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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538739/multiplex-pcr-method-for-minion-and-illumina-sequencing-of-zika-and-other-virus-genomes-directly-from-clinical-samples
#1
Joshua Quick, Nathan D Grubaugh, Steven T Pullan, Ingra M Claro, Andrew D Smith, Karthik Gangavarapu, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Thomas F Rogers, Nathan A Beutler, Dennis R Burton, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Marta Giovanetti, Sarah C Hill, Allison Black, Trevor Bedford, Miles W Carroll, Marcio Nunes, Luiz Carlos Alcantara, Ester C Sabino, Sally A Baylis, Nuno R Faria, Matthew Loose, Jared T Simpson, Oliver G Pybus, Kristian G Andersen, Nicholas J Loman
Genome sequencing has become a powerful tool for studying emerging infectious diseases; however, genome sequencing directly from clinical samples (i.e., without isolation and culture) remains challenging for viruses such as Zika, for which metagenomic sequencing methods may generate insufficient numbers of viral reads. Here we present a protocol for generating coding-sequence-complete genomes, comprising an online primer design tool, a novel multiplex PCR enrichment protocol, optimized library preparation methods for the portable MinION sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the Illumina range of instruments, and a bioinformatics pipeline for generating consensus sequences...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533016/drodvir-a-resource-for-exploring-the-virome-diversity-in-rodents
#2
Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Zhiqiang Wu, Qi Jin, Jian Yang
Emerging zoonotic diseases have received tremendous interests in recent years, as they pose a significant threat to human health, animal welfare, and economic stability. A high proportion of zoonoses originate from wildlife reservoirs. Rodents are the most numerous, widespread, and diverse group of mammals on the earth and are reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of virome diversity in rodents would be of importance for researchers and professionals in the field...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532790/a-safe-and-molecular-tagged-brucella-canis-ghosts-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-mice
#3
Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529708/yellow-fever-in-the-americas-the-growing-concern-about-new-epidemics
#4
Yeimer Ortiz-Martínez, Andrés Mauricio Patiño-Barbosa, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Yellow fever (YF) is a haemorrhagic viral disease with a high case fatality rate. It is considered a reemerging infectious disease of remarkable importance. During the last outbreaks in Brazil (2016-2017), many cases of YF emerged despite high YF vaccination coverage in some areas. However, there are many areas and populations worldwide where vaccination coverage has been low for years (e.g. Nigeria), which increases the risk of major epidemics in such areas, as would be the case in many of the American territories...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529302/changes-of-global-infectious-disease-governance-in-2000s-rise-of-global-health-security-and-transformation-of-infectious-disease-control-system-in-south-korea
#5
Eun Kyung Choi, Jong-Koo Lee
This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#6
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528587/persistent-infections-support-maintenance-of-a-coronavirus-in-a-population-of-australian-bats-myotis-macropus
#7
J Jeong, C S Smith, A J Peel, R K Plowright, D H Kerlin, J McBroom, H McCallum
Understanding viral transmission dynamics within populations of reservoir hosts can facilitate greater knowledge of the spillover of emerging infectious diseases. While bat-borne viruses are of concern to public health, investigations into their dynamics have been limited by a lack of longitudinal data from individual bats. Here, we examine capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data from a species of Australian bat (Myotis macropus) infected with a putative novel Alphacoronavirus within a Bayesian framework. Then, we developed epidemic models to estimate the effect of persistently infectious individuals (which shed viruses for extensive periods) on the probability of viral maintenance within the study population...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526311/dramatic-effects-of-a-new-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-rural-community-hospital
#8
Claudia R Libertin, Stephanie H Watson, William L Tillett, Joy H Peterson
BACKGROUND: New Joint Commission antimicrobial stewardship requirements took effect on January 1, 2017, promoted as a central strategy for coping with the emerging problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Our objective was to measure the effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a rural community hospital with no prior ASP, in the context of having a new infectious disease specialist on staff. METHODS: An ASP team was formed to implement a prospective audit with health care provider feedback and targeting 12 antimicrobial agents in a rural hospital in Georgia...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525610/searching-for-clues-for-eighteen-years-deciphering-the-ecological-determinants-of-cryptococcus-gattii-on-vancouver-island-british-columbia
#9
Emily Sohanna Acheson, Eleni Galanis, Karen Bartlett, Sunny Mak, Brian Klinkenberg
Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island in 1999 for unknown reasons, causing human and animal fatalities and illness. The apparent emergence of this fungus in another temperate area, this time in the Pacific Northwest, suggests the fungus may have expanded its ecological niche. Yet studies that directly examine the potential roles of climatic and land use changes on C. gattii are still lacking. We aim to summarize the existing global literature on the ecology of C. gattii, with particular focus on the gap in knowledge surrounding the potential effects of climatic and land use changes...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524642/polydatin-reduces-staphylococcus-aureus-lipoteichoic-acid-induced-injury-by-attenuating-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-tlr2-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#10
Gan Zhao, Kangfeng Jiang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng, Xiuli Peng
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes severe inflammation in various infectious diseases, leading to high mortality. The clinical application of antibiotics has gained a significant curative effect. However, it has led to the emergence of various resistant bacteria. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protective effect of polydatin (PD), a traditional Chinese medicine extract, on S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. First, a significant improvement in the pathological conditions of PD in vivo was observed, suggesting that PD had a certain protective effect on LTA-induced injury in a mouse model...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524240/potential-serum-biomarkers-associated-with-mild-and-severe-leptospirosis-infection-a-cohort-study-in-the-malaysian-population
#11
Tan Xue Ting, Fairuz Binti Amran, Ravindran Thayan, Norazah Ahmad, Roslinda Jaafar, Rahimah Haron, Rafidah Abdullah, Sazwan Reezal Bin Shamsuddin, Nor Suhaila Binti Md Riffin, Puteri Shafinaz Abdul-Rahman
Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease in Malaysia. The symptoms of leptospirosis vary from mild non-specific flu-like illness to a severe condition which is usually associated with serious complication and fatality. To study the protein expression profile of mild and severe leptospirosis, fifteen paired sera were collected from the patients who were mildly infected and following that progressed to severe stage. The proteome profiles of mild and severe cases were studied using 2DE analysis in combination with LC-MS/MS...
