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Syncope review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048771/catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Andrés R Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Marianne P C de Rezende Barbosa, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Augusto A de Lucca, Luiz C de Abreu
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare devastating lethal inherited disorder or sporadic cardiac ion channelopathy characterized by unexplained syncopal episodes, and/or sudden cardiac death (SCD), aborted SCD (ASCD), or sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) observed in children, adolescents, and young adults without structural heart disease, consequence of adrenergically mediated arrhythmias: exercise-induced, by acute emotional stress, atrial pacing, or β-stimulant infusion, even when the electrocardiogram is normal...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042382/drugs-and-life-threatening-ventricular-arrhythmia-risk-results-from-the-dare-study-cohort
#2
Abigail L Coughtrie, Elijah R Behr, Deborah Layton, Vanessa Marshall, A John Camm, Saad A W Shakir
OBJECTIVES: To establish a unique sample of proarrhythmia cases, determine the characteristics of cases and estimate the contribution of individual drugs to the incidence of proarrhythmia within these cases. SETTING: Suspected proarrhythmia cases were referred by cardiologists across England between 2003 and 2011. Information on demography, symptoms, prior medical and drug histories and data from hospital notes were collected. PARTICIPANTS: Two expert cardiologists reviewed data for 293 referred cases: 130 were included...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992800/antimalarial-induced-cardiomyopathy-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
K Tselios, M Deeb, D D Gladman, P Harvey, M B Urowitz
Background Antimalarials (AMs) are widely used in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. Their main side effect is retinal damage, while heart disease has been described in isolated cases. The aim of this study is to systematically review the existing literature on AM-induced cardiomyopathy (AMIC). Methods The PubMed database was searched for heart biopsy-confirmed AMIC cases. Information on demographics, clinical presentation, concomitant AM-related toxicity, cardiological investigations, treatment and outcome were collected...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966307/low-serum-levels-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-are-risk-factors-for-cardiogenic-syncope-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#4
Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Daiju Fukuda, Takayuki Ise, Muneyuki Kadota, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Takeshi Tobiume, Koji Yamaguchi, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masashi Akaike, Masataka Sata
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antiarrhythmic effects, possibly via modulation of the cardiac ion channels. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether low serum levels of n-3 PUFAs are risk factors for ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 62 men with BrS and evaluated their serum levels of EPA and DHA, and the risk factors for sudden cardiac death, including a history of cardiogenic syncope...
September 30, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955396/systematic-review-of-treatment-for-trapped-thrombus-in-patent-foramen-ovale
#5
Won-Woo Seo, Sung Eun Kim, Myung-Soo Park, Jun-Hee Lee, Dae-Gyun Park, Kyoo-Rok Han, Dong-Jin Oh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare complication of pulmonary embolism that may lead to tragic clinical events. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal treatment for different clinical situations in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO by conducting a literature review. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A PubMed database search was conducted from 1991 through 2015, and 194 patients (185 articles) with trapped thrombus in a PFO were identified...
September 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947223/prevalence-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-presenting-with-syncope-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Zardasht Oqab, Heather Ganshorn, Robert Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common clinical presentation and establishing an etiology is often challenging. Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been thought to be an uncommon cause but a recent report suggested otherwise. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of PE in patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) and in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science with relevant keywords and MeSH headings for syncope and PE...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931939/survival-and-prognostic-factors-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-meta-analysis
#7
Qun Liu, Diandian Li, Alan E Berger, Roger A Johns, Li Gao
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder but data on survival rates are still conflicting and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of cohort studies to assess pooled survival rates and prognostic factors for survival in patients with HCM. Nineteen studies were included representing 12,146 HCM patients. The pooled 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 98.0%, 94.3%, 82.2% and 75.0%, respectively. Among patients with HCM, age, NYHA functional class, family history of sudden death (FHSD), syncope, atrial fibrillation, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT), maximum left ventricular wall thickness and obstruction were significant prognostic factors for cardiovascular death...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901628/total-cosine-r-to-t-for-predicting-ventricular-arrhythmic-and-mortality-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Gary Tse, Mengqi Gong, Cheuk Wai Wong, Cynthia Chan, Stamatis Georgopoulos, Yat Sun Chan, Bryan P Yan, Guangping Li, Paula Whittaker, Ana Ciobanu, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sunny H Wong, William K K Wu, George Bazoukis, Konstantinos Lampropoulos, Wing Tak Wong, Lap Ah Tse, Adrian M Baranchuk, Konstantinos P Letsas, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: The total cosine R-to-T (TCRT), a vectorcardiographic marker reflecting the spatial difference between the depolarization and repolarization wavefronts, has been used to predict ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in different clinical settings. However, its prognostic value has been controversial. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the significance of TRCT in predicting arrhythmic and/or mortality endpoints...
September 12, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882124/phenotypic-expressions-of-hereditary-transthyretin-ala97ser-related-amyloidosis-attr-in-taiwanese
#9
Hui-Ching Hsu, Ming-Feng Liao, Jung-Lung Hsu, Ai-Lun Lo, Hung-Chou Kuo, Rong-Kuo Lyu, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Chih-Wei Wang, Long-Sun Ro
BACKGROUND: The disease course and early signs specific to ATTR Ala97Ser, the most common endemic mutation in Taiwan, have not been well described. Since new medications can slow down the rate of disease progression, the early diagnosis of this heterogeneous and fatal disease becomes critical. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of genetically confirmed ATTR Ala97Ser patients at a tertiary referral medical center. RESULTS: Eight patients from 7 different families were enrolled (61...
