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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437813/presenting-symptoms-of-pituitary-apoplexy
#1
Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis, Ioannis Mavridis, Maria Meliou
The classical term "pituitary apoplexy" (PA) describes a clinical syndrome usually characterized by abrupt onset of headache accompanied by neurologic and/or endocrinologic deterioration due to sudden expansion of a mass within the sella turcica as a result of hemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary tumor and adjacent pituitary gland. PA is a medical emergency and a difficult diagnosis to establish. Thus this article reviews the presenting symptoms of PA patients to help clinicians recognize or at least suspect this critical condition early on...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435260/development-of-gold-nanoparticles-coated-with-silica-containing-the-antibiofilm-drug-cinnamaldehyde-and-their-effects-on-pathogenic-bacteria
#2
Mohankandhasamy Ramasamy, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Emerging resistance to antibiotics is a mounting worldwide health concern and increases the need for nonantibiotic strategies to combat infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. In this study, the authors used the antibiofilm activity of the naturally occurring antimicrobial cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) conjugated to the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to deliver CNMA efficiently and eradicate biofilms of Gram-negative organisms (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram positive (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus organisms, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431554/a-need-to-accelerate-health-research-productivity-in-an-african-university-the-case-of-makerere-university-college-of-health-sciences
#3
Damalie Nakanjako, Dickens Akena, Dan K Kaye, James Tumwine, Elialilia Okello, Annettee Nakimuli, Andrew Kambugu, Hazel McCullough, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses R Kamya, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) has taken strides in research and training to improve healthcare through collaborative training and research programs. However, there is limited data on the trends of MakCHS faculty contributions to research and on faculty growth to take leading roles in health research. This paper reviews MakCHS faculty research publications over 15.5 years and outlines possible strategies to enhance faculty research outputs...
April 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431008/diabetes-mellitus-as-the-major-risk-factor-for-mucormycosis-in-mexico-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-outcomes-of-reported-cases
#4
Dora E Corzo-León, Luis D Chora-Hernández, Ana P Rodríguez-Zulueta, Thomas J Walsh
Mucormycosis is an emerging infectious disease with high rates of associated mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis or entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico. A search strategy was performed of literature published in journals found in available databases and theses published online at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) library website reporting clinical cases or clinical case series of mucormycosis and entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico between 1982 and 2016...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428164/zika-in-twitter-temporal-variations-of-locations-actors-and-concepts
#5
Anthony Stefanidis, Emily Vraga, Georgios Lamprianidis, Jacek Radzikowski, Paul L Delamater, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Dieter Pfoser, Arie Croitoru, Andrew Crooks
BACKGROUND: The recent Zika outbreak witnessed the disease evolving from a regional health concern to a global epidemic. During this process, different communities across the globe became involved in Twitter, discussing the disease and key issues associated with it. This paper presents a study of this discussion in Twitter, at the nexus of location, actors, and concepts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the significance of 3 types of events: location related, actor related, and concept related, for understanding how a public health emergency of international concern plays out in social media, and Twitter in particular...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427535/pathogens-of-food-animals-sources-characteristics-human-risk-and-methods-of-detection
#6
Catherine M Logue, Nicolle L Barbieri, Daniel W Nielsen
Pathogens associated with food production (livestock) animals come in many forms causing a multitude of disease for humans. For the purpose of this review, these infectious agents can be divided into three broad categories: those that are associated with bacterial disease, those that are associated with viruses, and those that are parasitic in nature. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the most common pathogens that cause disease in humans through exposure via the food chain and the consequence of this exposure as well as risk and detection methods...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425422/mass-mortality-of-eastern-box-turtles-with-upper-respiratory-disease-following-atypical-cold-weather
#7
Mickey Agha, Steven J Price, A Justin Nowakowski, Ben Augustine, Brian D Todd
Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423970/recent-advances-on-topical-antimicrobials-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-their-safety-concerns
#8
P L Lam, K K H Lee, R S M Wong, G Y M Cheng, Z X Bian, C H Chui, R Gambari
Antimicrobial resistance of disease-related microorganisms is considered a worldwide prevalent and serious issue which increases the failure of treatment outcomes and leads to high mortality. Considering that the increased resistance to systemic antimicrobial therapy often needs of the use of more toxic agents, topical antimicrobial therapy emerges as an attractive route for the treatment of infectious diseases. The topical antimicrobial therapy is based on the absorption of high drug doses in a readily accessible skin surface, resulting in a reduction of microbial proliferation at infected skin sites...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421881/factors-pivotal-for-designing-of-nanoantimicrobials-an-exposition
#9
Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Imran
Understanding the interplay between bacterial pathogens and antimicrobials is a key to realize the control over infections causing morbidity and mortality. An important current issue of contemporary medicine and microbiology is the search for new strategies for adequate therapy of infectious diseases associated with rapidly emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the field of nanobiotechnology towards the development of various nanoantimicrobials (NAMs) as novel therapeutic solution...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421568/prions-prionoid-complexes-and-amyloids-the-bad-the-good-and-something-in-between
#10
Iva Hafner Bratkovič
Prions are infectious agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals. These protein-based particles template conformational changes in a host-encoded prion protein to an insoluble self-like conformation. Prions are also present in yeast, where they support protein-based epigenetic inheritance. There is emerging evidence that prion-like (prionoid) particles can support a variety of pathological and beneficial functions. The recent data on the prionoid spread of other pathological amyloids are discussed in light of differences between prions and prion-like aggregates...
