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Syncope review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817996/meningioma-with-tyrosine-rich-crystalloids-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Erik Reinertsen, Stewart G Neill, Kambiz Nael, Daniel J Brat, Costas G Hadjipanayis
We report a case of fibrous meningioma with tyrosine-rich crystalloid in the frontal lobe of a middle-aged woman. The patient presented with a history of several years of worsening headaches and blurry vision, which progressed to include syncopal episodes and right-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a dural-based extra-axial mass arising from the right orbital roof and extending superiorly along the right frontal convexity causing right-to-left midline shift. The patient underwent a craniotomy and operative resection...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792295/medical-care-at-a-large-vertical-running-event
#3
Christopher J Nash, Christopher T Richards, Gina Schwieger, Sanjeev Malik, George T Chiampas
OBJECTIVE: Vertical running events, during which participants race up the stairwells of skyscrapers, are becoming increasingly popular. Such events have unique and specific operational and clinical considerations for event medical directors, but descriptions of the medical care provided at these events are lacking. We sought to perform a descriptive analysis of the medical care delivered at a single, large vertical running event. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of medical encounters at a large vertical running event from 2011-2017 was performed...
August 9, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779863/neurological-complications-of-cardiac-disease
#4
Nandini Madan, Karen S Carvalho
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurologic systems. Initially, we focus on neurological complications in children with congenital heart disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease and complications of interventions. We later discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphasis on vasovagal syncope. We also review the diagnosis, classification, and management of children and adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776824/pathophysiology-of-reflex-syncope-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Wayne O Adkisson, David G Benditt
In this correspondence the pathophysiology of reflex syncope (vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus syndrome and situational syncope) is reviewed, including clarification of the nomenclature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775090/missed-aortic-valve-endocarditis-resulting-in-complete-atrioventricular-block-and-redo-mechanical-valve-replacement
#6
Amer Harky, Megan Garner, Miruna Popa, Alex Shipolini
Infective endocarditis is a rare disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. As a result, early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment with or without surgical intervention is crucial in the management of such condition.We report a case of missed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve. The patient underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement, with the native valve being sent for histopathological examination. On re-admission 16 months later, he presented with syncope, shortness of breathing and complete heart block...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770696/left-main-coronary-artery-atresia-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Tomohiro Hayashi, Kenji Waki, Yoshio Arakaki
Congenital atresia of the left coronary artery is a very rare condition. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy who was followed-up at our outpatient clinic from 6 months of age because of heart murmur. He had no symptoms for more than 10 years, and his left ventricular contraction was normal. Exercise electrocardiogram was performed at 7 and 10 years of age, and ST depression was not observed. He presented with chest pain and syncope on exertion at the ages of 11 and 12 years, respectively, and ST depression on exercise electrocardiogram was detected for the first time at 13 years of age...
August 3, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759507/prevalence-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-for-syncope
#8
Philip Davis, Dian Dowling Evans
The Research to Practice column is intended to improve the research critique skills of the advanced practice registered nurse and the emergency nurse (RN) and to assist with the translation of research into practice. For each column, a topic and a research study are selected. The research article is then reviewed and critiqued, and the findings are discussed in relation to a patient scenario. In this column, we examine the findings of P. from their article, titled "Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism Among Patients Hospitalized for Syncope...
July 2017: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757356/flibanserin-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Erin M Dooley, Melanie K Miller, Anita H Clayton
INTRODUCTION: The process of approval for flibanserin (trade name Addyi) has been associated with controversy since before its approval on August 18, 2015. This argument centered on challenges to the validity of the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women and the safety and efficacy of the drug. AIM: To explore the process of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for flibanserin and delve further into the research, concerns, and various roadblocks to its approval...
July 27, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756874/diagnostic-value-of-neurological-studies-in-diagnosing-syncope-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Payam Pournazari, Zardasht Oqab, Robert Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Syncope is common and approaches to establishing etiology remain a matter of clinical and financial importance. Patients often undergo comprehensive neurologic investigations despite a lack of compelling indications. The aim was to determine the prevalence of use and diagnostic yield of electroencephalography (EEG), head computed tomography (CT), head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and carotid Doppler ultrasound (CUS) examinations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane from 1970 to 2015 for studies reporting on the use of EEG, CT, MRI, and CUS in diagnosing the cause of syncope...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752729/cardiac-imaging-in-patients-with-cardiac-syncope
#11
Stefania A DI Fusco, Furio Colivicchi, Federico Nardi
Syncope is a common symptom with a possibly unfavourable prognosis, especially when the cause is a cardiac disease. Often diagnostic workup requires multiple and challenging investigations to determine whether the patient has a structural heart disease. Cardiac imaging tests should be used when baseline clinical findings raise the suspicion of a cardiac syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first line imaging examination as it helps establish the cause of syncope and supplies useful information for prognostic stratification by evaluating systolic ventricle function...
July 27, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752154/epidemiology-pathophysiology-clinical-evaluation-and-treatment-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-child-infant-and-fetus
#12
REVIEW
Atilla Alp Gozubuyuk, Huseyin Dag, Alper Kacar, Yakup Karakurt, Vefik Arica
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most common types of poisoning causing death worldwide. In our country, it occurs particularly during winter as a result of leak from stove or water heater, or as result of inhalation during a fire. Although most poisonings occur accidentally, some cases are suicide attempt. As CO is a substance that is not visible and has no taste or smell and is therefore difficult to detect, the gas can be a "silent killer" that is not noticed until effects develop. CO reacts with oxygen, creating carboxy hemoglobin (COHb), which leads to tissue hypoxia...
