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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912731/long-term-athletic-development-in-youth-alpine-ski-racing-the-effect-of-physical-fitness-ski-racing-technique-anthropometrics-and-biological-maturity-status-on-injuries
#1
Lisa Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Erich Müller, Christian Fink, Christian Raschner
Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9-14 years)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901201/sex-differences-in-balance-among-alpine-ski-racers-cross-sectional-age-comparisons
#2
Christian Raschner, Carolin Hildebrandt, Johanna Mohr, Lisa Müller
Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846855/expert-non-expert-differences-in-visual-behaviour-during-alpine-slalom-skiing
#3
Marjolein Decroix, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali Wazir, Linus Zeuwts, Frederik F J A Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, Pieter Vansteenkiste
The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately 0,5s before passing the upcoming pole, the higher speed of experts implied that they shifted gaze spatially earlier in the bend than non-experts...
August 25, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812037/a-retrospective-analysis-of-concurrent-pathology-in-acl-reconstructed-knees-of-elite-alpine-ski-racers
#4
Matthew J Jordan, Patricia Doyle-Baker, Mark Heard, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is the most frequent injury in alpine ski racing, and there is a high prevalence of ACL reinjury. Limited data exist on the concurrent pathology with primary ACL tears in elite alpine ski racers and the magnitude of injury progression after primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR). PURPOSE: To evaluate (1) the involvement of intra-articular and multiligament pathologies at the time of primary ACLR, (2) the subsequent progression in meniscal/chondral injuries, and (3) the occurrence of ACL reinjury in elite alpine ski racers...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804521/home-advantage-in-the-winter-paralympic-games-1976-2014
#5
Darryl Wilson, Girish Ramchandani
PURPOSE: There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. METHODS: Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014...
2017: Sport Sciences for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769849/an-inverse-relative-age-effect-in-male-alpine-skiers-at-the-absolute-top-level
#6
Øyvind Bjerke, Arve Vorland Pedersen, Tore K Aune, Håvard Lorås
The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234) and women (N = 235)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759890/maturity-status-influences-the-relative-age-effect-in-national-top-level-youth-alpine-ski-racing-and-soccer
#7
Lisa Müller, Christoph Gonaus, Christoph Perner, Erich Müller, Christian Raschner
Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746948/-factors-associated-with-safety-knowledge-on-alpine-ski%C3%A2-slopes
#8
Gerhard Ruedl, Elena Pocecco, Friedrich Brunner, Klaus Greier, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner
Background The jurisdiction after a winter sport accident including a third party fault considers the 10 rules for safe skiing/snowboarding introduced by the International Ski Federation (FIS) to clarify the question of liability. A previous study revealed that beginners, young skiers and those who were not local residents displayed insufficient safety knowledge in given situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate additional factors associated with safety knowledge on ski slopes, e. g. type of winter sport, helmet use, risk taking behavior, and a previous injury occurred on a ski slope...
July 26, 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746383/validation-of-functional-calibration-and-strap-down-joint-drift-correction-for-computing-3d-joint-angles-of-knee-hip-and-trunk-in-alpine-skiing
#9
Benedikt Fasel, Jörg Spörri, Pascal Schütz, Silvio Lorenzetti, Kamiar Aminian
To obtain valid 3D joint angles with inertial sensors careful sensor-to-segment calibration (i.e. functional or anatomical calibration) is required and measured angular velocity at each sensor needs to be integrated to obtain segment and joint orientation (i.e. joint angles). Existing functional and anatomical calibration procedures were optimized for gait analysis and calibration movements were impractical to perform in outdoor settings. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to propose and validate a set of calibration movements that were optimized for alpine skiing and could be performed outdoors and 2) to validate the 3D joint angles of the knee, hip, and trunk during alpine skiing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713458/trunk-strength-characteristics-of-elite-alpine-skiers-a-comparison-with-physically-active-controls
#10
Carolin Hildebrandt, Lisa Müller, Christian Heisse, Christian Raschner
Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers (p = 0...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713454/balance-basic-anthropometrics-and-performance-in-young-alpine-skiers-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-associations-during-two-competitive-seasons
#11
Blaz Lesnik, Damir Sekulic, Matej Supej, Michael R Esco, Milan Zvan
Balance is hypothesized to be important in alpine skiing, while it is known that balance depends on anthropometric indices. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between balance, anthropometrics and skiing-results over two competitive seasons among youth alpine-skiers. Eighty-one skiers (40 females) participated in this study. The participants were tested twice over two competitive seasons: when they were 12-13 years old (U14) and when they were 14-15 years old (U16). The variables consisted of anthropometrics (body height and body mass) and three balance indexes (medio-lateral-, anterio-posterior- and overall-stability-index)...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689164/head-impact-velocities-in-fis-world-cup-snowboarders-and-freestyle-skiers-do-real-life-impacts-exceed-helmet-testing-standards
#12
Sophie E Steenstrup, Kam-Ming Mok, Andrew S McIntosh, Roald Bahr, Tron Krosshaug
INTRODUCTION: Prior to the 2013-2014 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the helmet testing speed from a minimum requirement of 5.4 to 6.8 m/s for alpine downhill, super-G and giant slalom and for freestyle ski cross, but not for the other freestyle disciplines or snowboarding. Whether this increased testing speed reflects impact velocities in real head injury situations on snow is unclear. We therefore investigated the injury mechanisms and gross head impact biomechanics in four real head injury situations among World Cup (WC) snowboard and freestyle athletes and compared these with helmet homologation laboratory test requirements...
