etiology is still obscure. The aim of this article is to test the reliability of HLs as an arrested growth marker by investigating their incidence on human metrical parameters. METHODS: The study was performed on 69 individuals (28 adults, 41 subadults) from the Dendermonde plague cemetery (Belgium, 16th century)...
June 24, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337456/paleomicrobiology-data-authentification-and-interpretation
#20
Michel Drancourt
The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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