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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239379/estrogen-receptor-dependent-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237694/analysis-of-clinical-and-microbiological-data-on-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-assist-the-preauthorization-of-antibiotics-at-the-patient-level-for-an-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#2
Khine Swe Swe-Han, Koleka P Mlisana, Manormoney Pillay
Drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) poses serious treatment challenges and is on the rise worldwide. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America recommends preauthorization of antibiotics to ensure successful antibiotic stewardship programs (ASWPs). This study estimates and analyzes the microbiological and clinical characteristics of A. baumanii strains with differentiating criteria for sepsis versus colonization, in order to support preauthorization and assist ASWPs at the patient level...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237501/vaccines-shaping-global-health
#3
Sonia Pagliusi, Ching-Chia Ting, Fernando Lobos
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237237/expanding-veterinary-biosurveillance-in-washington-dc-the-creation-and-utilization-of-an-electronic-based-online-veterinary-surveillance-system
#4
Andrew Hennenfent, Vito DelVento, John Davies-Cole, Fern Johnson-Clarke
OBJECTIVES: To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. METHODS: Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235408/the-chinese-prescription-lianhuaqingwen-capsule-exerts-anti-influenza-activity-through-the-inhibition-of-viral-propagation-and-impacts-immune-function
#5
Yuewen Ding, Lijuan Zeng, Runfeng Li, Qiaoyan Chen, Beixian Zhou, Qiaolian Chen, Pui Leng Cheng, Wang Yutao, Jingping Zheng, Zifeng Yang, Fengxue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lianhuaqingwen Capsule (LH-C) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat respiratory tract infectious diseases in Chinese. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of LH-C and its immunomodulatory effects on viral infection. METHOD: The in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of LH-C was determined by MTT and Plaque reduction assays. Time course study under single-cycle virus growth conditions were used to determine which stage of viral replication was blocked...
February 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231251/empirical-lessons-regarding-contraception-in-a-protracted-refugee-setting-a-descriptive-study-from-maela-camp-on-the-thai-myanmar-border-1996-2015
#6
Somjet Srikanok, Daniel M Parker, Amber L Parker, Tracey Lee, Aung Myat Min, Pranee Ontuwong, Saw Oo Tan, Supachai Sirinonthachai, Rose McGready
Conflict settings and refugee camps can be chaotic places, with large and rapid population movements, exacerbated public health problems, and ad hoc health services. Reproductive health care that includes family planning is of heightened importance in such settings, however, funding and resources tend to be constrained and geared towards acute health services such as trauma management and infectious disease containment. Here we report on the complexities and challenges of providing family planning in a post-emergency refugee setting, using the example of the largest refugee camp on the Thai-Myanmar border, in existence now for over 30 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231033/evaluation-of-a-commercial-field-test-to-detect-african-swine-fever
#7
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Manuele Cocco, Caterina Falconi, Giovanna Dettori, Francesco Feliziani, Maria Luisa Sanna, Annalisa Oggiano, Sandro Rolesu
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and complex infectious diseases affecting pigs ( Sus scrofa ). The disease has been present in Sardinia, Italy, since 1978. Factors influencing the presence of the disease on the island are the presence of illegally bred pigs, uncontrolled movements of animals, and local traditions. Implementation of public health programs is essential for controlling ASF. The use of new diagnostic techniques on both wild boar (WB) and illegally bred pigs would provide tools for faster and more inexpensive control of the disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229472/human-capital-gaps-in-vaccine-development-an-issue-for-global-vaccine-development-and-global-health
#8
Andrea Cawein, Emilio Emini, Michael Watson, Joanna Dailey, John Donnelly, Dina Tresnan, Tom Evans, Stanley Plotkin, William Gruber
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#9
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#10
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225783/heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-hsmi-disease-diagnosed-on-a-british-columbia-salmon-farm-through-a-longitudinal-farm-study
#11
Emiliano Di Cicco, Hugh W Ferguson, Angela D Schulze, Karia H Kaukinen, Shaorong Li, Raphaël Vanderstichel, Øystein Wessel, Espen Rimstad, Ian A Gardner, K Larry Hammell, Kristina M Miller
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and later also reported in Scotland and Chile. We undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in British Columbia (Canada). In previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were identified. Histologic assessments of both live and moribund fish samples collected at the farm during the longitudinal study documented at the population level the development, peak, and recovery phases of HSMI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225544/in-defense-of-clinical-autopsy-and-its-practice-in-cuba
