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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803932/the-thiopurine-nucleoside-analogue-6-methylmercaptopurine-riboside-6mmpr-effectively-blocks-zika-virus-replication
#1
Otavio Valério de Carvalho, Daniele Mendes Félix, Leila Rodrigues de Mendonça, Catarina Maria Cataldi Sabino de Araújo, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira Franca, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Abelardo Silva Júnior, Lindomar José Pena
Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed autochthonous cases of the disease caused by the virus. The ZIKV-associated neurological manifestations and congenital defects make the development of safe and effective antivirals against ZIKV of utmost importance. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), a thiopurine nucleoside analog derived from the prodrug azathioprine (AZA), against the epidemic ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801623/social-contact-patterns-relevant-to-the-spread-of-respiratory-infectious-diseases-in-hong-kong
#2
Kathy Leung, Mark Jit, Eric H Y Lau, Joseph T Wu
The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800938/using-hospital-use-trends-to-improve-transitional-care
#3
Joe Feinglass, Celeste A Mallama, Angela Rogers, Caroline Teter, Courtney Hurt, Christine Schaeffer
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the Northwestern Medicine Group Transitional Care clinic (NMG-TC), which transitions patients from an urban hospital to primary care at partner community clinics. We evaluate change over the 55 month study period in emergency department, observation or inpatient use within 90 days of an initial NMG-TC visit. METHODS: Electronic health records were used to determine patient demographic, insurance and clinical characteristics, including inflation-adjusted total hospital charges in the 90 days prior and the 90 days after an initial NMG-TC visit...
August 8, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800458/quinoline-hybrids-and-their-antiplasmodial-and-antimalarial-activities
#4
REVIEW
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Chuan Gao, Shu Zhang, Lei Xu, Zhi Xu, Lian-Shun Feng, Xiang Wu, Feng Zhao
Malaria, in particular infection with P. falciparum (the most lethal of the human malaria parasite species, responsible for nearly one million deaths every year), is one of the most devastating and common infectious disease throughout the world. Beginning with quinine, quinoline containing compounds have long been used in clinical treatment of malaria and remained the mainstays of chemotherapy against malaria. The emergence of P. falciparum strains resistant to almost all antimalarials prompted medicinal chemists and biologists to study their effective replacement with an alternative mechanism of action and new molecules...
July 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797710/a-bayesian-system-to-detect-and-characterize-overlapping-outbreaks
#5
John M Aronis, Nicholas E Millett, Michael M Wagner, Fuchiang Tsui, Ye Ye, Jeffrey P Ferraro, Peter J Haug, Per H Gesteland, Gregory F Cooper
Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as influenza are a significant threat to human health. Because there are different strains of influenza which can cause independent outbreaks, and influenza can affect demographic groups at different rates and times, there is a need to recognize and characterize multiple outbreaks of influenza. This paper describes a Bayesian system that uses data from emergency department patient care reports to create epidemiological models of overlapping outbreaks of influenza. Clinical findings are extracted from patient care reports using natural language processing...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796786/phlebotomine-sand-fly-borne-pathogens-in-the-mediterranean-basin-human-leishmaniasis-and-phlebovirus-infections
#6
REVIEW
Martina Moriconi, Gianluca Rugna, Mattia Calzolari, Romeo Bellini, Alessandro Albieri, Paola Angelini, Roberto Cagarelli, Maria P Landini, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
Pathogens transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies are neglected, as they cause infectious diseases that are not on the priority list of national and international public health systems. However, the infections caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus and viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (family Phenuiviridae)-the most significant group of viruses transmitted by sand flies-have a relevant role for human pathology. These infections are emerging in the Mediterranean region and will likely spread in forthcoming decades, posing a complex threat to human health...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795407/parasite-metacommunities-evaluating-the-roles-of-host-community-composition-and-environmental-gradients-in-structuring-symbiont-communities-within-amphibians
#7
Joseph R Mihaljevic, Bethany J Hoye, Pieter T J Johnson
1.Ecologists increasingly report the structures of metacommunities for free-living species, yet far less is known about the composition of symbiont communities through space and time. Understanding the drivers of symbiont community patterns has implications ranging from emerging infectious disease to managing host microbiomes. 2.Using symbiont communities from amphibian hosts sampled from wetlands of California, USA, we quantified the effects of spatial, habitat filtering, and host community components on symbiont occupancy and overall metacommunity structure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793930/emerging-trends-and-patterns-of-self-reported-morbidity-in-india-evidence-from-three-rounds-of-national-sample-survey
#8
Kalosona Paul, Jayakant Singh
BACKGROUND: India is rapidly undergoing an epidemiological transition with a sudden change in the disease profile of its population. It is important to understand the changing nature of the burden of disease across the states of India for adequate policy intervention. METHODS: We analyzed the trend and pattern of self-reported morbidity across states of India using three rounds of (52nd, 60th and 71st) National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data. Descriptive analysis was carried out to understand the prevalence of self-reported morbidity variation over a period of two decades (1995-2014) and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant determinants of various types of self-reported morbidities...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792519/dominance-and-leadership-in-research-activities-collaboration-between-countries-of-differing-human-development-is-reflected-through-authorship-order-and-designation-as-corresponding-authors-in-scientific-publications
#9
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Jinseo Park, Charles Huamaní, José M Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Scientific collaboration is an important mechanism that enables the integration of the least developed countries into research activities. In the present study, we use the order of author signatures and addresses for correspondence in scientific publications as variables to analyze the interactions between countries of very high (VHHD), high (HHD), medium (MHD), and low human development (LHD). METHODOLOGY: We identified all documents published between 2011 and 2015 in journals included in the Science Citation Index-Expanded categories' of Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, and Pediatrics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790983/nitrate-sensing-and-metabolism-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei-by-reducing-the-intracellular-concentration-of-c-di-gmp
#11
Mihnea R Mangalea, Brooke A Plumley, Bradley R Borlee