September 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817996/meningioma-with-tyrosine-rich-crystalloids-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Erik Reinertsen, Stewart G Neill, Kambiz Nael, Daniel J Brat, Costas G Hadjipanayis
We report a case of fibrous meningioma with tyrosine-rich crystalloid in the frontal lobe of a middle-aged woman. The patient presented with a history of several years of worsening headaches and blurry vision, which progressed to include syncopal episodes and right-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a dural-based extra-axial mass arising from the right orbital roof and extending superiorly along the right frontal convexity causing right-to-left midline shift. The patient underwent a craniotomy and operative resection...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792295/medical-care-at-a-large-vertical-running-event
#12
Christopher J Nash, Christopher T Richards, Gina Schwieger, Sanjeev Malik, George T Chiampas
OBJECTIVE: Vertical running events, during which participants race up the stairwells of skyscrapers, are becoming increasingly popular. Such events have unique and specific operational and clinical considerations for event medical directors, but descriptions of the medical care provided at these events are lacking. We sought to perform a descriptive analysis of the medical care delivered at a single, large vertical running event. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of medical encounters at a large vertical running event from 2011-2017 was performed...
August 9, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779863/neurological-complications-of-cardiac-disease
#13
Nandini Madan, Karen S Carvalho
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurologic systems. Initially, we focus on neurological complications in children with congenital heart disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease and complications of interventions. We later discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphasis on vasovagal syncope. We also review the diagnosis, classification, and management of children and adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776824/pathophysiology-of-reflex-syncope-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Wayne O Adkisson, David G Benditt
In this correspondence, the pathophysiology of reflex syncope (vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus syndrome, and situational syncope) is reviewed, including clarification of the nomenclature.
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775090/missed-aortic-valve-endocarditis-resulting-in-complete-atrioventricular-block-and-redo-mechanical-valve-replacement
#15
Amer Harky, Megan Garner, Miruna Popa, Alex Shipolini
Infective endocarditis is a rare disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. As a result, early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment with or without surgical intervention is crucial in the management of such condition.We report a case of missed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve. The patient underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement, with the native valve being sent for histopathological examination. On re-admission 16 months later, he presented with syncope, shortness of breathing and complete heart block...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770696/left-main-coronary-artery-atresia-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Tomohiro Hayashi, Kenji Waki, Yoshio Arakaki
Congenital atresia of the left coronary artery is a very rare condition. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy who was followed-up at our outpatient clinic from 6 months of age because of heart murmur. He had no symptoms for more than 10 years, and his left ventricular contraction was normal. Exercise electrocardiogram was performed at 7 and 10 years of age, and ST depression was not observed. He presented with chest pain and syncope on exertion at the ages of 11 and 12 years, respectively, and ST depression on exercise electrocardiogram was detected for the first time at 13 years of age...
August 3, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759507/prevalence-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-for-syncope
#17
Philip Davis, Dian Dowling Evans
The Research to Practice column is intended to improve the research critique skills of the advanced practice registered nurse and the emergency nurse (RN) and to assist with the translation of research into practice. For each column, a topic and a research study are selected. The research article is then reviewed and critiqued, and the findings are discussed in relation to a patient scenario. In this column, we examine the findings of P. from their article, titled "Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism Among Patients Hospitalized for Syncope...
July 2017: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757356/flibanserin-from-bench-to-bedside
#18
REVIEW
Erin M Dooley, Melanie K Miller, Anita H Clayton
INTRODUCTION: The process of approval for flibanserin (trade name Addyi) has been associated with controversy since before its approval on August 18, 2015. This argument centered on challenges to the validity of the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women and the safety and efficacy of the drug. AIM: To explore the process of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for flibanserin and delve further into the research, concerns, and various roadblocks to its approval...
July 27, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756874/diagnostic-value-of-neurological-studies-in-diagnosing-syncope-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Payam Pournazari, Zardasht Oqab, Robert Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Syncope is common and approaches to establishing etiology remain a matter of clinical and financial importance. Patients often undergo comprehensive neurologic investigations despite a lack of compelling indications. The aim was to determine the prevalence of use and diagnostic yield of electroencephalography (EEG), head computed tomography (CT), head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and carotid Doppler ultrasound (CUS) examinations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane from 1970 to 2015 for studies reporting on the use of EEG, CT, MRI, and CUS in diagnosing the cause of syncope...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752729/cardiac-imaging-in-patients-with-cardiac-syncope
#20
Stefania A DI Fusco, Furio Colivicchi, Federico Nardi
Syncope is a common symptom with a possibly unfavourable prognosis, especially when the cause is a cardiac disease. Often diagnostic workup requires multiple and challenging investigations to determine whether the patient has a structural heart disease. Cardiac imaging tests should be used when baseline clinical findings raise the suspicion of a cardiac syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first line imaging examination as it helps establish the cause of syncope and supplies useful information for prognostic stratification by evaluating systolic ventricle function...
July 27, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
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