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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155831/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-leishmania-infection-in-trang-province-southern-thailand
#1
Jipada Manomat, Saovanee Leelayoova, Lertwut Bualert, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Mathirut Mungthin, Tawee Naaglor, Phunlerd Piyaraj
BACKGROUND: Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155676/contributions-of-the-us-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-in-implementing-the-global-health-security-agenda-in-17-partner-countries
#2
Arthur G Fitzmaurice, Michael Mahar, Leah F Moriarty, Maureen Bartee, Mitsuaki Hirai, Wenshu Li, A Russell Gerber, Jordan W Tappero, Rebecca Bunnell
The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), a partnership of nations, international organizations, and civil society, was launched in 2014 with a mission to build countries' capacities to respond to infectious disease threats and to foster global compliance with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005). The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assists partner nations to improve IHR 2005 capacities and achieve GHSA targets. To assess progress through these CDC-supported efforts, we analyzed country activity reports dating from April 2015 through March 2017...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155662/global-disease-detection-achievements-in-applied-public-health-research-capacity-building-and-public-health-diplomacy-2001-2016
#3
Carol Y Rao, Grace W Goryoka, Olga L Henao, Kevin R Clarke, Stephanie J Salyer, Joel M Montgomery
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155661/zoonotic-disease-programs-for-enhancing-global-health-security
#4
Ermias D Belay, James C Kile, Aron J Hall, Casey Barton-Behravesh, Michele B Parsons, Stephanie Salyer, Henry Walke
Most infectious diseases that recently emerged in humans originated in animals. Besides close contact between animals and humans, other factors probably contribute to the cross-species transmission of infectious diseases. It is critical to establish effective mechanisms for coordination and collaboration between the animal, human, and environmental health sectors before new threats emerge by bringing the different sectors together to tackle endemic zoonotic diseases of greatest concern. Such multisectoral partnerships should begin by identifying priority zoonotic diseases for national engagement with equal input from the different sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#5
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155656/us-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-and-its-partners-contributions-to-global-health-security
#6
Jordan W Tappero, Cynthia H Cassell, Rebecca E Bunnell, Frederick J Angulo, Allen Craig, Nicki Pesik, Benjamin A Dahl, Kashef Ijaz, Hamid Jafari, Rebecca Martin
To achieve compliance with the revised World Health Organization International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), countries must be able to rapidly prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. Most nations, however, remain unprepared to manage and control complex health emergencies, whether due to natural disasters, emerging infectious disease outbreaks, or the inadvertent or intentional release of highly pathogenic organisms. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) works with countries and partners to build and strengthen global health security preparedness so they can quickly respond to public health crises...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155655/synergies-between-communicable-and-noncommunicable-disease-programs-to-enhance-global-health-security
#7
Deliana Kostova, Muhammad J Husain, David Sugerman, Yuling Hong, Mona Saraiya, Jennifer Keltz, Samira Asma
Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives that advance the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases support the goals of global health security in several ways. First, in addressing health needs that typically require long-term care, these programs can strengthen health delivery and health monitoring systems, which can serve as necessary platforms for emergency preparedness in low-resource environments. Second, by improving population health, the programs might help to reduce susceptibility to infectious outbreaks...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155653/enhancing-laboratory-response-network-capacity-in-south-korea
#8
J Todd Parker, Ann-Christian Juren, Luis Lowe, Scott Santibañez, Gi-Eun Rhie, Toby L Merlin
Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories help protect populations from biological and chemical public health threats. We examined the role of LRN biological laboratories in enhancing capacity to detect and respond to public health infectious disease emergencies in South Korea. The model for responding to infectious disease emergencies leverages standardized laboratory testing procedures, a repository of standardized testing reagents, laboratory testing cooperation among hospital sentinel laboratories and reference laboratories, and maintenance of a trained workforce through traditional and on-demand training...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155652/cdc-support-for-global-public-health-emergency-management
#9
Daniel J Brencic, Meredith Pinto, Adrienne Gill, Michael H Kinzer, Luis Hernandez, Omer G Pasi
Recent pandemics and rapidly spreading outbreaks of infectious diseases have illustrated the interconnectedness of the world and the importance of improving the international community's ability to effectively respond. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), building on a strong foundation of lessons learned through previous emergencies, international recognition, and human and technical expertise, has aspired to support nations around the world to strengthen their public health emergency management (PHEM) capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#10
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#11
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154748/cdc-safety-training-course-for-ebola-virus-disease-healthcare-workers
#12
Rupa Narra, Jeremy Sobel, Catherine Piper, Deborah Gould, Nahid Bhadelia, Mary Dott, Anthony Fiore, William A Fischer, Mary Jo Frawley, Patricia M Griffin, Douglas Hamilton, Barbara Mahon, Satish K Pillai, Emily F Veltus, Robert Tauxe, Michael Jhung
Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150905/sarcoptic-mange-in-wombats-a-review-and-future-research-directions
#13
REVIEW
J M Old, C Sengupta, E Narayan, J Wolfenden
Sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of wildlife worldwide. The mite is one of the main causes of population decline in southern hairy-nosed (Lasiorhinus latifrons) and bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This review focuses on Sarcoptes scabiei infestations in wombats and provides insights into why the disease may be so prevalent in wombats. Current treatment practices and trials conducted in the field to reduce the incidence of sarcoptic mange in wombats are described and critically reviewed...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148856/novel-applications-for-serum-procalcitonin-testing-in-clinical-practice
#14
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Procalcitonin has emerged as a reliable marker of acute bacterial infection in hospitalized patients and the assay has recently been incorporated into several clinical algorithms to reduce antimicrobial overuse, but its use in patients with end-organ dysfunction is controversial. Areas covered: In this review, the authors examine what is known about procalcitonin testing in patients with organ dysfunction, including those with end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cirrhosis, and explore how the assay is now being used in the management of non-infectious diseases...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#15
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
November 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#16
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145171/host-target-based-approaches-against-arboviral-diseases
#17
Rebeca Froes Rocha, Juliana Lemos Del Sarto, Rafael Elias Marques, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Mauro Martins Teixeira
In the 20th century, socioeconomic and environmental changes facilitated the reintroduction of mosquitoes in developing cities, resulting in the reintroduction of mosquito-borne viral diseases and the dispersal of their causative agents in a worldwide scale. Recurrent outbreaks of arboviral diseases are being reported, even in regions without a previous history of arboviral disease transmission. Of note, arboviral infections represented approximately 30% of all emerging vector-borne diseases of the last decade...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#18
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144769/detection-of-emerging-zoonotic-pathogens-an-integrated-one-health-approach
#19
Brian H Bird, Jonna A K Mazet
The emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The advent of increasingly sophisticated diagnostics tools has revolutionized our capacity to detect and respond to these health threats more rapidly than ever before. Yet, no matter how sophisticated these tools become, the initial identification of emerging infectious diseases begins at the local community level. It is here that the initial human or animal case resides, and it is here that early pathogen detection would have maximum benefit...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143192/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-and-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-current-therapeutic-options-and-potential-targets-for-novel-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Julie Dyall, Robin Gross, Jason Kindrachuk, Reed F Johnson, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley, Matthew B Frieman, Peter B Jahrling
No specific antivirals are currently available for two emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). A literature search was performed covering pathogenesis, clinical features and therapeutics, clinically developed drugs for repurposing and novel drug targets. This review presents current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The rationale for and outcomes with treatments used for SARS and MERS is discussed...
November 15, 2017: Drugs
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