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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241753/alopecia-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Cheryl Lie, Choon Fong Liew, Hazel H Oon
Hair loss is a common condition that affects most people at some point in their lives. It can exist as an isolated problem or with other diseases and conditions. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and its association with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have received increasing interest since 1972, when the first link between cardiovascular risk factors and hair loss was raised. We have reviewed studies concerning the relationship between alopecia and MetS. Many studies have investigated the relationship among AGA and MetS and its individual components, particularly in men, where a disproportionately large number of these studies supports this association...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#2
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213284/circulatory-immune-cells-in-cushing-syndrome-bystanders-or-active-contributors-to-atherometabolic-injury-a-study-of-adhesion-and-activation-of-cell-surface-markers
#3
Gloria Aranda, Cristina Lopez, Rebeca Fernandez-Ruiz, Yaiza Esteban, Guillermo Garcia-Eguren, Mireia Mora, Irene Halperin, Gregori Casals, Joaquim Enseñat, Felicia A Hanzu
Glucocorticoids (GC) induce cardiometabolic risk while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation involving immunity. GC are immune suppressors, and the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) has immune modulator activities. Both may act in atherothrombotic inflammation involving immune cells (IMNC). Aim. To investigate adhesion and activation surface cell markers (CDs) of peripheral IMNC in endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) and the immune modulator role of ACTH. Material and Methods. 16 ACTH-dependent CS (ACTH-D), 10 ACTH-independent (ACTH-ID) CS, and 16 healthy controls (C) were included...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212586/hypercortisolemia-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-involved-in-visual-research
#4
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211058/decreased-lymphocytes-and-increased-risk-for-infection-are-common-in-endogenous-pediatric-cushing-syndrome
#5
Christina Tatsi, Rebecca Boden, Ninet Sinaii, Meg Keil, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Constantine A Stratakis, Maya B Lodish
BackgroundHypercortisolemia results in changes of the immune system and elevated infection risk, but data on the WBC changes in pediatric Cushing syndrome (CS) are not known. We describe the changes of the WBC lineages in pediatric endogenous hypercortisolemia, their associations with the markers of disease severity, and the presence of infections.MethodsWe identified 197 children with endogenous CS. Clinical and biochemical data were recorded. Sixty-six children with similar age and gender, and normocortisolemia served as controls...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209490/the-importance-of-recognizing-paraneoplastic-symptoms-a-case-report-of-neuroendocrine-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-endometrium-presenting-as-paraneoplastic-cushing-s-syndrome
#6
A Doukhopelnikoff, G Debrock, T Steelandt, Etm De Jonge
This is the second well documented case of paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome arising from a small cell carcinoma of the endometrium described in English literature. This tumour has an aggressive biological behaviour and early detection provides the only opportunity for long-term survival. In that regard recognition of associated paraneo- plastic features might be helpful.
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208661/plasma-steroid-metabolome-for-diagnosis-and-subtyping-patients-with-cushing-syndrome
#7
Graeme Eisenhofer, Jimmy Masjkur, Mirko Peitzsch, Guido Di Dalmazi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias Grüber, Julia Fazel, Andrea Osswald, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patients tested for Cushing syndrome...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203576/dimethoxy-etomidate-a-non-hypnotic-etomidate-analog-that-potently-inhibits-steroidogenesis
#8
Megan McGrath, Celena Ma, Douglas Raines
Cushing's syndrome is characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis inhibitors are mainstays of medical therapy for Cushing's syndrome; unfortunately, adverse side effects and treatment failures are common with currently available drugs. The general anesthetic induction agent etomidate is among the most potent inhibitors of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. However, its use as a treatment for Cushing's syndrome is complicated by its sedative-hypnotic activity and ability to produce myoclonus, central nervous system actions thought to be mediated by the GABAA receptor...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203512/glucocorticoids-reprogram-beta-cell-signaling-to-preserve-insulin-secretion
#9
Nicholas H F Fine, Craig L Doig, Yasir S Elhassan, Nicholas C Vierra, Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Rita Nano, Lorenzo Piemonti, Guy A Rutter, David A Jacobson, Gareth G Lavery, David J Hodson
Excessive glucocorticoid exposure has been shown to be deleterious for pancreatic beta cell function and insulin release. However, glucocorticoids at physiological levels are essential for many homeostatic processes, including glycemic control. Here, we show that corticosterone and cortisol and their less active precursors, 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC) and cortisone, suppress voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel function and Ca2+ fluxes in rodent as well as human beta cells. However, insulin secretion, maximal ATP/ADP responses to glucose and beta cell identity were all unaffected...
December 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202538/-cyclical-cushing-syndrome-due-to-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumor-a-case-report
#10
L Lin, F Q Liu, F Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202350/case-report-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome-in-a-young-male-with-hidden-lung-carcinoid-tumor
#11
Ghanem Aljassem, Hazem Aljasem
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing's in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Small cell carcinoma and carcinoid of the lung comprises half of its cases. The main purpose of this study is to present a case of ectopic Cushing syndrome caused by a hidden lung carcinoid and how to manage it. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we present a case of a 26year old young male complains of increased weight and appetite, proximal muscle weakness, easy bruising and appearing of purple striae on his abdomen, with a final diagnosis of ACTH secreting lung carcinoid...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201451/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-thymus
#12
REVIEW
Pier Luigi Filosso, Enrico Ruffini, Paolo Solidoro, Matteo Roffinella, Paolo Olivo Lausi, Paraskevas Lyberis, Alberto Oliaro, Francesco Guerrera
Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (NETTs) are rare and biologically very aggressive neoplasms, usually located in the anterior mediastinal space. They are more frequently observed in males, in their fourth/fifth decades of life. In 50% of cases, NETTs are associated with endocrinopaties [Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly or Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) syndrome]. NETTs very often present with invasion of the surrounding mediastinal anatomical structures. Surgery, even in advanced stages, is the mainstay of treatment: a compete resection through a median sternotomy or a combined access (sternotomy + thoracotomy) should be always attempted...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197558/clinical-utility-of-an-ultrasensitive-late-night-salivary-cortisol-assay-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Lillian R Sturmer, Dylan Dodd, Christina S Chao, Run-Zhang Shi
BACKGROUND: Late night salivary cortisol measurement is a clinically important and convenient screening test for Cushing's syndrome. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays have superior sensitivity and specificity compared to immunoassays. Our goal was to improve a LC-MS/MS method to measure salivary cortisol in both adult and pediatric patients and to characterize its analytical performance by method validation and clinical performance by chart review. METHODS: We improved a LC-MS/MS method originally developed for urine cortisol to measure low level salivary cortisol...