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging infectious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although melioidosis is most prevalent during the rainy season in endemic areas, domestic gardens and farms can also serve as a reservoir for B. pseudomallei during the dry season, in part due to irrigation and fertilizer use. In the environment, B. pseudomallei forms biofilms and persists in soil near plant root zones...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782809/overview-of-infectious-salmon-anaemia-virus-isav-in-atlantic-canada-and-first-report-of-an-isav-north-american-hpr0-subtype
#12
N Gagné, F LeBlanc
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an important viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon that has caused considerable financial losses for salmon farmers around the world, including Atlantic Canada. It is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, and to this day, culling of infected cages or farms remains the current practice in many countries to mitigate the spread of the virus. In Atlantic Canada, ISAV was first detected in 1996 and continues to be detected. While some outbreaks seemed to have arisen from isolated infections of unknown source, others were local clusters resulting from horizontal spread of infection...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781150/2016-guidelines-for-the-use-of-antifungal-agents-in-patients-with-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-taiwan
#13
REVIEW
Hsiang-Chi Kung, Po-Yen Huang, Wei-Ting Chen, Bor-Sheng Ko, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yin-Ching Chuang
The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines have updated the guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in adult patients with invasive fungal diseases in Taiwan. This guideline replaces the 2009 version. Recommendations are provided for Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and Mucormycetes. The focus is based on up-to-date evidence on indications for treatment or prophylaxis of the most common clinical problems...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777342/immuno-stimulatory-peptides-as-a-potential-adjunct-therapy-against-intra-macrophagic-pathogens
#14
REVIEW
Tânia Silva, Maria Salomé Gomes
The treatment of infectious diseases is increasingly prone to failure due to the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural components of the innate immune system of most living organisms. Their capacity to kill microbes through multiple mechanisms makes the development of bacterial resistance less likely. Additionally, AMPs have important immunomodulatory effects, which critically contribute to their role in host defense. In this paper, we review the most recent evidence for the importance of AMPs in host defense against intracellular pathogens, particularly intra-macrophagic pathogens, such as mycobacteria...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777313/co-infection-of-mosquitoes-with-chikungunya-and-dengue-viruses-reveals-modulation-of-the-replication-of-both-viruses-in-midguts-and-salivary-glands-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#15
Alain Le Coupanec, Stéphane Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Pascal Roux, Huot Khun, Michel Huerre, Ronald Morales-Vargas, Margot Enguehard, Dimitri Lavillette, Dorothée Missé, Valérie Choumet
Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases in humans and animals. Chikungunya-affected areas often overlap with dengue-endemic areas. Concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been detected in travelers returning from regions of endemicity. CHIKV and DENV co-infected Aedes albopictus have also been collected in the vicinity of co-infected human cases, emphasizing the need to study co-infections in mosquitoes. We thus aimed to study the pathogen-pathogen interaction involved in these co-infections in DENV/CHIKV co-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776351/the-utility-of-preliminary-patient-evaluation-in-a-febrile-respiratory-infectious-disease-unit-outside-the-emergency-department
#16
Jun Sik Kang, Byung Woo Jhun, Hee Yoon, Seong Mi Lim, Eunsil Ko, Joo Hyun Park, Sung Yeon Hwang, Se Uk Lee, Tae Rim Lee, Won Chul Cha, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo
A febrile respiratory infectious disease unit (FRIDU) with a negative pressure ventilation system was constructed outside the emergency department (ED) of the Samsung Medical Center in 2015, to screen for patients with contagious diseases requiring isolation. We evaluated the utility of the FRIDU during 1 year of operation. We analyzed 1,562 patients who were hospitalized after FRIDU screening between August 2015 and July 2016. The level of isolation recommended during their screening at the FRIDU was compared with the level deemed appropriate given their final diagnosis...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774315/global-research-trends-in-west-nile-virus-from-1943-to-2016-a-bibliometric-analysis
#17
Samah W Al-Jabi
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide. The aim of the current study is to bibliometrically analyze the quantity and quality of publications indexed in Scopus from different countries to reveal the characteristics of global research output regarding WNV. METHODS: This study is a bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database...
August 3, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774161/suggestions-on-improvement-of-infectious-disease-law-and-regulations
#18
Mijeong Park
Purpose: The study's perspective is through examining an enactment for the New amendment for legislation, to make proposals for a more rational and concrete basis in the interpretation and application of the Korean legal regime in global infectious disease emergency situations. Methods: The Republic of Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) on 20 May 2015. Since the first index case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law...
July 25, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771956/knowledge-risk-perception-and-mitigation-measures-towards-ebola-virus-disease-by-potentially-exposed-bushmeat-handlers-in-north-central-nigeria-any-critical-gap
#19
N B Alhaji, S Yatswako, E Y Oddoh
The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among public health officials for its influence on zoonotic diseases transmission, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), a rare and severe infectious disease of humans and non-human primates. This survey assessed knowledge/awareness, risk perceptions and mitigation practices towards EVD among bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria. These characteristics are premise to level of preparedness against appropriate risk prevention and control. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015 on 395 bushmeat handlers...
August 3, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770814/malaria
#20
REVIEW
Margaret A Phillips, Jeremy N Burrows, Christine Manyando, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Timothy N C Wells
Malaria is caused in humans by five species of single-celled eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax) that are transmitted by the bite of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Malaria remains one of the most serious infectious diseases; it threatens nearly half of the world's population and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths in 2015, predominantly among children in Africa. Malaria is managed through a combination of vector control approaches (such as insecticide spraying and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets) and drugs for both treatment and prevention...
August 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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