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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933044/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-food-chain-a-developing-country-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Antibiotics are now "endangered species" facing extinction due to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR). Food animals are considered as key reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with the use of antibiotics in the food production industry having contributed to the actual global challenge of ABR. There are no geographic boundaries to impede the worldwide spread of ABR. If preventive and containment measures are not applied locally, nationally and regionally, the limited interventions in one country, continent and for instance, in the developing world, could compromise the efficacy and endanger ABR containment policies implemented in other parts of the world, the best-managed high-resource countries included...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932782/cdc-grand-rounds-modeling-and-public-health-decision-making
#2
Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Richard J Hatchett, Daniel B Jernigan, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Phoebe G Thorpe, Martin I Meltzer
Mathematical models incorporate various data sources and advanced computational techniques to portray real-world disease transmission and translate the basic science of infectious diseases into decision-support tools for public health. Unlike standard epidemiologic methods that rely on complete data, modeling is needed when there are gaps in data. By combining diverse data sources, models can fill gaps when critical decisions must be made using incomplete or limited information. They can be used to assess the effect and feasibility of different scenarios and provide insight into the emergence, spread, and control of disease...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931204/web-based-infectious-disease-surveillance-systems-and-public-health-perspectives-a-systematic-review
#3
Jihye Choi, Youngtae Cho, Eunyoung Shim, Hyekyung Woo
BACKGROUND: Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929751/recommended-vaccinations-for-asplenic-and-hyposplenic-adult-patients
#4
Paolo Bonanni, Maddalena Grazzini, Giuditta Niccolai, Diana Paolini, Ornella Varone, Alessandro Bartoloni, Bartalesi Filippo, Maria Grazia Santini, Simonetta Baretti, Carlo Bonito, Paola Zini, Mechi Maria Teresa, Niccolini Fabrizio, Magistri Lea, Pulci Maria Beatrice, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929452/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-of-healthcare-workers-in-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-to-mers-coronavirus-and-other-emerging-infectious-diseases
#5
Abdullah J Alsahafi, Allen C Cheng
Background: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has experienced a prolonged outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus since 2012. Healthcare workers (HCWs) form a significant risk group for infection. Objectives: The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, infection control practices and educational needs of HCWs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to MERS coronavirus and other emerging infectious diseases. Methods: 1500 of HCWs from Saudi Ministry of Health were invited to fill a questionnaire developed to cover the survey objectives from 9 September 2015 to 8 November 2015...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927867/mastermind-bringing-microbial-diagnostics-to-the-clinic
#7
Robin Patel, Ephraim L Tsalik, Elizabeth Petzold, Vance G Fowler, Jeffrey D Klausner, Scott Evans
New diagnostics are urgently needed to address emerging antimicrobial resistance. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) proposes a strategy called MASTERMIND (MASTER protocol for evaluating Multiple INfection Diagnostics) for advancement of infectious diseases diagnostics. The goal of this strategy is to generate the data necessary to support FDA clearance of new diagnostic tests by promoting research that might not have otherwise been feasible with conventional trial designs. MASTERMIND uses a single subject's sample(s) to evaluate multiple diagnostic tests at the same time, providing efficiencies of specimen collection and characterization...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923669/emergence-of-tick-borne-pathogens-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-ricketsia-raoultii-and-babesia-microti-in-the-kyiv-urban-parks-ukraine
#8
Yuliya M Didyk, Lucia Blaňárová, Svyatoslav Pogrebnyak, Igor Akimov, Branislav Peťko, Bronislava Víchová
To date, only limited data about the presence of ticks and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in urban parks of Kyiv in northern Ukraine are available. In total, 767 ticks (696 Ixodes ricinus and 69 Dermacentor reticulatus) collected in seven urban parks and one suburban oak wood park in Kyiv were individually analyzed by the PCR assays. Tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, were detected in 11.1% of tested I. ricinus ticks...
October 11, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923518/the-impact-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-on-chinese-blood-safety
#9
REVIEW
Miao He, Jingxing Wang, Limin Chen, Jing Liu, Peibin Zeng
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have always been one of the major threats to public health. Although the implementation of mandatory testing for 4 classical transfusion-transmitted infectious-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis-has reduced the transfusion risk of these pathogens, the potential threat of various EID agents and their constantly evolving variants to blood safety in China is not fully understood. This review presents 9 representative EID agents that are autochthonous and epidemic nationally or regionally in China...
November 4, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923365/an-inactivated-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-vaccine-provides-complete-clinical-protection-and-reduces-virus-shedding-against-challenge-by-a-chinese-pseudorabies-variant
#10
Jichun Wang, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yiqi Gu, Chang Liu, Jibo Hou
BACKGROUND: Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an emergent PRV variant. Even though vaccines made of PRV Bartha K61 strain can confer certain cross protection against PRV variants based on experimental data, less than optimal clinical protection and virus shedding reduction were observed, making the control or eradication of this disease difficult...
December 7, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920389/resistance-in-persisting-bat-populations-after-white-nose-syndrome-invasion
#11
Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#12
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918528/origin-of-modern-syphilis-and-emergence-of-a-pandemic-treponema-pallidum-cluster
#13
Natasha Arora, Verena J Schuenemann, Günter Jäger, Alexander Peltzer, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Michal Strouhal, Linda Grillová, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Denise Kühnert, Kirsten I Bos, Leyla Rivero Davis, Lenka Mikalová, Sylvia Bruisten, Peter Komericki, Patrick French, Paul R Grant, María A Pando, Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Antonio Martinez, Arturo Centurion Lara, Lorenzo Giacani, Steven J Norris, David Šmajs, Philipp P Bosshard, Fernando González-Candelas, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Homayoun C Bagheri
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917961/trends-in-health-surveillance-and-joint-service-delivery-for-pastoralists-in-west-and-central-africa
#14
M F Abakar, E Schelling, M Béchir, B N Ngandolo, K Pfister, I O Alfaroukh, H M Hassane, J Zinsstag
In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915303/candida-species-isolated-from-different-body-sites-and-their-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-cross-analysis-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-biofilms
#15
Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Paolo Fazii, Tonino Traini, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915109/decreased-myeloid-dendritic-cells-indicate-a-poor-prognosis-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-patients
#16
Wenjing Zhang, Mengmeng Li, Shue Xiong, Hua Wang, Yan Xiong, Mingyue Li, Mengji Lu, DongliangYang, Cheng Peng, Xin Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly emerging infectious disease caused by a novel Bunyavirus in which host immune system suppression is thought to be crucial in the development of disease. The study is designed to study the frequencies and activation status of dendritic cells(DCs) at different stages of SFTS and its association with the disease severity. METHODS: All confirmed 115 SFTS patients were recruited from the Wuhan Union Hospital in 2015 and routine laboratory parameters were collected...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#17
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913973/emergence-of-new-virulent-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-strains-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Mahmoud M Ismail, Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Mohamed A Al-Hammadi
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013...
December 2, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913489/platelets-in-infectious-disease
#20
Elizabeth Middleton, Matthew T Rondina
Sepsis is a dynamic, acute, infectious disease syndrome characterized by dysregulated thrombo-inflammatory responses. The high mortality associated with sepsis has been recognized since the earliest clinicians' writings. Despite this, advances in the treatment of sepsis have been more modest. This is limited, in part, by the heterogeneity in the definition, population, presentation, and causal factors of infectious syndromes. Given the persistently high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, a better understanding of the dysregulated cellular biology underpinning sepsis is needed...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
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