November 29, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184811/dermatologic-manifestations-of-endocrine-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Michael Lause, Alisha Kamboj, Esteban Fernandez Faith
The skin serves as a window for clinicians to understand, diagnose, and monitor endocrine disease. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrinopathies contribute significantly to an individual's health and quality of life. In this review, we outline various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and androgen axis as well as hereditary endocrine syndromes. In acromegaly, glycosaminoglycan deposition contributes to a thickening of skin and soft tissue, which manifests as coarsening and enlargement of facial and acral structures...
October 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184271/a-case-of-cushing-s-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#15
Leila Pourali, Atiyeh Mohammadzade Vatanchi, Anahita Hamidi
Cushing's syndrome (CS) occurs rarely during pregnancy. CS can be caused by prolonged abnormal exposure to excess glucocorticoids leading to special and significant signs and symptoms. It is often difficult to diagnose pathological hypercortisolism in pregnant women since some symptoms of the disease might be due to a complicated pregnancy, including preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. In this study, we report the case of a 29-year-old female who referred to our institution with hypertension, weakness, steria, and truncal obesity...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183089/successful-treatment-of-estrogen-excess-in-primary-bilateral-macronodular-adrenocortical-hyperplasia-with-leuprolide-acetate
#16
Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Andreas G Moraitis, Vladimir Valera Romero, Fabio R Faucz, Spyridon A Mastroyannis, Annabel Berthon, Richard A Failor, Maria Merino, Andrew P Demidowich, Constantine A Stratakis
Primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) is an uncommon cause of adrenal Cushing syndrome (CS) in which cortisol and occasionally other steroid hormones can be secreted under the influence of aberrantly expressed G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the adrenal cortex. We describe the unique case of a 64-year-old postmenopausal female with PBMAH whose adrenal lesions expressed luteinizing hormone receptors (LHr). She presented initially with CS and underwent right adrenalectomy; a few years later she presented with macromastia and mastodynia, possibly due to estrogen excess from her remaining left adrenocortical masses...
November 28, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164929/psychosis-as-a-sequelae-of-paraneoplastic-syndrome-in-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-a-psycho-neuroendocrine-interface
#17
Christiana M Wilkins, Victoria L Johnson, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
In 2013 more than 150,000 Americans died from all types of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents about 13% of all lung cancers and is notoriously associated with paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS). Here we present an interesting case of psychosis associated with one such PNS-- ectopic Cushing syndrome of SCLC. A 56 year old African-American male with no prior psychiatric history who was diagnosed with SCLC two months prior, presented to the ER for treatment of a right arm laceration he sustained while fighting off attackers, with high concern these individuals may have been part of hallucinatory experiences and well-systematized persecutory delusions regarding his wife...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161691/failure-to-thrive-in-the-context-of-carney-complex
#18
Amit Tirosh, Adi Auerbach, Belen Bonella, Phaedon D Zavras, Elena Belyavskaya, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Karen Meir, Ram Weiss, Hagit Daum, Maya B Lodish, David Gillis, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carney complex (CNC) is a rare syndrome associated with multiple tumors and several other unique manifestations. We describe the clinical, genetic, and laboratory findings in a cohort of patients with CNC and failure to thrive (FTT). METHODS: A retrospective case series of pediatric patients with CNC presenting with FTT. RESULTS: We describe a patient with infantile Cushing syndrome (CS) who presented with severe FTT and liver disease; the patient was subsequently diagnosed with CNC...
November 21, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161416/combined-ovarian-and-adrenal-venous-sampling-in-the-localization-of-acth-independent-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome
#19
Shi Chen, Ran Li, Xiaobo Zhang, Lin Lu, Ji Li, Hui Pan, Huijuan Zhu
Context: Cushing's syndrome is rarely caused by the secretion of cortisol from the ovarian tumors. It is important to determine whether the ovarian tumor is capable of secreting cortisol or not in clinical decision making. Selective ovarian and adrenal venous sampling has not been reported previously in the localization of ACTH-independent ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Case description: Herein, we presented a case of 40-year-old Chinese woman who has been manifested with weight gain, hirsutism, hypertension and menstrual disorder over a period of 6 months...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158903/severe-cushing-s-syndrome-and-bilateral-pulmonary-nodules-beyond-ectopic-acth
#20
Carlos Tavares Bello, Emma van der Poest Clement, Richard Feelders
Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease that results from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids. Severe and rapidly progressive cases are often, but not exclusively, attributable to ectopic ACTH secretion. Extreme hypercortisolism usually has florid metabolic consequences and is associated with an increased infectious and thrombotic risk. The authors report on a case of a 51-year-old male that presented with severe Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, whose diagnostic workup was affected by concurrent subclinical multifocal pulmonary infectious nodules...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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