July 8, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552919/methods-for-acquiring-data-on-terrain-geomorphology-course-geometry-and-kinematics-of-competitors-runs-in-alpine-skiing-a-historical-review
#13
Włodzimierz S Erdmann, Vassilis Giovanis, Piotr Aschenbrenner, Vaios Kiriakis, Andrzej Suchanowski
PURPOSE: This paper aims at the description and comparison of methods of topographic analysis of racing courses at all disciplines of alpine skiing sports for the purposes of obtaining: terrain geomorphology (snowless and with snow), course geometry, and competitors' runs. METHODS: The review presents specific methods and instruments according to the order of their historical appearance as follows: (1) azimuth method with the use of a compass, tape and goniometer instruments; (2) optical method with geodetic theodolite, laser and photocells; (3) triangulation method with the aid of a tape and goniometer; (4) image method with the use of video cameras; (5) differential global positioning system and carrier phase global positioning system methods...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546774/injuries-and-illnesses-in-a-cohort-of-elite-youth-alpine-ski-racers-and-the-influence-of-biological-maturity-and-relative-age-a-two-season-prospective-study
#14
Lisa Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Erich Müller, Renate Oberhoffer, Christian Raschner
BACKGROUND: Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9-14 years) over 2 consecutive years...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513243/performance-of-alpine-touring-boots-when-used-in-alpine-ski-bindings
#15
Jeffrey R Campbell, Irving S Scher, David Carpenter, Bruce L Jahnke, Randal P Ching
Alpine Touring (AT) equipment is designed for ascending mountains and snow skiing down backcountry terrain. Skiers have been observed using AT boots in alpine (not made for Alpine Touring) ski bindings. We tested the effect on the retention-release characteristics of AT boots used in alpine bindings. Ten AT ski boots and five alpine ski boots were tested in eight models of alpine ski bindings using an ASTM F504-05 (2012) apparatus. 31% of the AT boots released appropriately when used in alpine ski bindings...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472092/influence-of-slope-steepness-foot-position-and-turn-phase-on-plantar-pressure-distribution-during-giant-slalom-alpine-ski-racing
#16
Thomas Falda-Buscaiot, Frédérique Hintzy, Patrice Rougier, Patrick Lacouture, Nicolas Coulmy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435336/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-reinjury-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424132/outcomes-of-recreational-activity-associated-trauma-in-elderly-persons-on-blood-thinning-medications
#18
Zachary M DeBoard, Jonathan Grotts, Lisa Ferrigno
With increasing life expectancy, the elderly are participating in recreational activities traditionally pursued by younger persons. Elderly patients have many reasons for worse outcomes after trauma, one of which may be the rising use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications. This study aimed to determine whether preinjury use of these agents yielded worse outcomes in geriatric patients injured during high-impact recreational activities. The National Trauma Data Bank was reviewed from 2007 to 2010 for patients ≥65 years admitted to Level I or II trauma centers with ICD-9 E-codes for specific mechanisms of injury...
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398944/alpine-skiing-as-winter-time-high-intensity-training
#19
Thomas Leonhard Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer
INTRODUCTION: To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high-intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age, and fitness level in this comparison. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (V˙O2), energy expenditure (EE), HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4 min of continuous HIT (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5 × 1 min high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1 min active recovery]...
September 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223309/how-can-we-prove-that-a-preventive-measure-in-elite-sport-is-effective-when-the-prevalence-of-the-injury-eg-acl-tear-in-alpine-ski-racing-is-low-a-case-for-surrogate-outcomes
#20
EDITORIAL
Josef Kröll, Jörg Spörri, Sophie Elspeth Steenstrup, Hermann Schwameder, Erich Müller, Roald Bahr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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