2017: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750691/the-use-of-interpreters-in-medical-triage-during-a-refugee-mass-gathering-incident-in-europe
#13
Lykourgos Christos Alexakis, Anastasia Papachristou, Chiara Baruzzi, Angeliki Konstantinou
Introduction During a refugees' mass-gathering incident in Kos Island, Greece, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; Brussels, Belgium) teams provided emergency medical care. A case report of the event focusing on difficulties encountered by the interpreters during triage and emergency response was prepared. METHODS: Data collected during the event were reviewed from the patient's register and qualitative interviews were obtained from the MSF interpreters involved in the response. In addition, a description of the event and a literature review were included...
July 28, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747444/recurrence-risk-of-ictal-asystole-in-epilepsy
#14
Kevin G Hampel, Roland D Thijs, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges
OBJECTIVE: To determine the recurrence risk of ictal asystole (IA) and its determining factors in people with epilepsy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of published cases with IA in 3 databases and additionally searched our local database for patients with multiple seizures simultaneously recorded with ECG and EEG and at least one IA. IA recurrence risk was estimated by including all seizures without knowledge of the chronological order. Various clinical features were assessed by an individual patient data meta-analysis...
July 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721322/etiology-and-age-distribution-of-syncope-in-a-predominantly-african-american-population
#15
Ahmad Awan, Hasan Iftikhar, Fasil Tiruneh, Shahabuddin Soherwardi, Daniel Larbi
BACKGROUND: Syncope, the sudden transient loss of consciousness due to multiple etiologies, usually has worse outcomes in African Americans compared with other races because of other comorbidities. This study aims to identify a correlation between the etiologies of syncope and age in a predominantly African-American sample population to facilitate future investigations with potentially improved specificity to address this condition. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 155 patients who presented with syncope concerns to the emergency department at our university hospital...
June 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721321/correlation-of-ventilation-perfusion-v-q-scan-results-as-compared-with-clinical-probability-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-african-american-population
#16
Fasil Tiruneh, Ahmad Awan, Nicole Hunt, Nahom Tegegn, Daniel Larbi
Introduction Current guidelines suggest the use of the more specific Wells' score could safely reduce the number of unnecessary scans. There is a lack of research to support whether these guidelines apply to the African American population. This study aims to evaluate the correlation of clinical pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) with ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan results in a predominantly African American population and to test whether current guidelines based on studies conducted in other populations hold true in this group...
June 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718664/short-term-complications-for-percutaneous-ultrasound-guided-biopsy-of-renal-masses-in-adult-outpatients
#17
Lars René Rasmussen, Martina Loft, Tommy Kjærgaard Nielsen, Marie Bjødstrup Jensen, Søren Høyer, Arne Hørlyck, Ole Graumann
Background Ultrasound-guided percutaneous kidney tumor biopsy (UGPKB) plays an important role in the diagnosis of renal tumor but there are no consensuses with respect to the length and the extend of the post-biopsy observation period. Purpose To assess the short-term complication rate after UGPKB and to evaluate whether the onset of complications allows for the procedure to be performed in an outpatient setting with same-day discharge. Material and Methods Between March 2012 and March 2014, a total of 287 UGPKB were performed in an outpatient setting at a Danish university referral center...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692391/harnessing-syndromic-surveillance-emergency-department-data-to-monitor-health-impacts-during-the-2015-special-olympics-world-games
#18
Emily Kajita, Monica Z Luarca, Han Wu, Bessie Hwang, Laurene Mascola
INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings that attract a large international presence may cause or amplify point-source outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health customized its syndromic surveillance system to detect increased syndrome-specific utilization of emergency departments (EDs) and other medical encounters coincident to the 2015 Special Olympics World Games. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried live databases containing data on ED visits, California Poison Control System calls, and Los Angeles County coroner-investigated deaths for increases in daily counts from July 19 to August 6, 2015...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688872/paraganglioma-of-the-urinary-bladder-a-series-of-22-cases-in-a-single-center
#19
Hongyun Zhai, Xin Ma, Wenyuan Nie, Hongzhao Li, Cheng Peng, Xintao Li, Yu Zhang, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder (PUB) is rare in bladder cancer, and currently, a study examining large number of cases from a single center has not been reported. This study aimed to present the clinical features, treatments, pathological characteristics, and prognosis of PUB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to June 2016, 22 patients were pathologically diagnosed with PUB in our hospital. Their clinical records, operative notes, pathological reports, and follow-up records were retrospectively reviewed...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667576/can-syncope-cause-convulsive-seizures-in-adults
#20
Dearbhla M Kelly, Daniel J Costello
PURPOSE: Convulsive epileptic seizures triggered by transient cerebral hypoperfusion 'reflex anoxic seizures' are well-described in children but are not commonly recognized in adults. METHODS: We report a case series of 12 adults who presented acutely after generalized tonic-clonic seizures with a clear syncopal phase before the convulsion. We describe the aetiology, semiology and natural history of these events. RESULTS: Four patients (33...
August 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
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