#12
Alfredo D Espinosa-Brito, José Hurtado de Mendoza-Amat
There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive)...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225541/perceived-barriers-to-adherence-to-tuberculosis-infection-control-measures-among-health-care-workers-in-the-dominican-republic
#13
Helena J Chapman, Bienvenido A Veras-Estévez, Jamie L Pomeranz, Eddy N Pérez-Then, Belkys Marcelino, Michael Lauzardo
INTRODUCTION Health care workers have an increased risk of infection due to occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, including multidrug-resistant strains. Health care workers' risk of developing tuberculosis is greater than that of the general population, whether in low-, intermediate- or high-incidence countries. Adherence to infection control measures (administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection) is essential to reduce risk of disease transmission between suspected tuberculosis patients and health care workers, but for different reasons, both objective and subjective, adherence is low...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223936/two-pore-channels-catalyzers-of-endolysosomal-transport-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
Two-pore channels (TPCs) have recently emerged as a novel class of non-selective cation channels in the endolysosomal system. There are two members in the human genome, TPC1 and TPC2. Studies with TPC knockout and knockdown models have revealed that these channels participate in the regulation of multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways which when dysregulated can lead to or influence the development of a range of different diseases such as lysosomal storage, metabolic, or infectious diseases. TPCs have been demonstrated to be activated by different endogenous stimuli, PI(3,5)P2 and NAADP, and ATP has been found to block TPC activation via mTOR...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222988/thirty-day-and-90-day-hospital-readmission-after-outpatient-upper-extremity-hemodialysis-access-creation
#15
Jeffrey J Siracuse, Nishant K Shah, Matthew R Peacock, Georges Tahhan, Jeffrey A Kalish, Denis Rybin, Mohammad H Eslami, Alik Farber
OBJECTIVE: Patients with end-stage renal disease have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk for postoperative complications and resource utilization. Our goal was to determine the rate and causes of 30-day and 90-day hospital readmissions after the creation of outpatient hemodialysis access. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all outpatient upper extremity hemodialysis access creations performed at our medical center from 2008 to 2015. Readmission was defined as any inpatient status admission ≤30 and 90 days...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219161/-advances-on-epidemiological-research-of-human-infections-with-novel-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus
#16
Q M Wang, S L Liu, E F Chen
Human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9)virus was an emerging infectious disease discovered in March, 2013. As of June30, 2016, 770 cases of H7N9 were reported in worldwide including 315 deaths with 40.9% of high case fatality rate. Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta were the high-prevalence area. Formerly, the cases of H7N9 were concentrated on the municipalities. However, most of the case-patients were from smaller cities or rural areas nowadays. The H7N9 human infections mainly occurred in winter and spring every waves as similar as seasonal and H5N1 human infections...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218665/matrix-metalloproteinases-as-regulators-of-periodontal-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Cavalla Franco, Hernández-Ríos Patricia, Sorsa Timo, Biguetti Claudia, Hernández Marcela
Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the 'protease web' is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#18
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217117/the-promise-of-whole-genome-pathogen-sequencing-for-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-emerging-aquaculture-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Sion C Bayliss, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Kerry L Bartie, David M Aanensen, Samuel K Sheppard, Alexandra Adams, Edward J Feil
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector, and the sustainability of this industry is critical both for global food security and economic welfare. The management of infectious disease represents a key challenge. Here, we discuss the opportunities afforded by whole genome sequencing of bacterial and viral pathogens of aquaculture to mitigate disease emergence and spread. We outline, by way of comparison, how sequencing technology is transforming the molecular epidemiology of pathogens of public health importance, emphasizing the importance of community-oriented databases and analysis tools...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216184/vaccine-development-for-emerging-virulent-infectious-diseases
#20
Joel N Maslow
The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
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