May 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523918/current-status-of-viral-diseases-in-indian-shrimp-aquaculture
#12
G M Tandel, K Riji John, M Rosalind George, M J Prince Jeyaseelan
The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521805/thalassemias-in-south-asia-clinical-lessons-learnt-from-bangladesh
#13
REVIEW
Mohammad Sorowar Hossain, Enayetur Raheem, Tanvira Afroze Sultana, Shameema Ferdous, Nusrat Nahar, Sazia Islam, Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Mohammad Abdur Razzaque, Rabiul Alam, Sonia Aziz, Hazera Khatun, Abdur Rahim, Manzur Morshed
Thalassemias are emerging as a global public health concern. Due to remarkable success in the reduction of childhood mortality by controlling infectious diseases in developing countries, thalassemias are likely to be a major public health concern in the coming decades in South Asia. Despite the fact that Bangladesh lies in the world's thalassemia belt, the information on different aspects (epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications and treatment outcomes) of thalassemias is lacking. In this comprehensive review, the aim is to to depict the epidemiological aspects of thalassemias, mutation profile and current treatment and management practices in the country by sharing the experience of dealing with 1178 cases over 2009-2014 time periods in a specialized thalassemia treatment centre...
May 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521797/multiple-cause-of-death-data-among-people-with-aids-in-italy-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#14
Enrico Grande, Antonella Zucchetto, Barbara Suligoi, Francesco Grippo, Marilena Pappagallo, Saverio Virdone, Laura Camoni, Martina Taborelli, Vincenza Regine, Diego Serraino, Luisa Frova
BACKGROUND: Multiple cause-of-death (MCOD) data allow analyzing the contribution to mortality of conditions reported on the death certificate that are not selected as the underlying cause of death. Using MCOD data, this study aimed to fully describe the cause-specific mortality of people with AIDS (PWA) compared to people without AIDS. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide investigation based on death certificates of 2,515 Italian PWA and 123,224 people without AIDS who had died between 2006 and 2010...
May 18, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521652/case-report-patient-with-unexplained-high-fever-and-pancytopenia
#15
Kelly De Schuyter, Tom Lodewyck
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We present a case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), giving insight in how to establish diagnosis and start appropiate treatment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old male presented at the emergency ward with high fever and pancytopenia. Repeat bone marrow aspirates showed hemophagocytosis. Extensive work-up with exclusion of other infectious and malignant diseases, eventually lead us to the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521528/prevention-and-control-of-emergent-infectious-disease-with-high-specific-antigen-sensor
#16
Hongzhe Zhang, Shanshan Zhang, Nan Liu
This study aims to evaluate the application of a new type of high specificity antigen sensor in detecting the viruses in sudden infectious diseases. Influenza A (H1N1) virus immunosensor was used for the respective determination of the six kinds of antigens of H1N1, H3N2 viral protein, HA protein of H7N9, influenza B virus, adenovirus, and EV71 virus of same dilution degree on the Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE), so as to test the specificity of the detection method. In addition, various batches of chick embryo allantoic saliva dilution simulation samples were also detected on their recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), and stability...
May 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521338/klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-major-worldwide-source-and-shuttle-for-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Shiri Navon-Venezia, Kira Kondratyeva, Alessandra Carattoli
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen affecting humans and a major source for hospital infections associated with high morbidity and mortality due to limited treatment options. We summarize the wide resistome of this pathogen, which encompasses plentiful chromosomal and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Under antibiotic selective pressure, K. pneumoniae continuously accumulates ARGs, by de novo mutations, and via acquisition of plasmids and transferable genetic elements, leading to extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains harboring a 'super resistome'...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#18
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520960/examining-national-public-health-law-to-realize-the-global-health-security-agenda
#19
Benjamin Mason Meier, Kara Tureski, Emily Bockh, Derek Carr, Ana Ayala, Anna Roberts, Lindsay Cloud, Nicolas Wilhelm, Scott Burris
Where the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) seeks to accelerate progress toward a world safe and secure from public health emergencies, the realization of GHSA 'Action Packages' will require national governments to establish necessary legal frameworks to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease. By analyzing the scope and content of existing national legislation in each of the GHSA Action Packages, this comparative cross-national research has developed a framework that disaggregates the legal domains necessary to meet each Action Package target...
May 17, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#20
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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