April 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421292/phylogenetic-insight-into-zika-and-emerging-viruses-for-a-perspective-on-potential-hosts
#11
Diana S Weber, Karen A Alroy, Samuel M Scheiner
Global viral diversity is substantial, but viruses that contribute little to the public health burden or to agricultural damage receive minimal attention until a seemingly unimportant virus becomes a threat. The Zika virus (ZIKV) illustrated this, as there was limited information and awareness of the virus when it was identified as a public health emergency in February 2016. Predicting which virus may pose a future threat is difficult. This is in part because significant knowledge gaps in the basic biology and ecology of an emerging virus can impede policy development, delay decision making, and hinder public health action...
April 18, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421048/functional-information-stored-in-the-conserved-structural-rna-domains-of-flavivirus-genomes
#12
REVIEW
Alba Fernández-Sanlés, Pablo Ríos-Marco, Cristina Romero-López, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
The genus Flavivirus comprises a large number of small, positive-sense single-stranded, RNA viruses able to replicate in the cytoplasm of certain arthropod and/or vertebrate host cells. The genus, which has some 70 member species, includes a number of emerging and re-emerging pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human disease around the world, such as the West Nile, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Like other RNA viruses, flaviviruses have a compact RNA genome that efficiently stores all the information required for the completion of the infectious cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419343/utilizing-a-modified-care-coordination-measurement-tool-to-capture-value-for-a-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-and-prolonged-oral-antibiotic-therapy-program
#13
Louise E Vaz, Cindi L Farnstrom, Kimberly K Felder, Judith Guzman-Cottrill, Hannah Rosenberg, Richard C Antonelli
Background.: Outpatient parenteral or prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs reduce inpatient healthcare costs by shifting care to outpatient settings. Care coordination (CC) is a necessary component to successfully transition patients. Our objective was to assess outcomes of provider time spent on nonreimbursable CC activities in a pediatric OPAT program. Methods.: We used a qualitative feasibility pilot design and modified the Care Coordination Measurement Tool...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419254/evidence-of-zika-virus-rna-fragments-in-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-field-collected-eggs-from-cama%C3%A3-ari-bahia-brazil
#14
Chelsea T Smartt, Tanise M S Stenn, Tse-Yu Chen, Maria Gloria Teixeira, Erivaldo P Queiroz, Luciano Souza Dos Santos, Gabriel A N Queiroz, Kathleen Ribeiro Souza, Luciano Kalabric Silva, Dongyoung Shin, Walter J Tabachnick
A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418745/taiwan-s-experience-in-hospital-preparedness-and-response-for-emerging-infectious-diseases
#15
Hui-Yun Kao, Hai-Yun Ko, Peng Guo, Chang-Hsun Chen, Su-Mei Chou
The Communicable Disease Control Medical Network (CDCMN), established in 2003 after the SARS outbreak in Taiwan, has undergone several phases of modification in structure and activation. The main organizing principles of the CDCMN are centralized isolation of patients with severe highly infectious diseases and centralization of medical resources, as well as a network of designated regional hospitals like those in other countries. The CDCMN is made up of a command system, responding hospitals, and supporting hospitals...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418738/real-time-surveillance-of-infectious-diseases-taiwan-s-experience
#16
Shu-Wan Jian, Chiu-Mei Chen, Cheng-Yi Lee, Ding-Ping Liu
Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418737/public-health-emergency-response-in-taiwan
#17
Yi-Feng Su, Cheng-Hao Wu, Tsui-Feng Lee
In recent years, growth of international travel and trade, as well as climate change, has resulted in the frequent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Zika, and MERS. In 2016, Taiwan used the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to evaluate its public health emergency response capacities and understand important areas for improvement. This article presents Taiwan's disaster and public health emergency response organizational structure, real-time integrated information, response processes, and command center structure...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418309/translation-of-real-time-infectious-disease-modeling-into-routine-public-health-practice
#18
David J Muscatello, Abrar A Chughtai, Anita Heywood, Lauren M Gardner, David J Heslop, C Raina MacIntyre
Infectious disease dynamic modeling can support outbreak emergency responses. We conducted a workshop to canvas the needs of stakeholders in Australia for practical, real-time modeling tools for infectious disease emergencies. The workshop was attended by 29 participants who represented government, defense, general practice, and academia stakeholders. We found that modeling is underused in Australia and its potential is poorly understood by practitioners involved in epidemic responses. The development of better modeling tools is desired...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#19
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#20
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
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