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Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614079/do-not-resuscitate-with-no-surrogate-and-no-advance-directive-an-ethics-case-study
#1
Jamie Diamond, Umesh Gidwani, Rosamond Rhodes
Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders are typically signed by physicians in conjunction with patients or their surrogate decision makers in order to instruct healthcare providers not to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Both the medical literature and CPR guidelines fail to address when it is appropriate for physicians to sign DNR orders without any knowledge of a patient's wishes. We explore the ethical issues surrounding instituting a two-physician DNR for a dying patient with multiple comorbidities and no medical record on file, no advance directives, and no surrogate decision maker...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594858/factors-associated-with-delayed-defibrillation-in-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-prospective-simulation-study
#2
Christoph Castan, Alexander Münch, Moritz Mahling, Leopold Haffner, Jan Griewatz, Anne Hermann-Werner, Reimer Riessen, Jörg Reutershan, Nora Celebi
INTRODUCTION: Early defibrillation is an important factor of survival in cardiac arrest. However, novice resuscitators often struggle with cardiac arrest patients. We investigated factors leading to delayed defibrillation performed by final-year medical students within a simulated bystander cardiac arrest situation. METHODS: Final-year medical students received a refresher lecture and basic life support training before being confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest situation in a simulation ambulance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590987/-chaotic-arrhythmia-during-successful-resuscitation-after-ingestion-of-yew-taxus-baccata-needles
#3
Andreas Zutter, Kathrin Hauri, Katrina S Evers, Sabine Uhde, Jens Fassl, Oliver Tobias Reuthebuch, Andreas Berset, Michael Kühne, Birgit C Donner
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe the management of a case of life-threatening yew (Taxus baccata) intoxication. BACKGROUND: The needles of the yew tree contain highly cardiotoxic taxines. Intoxication with taxines, typically as part of suicide attempts, may lead to potentially lethal arrhythmias which often require prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and other supportive measures. No specific therapy has been described. In some cases, extracorporeal life support has been used...
June 6, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576894/use-of-a-geographic-information-system-to-identify-differences-in-automated-external-defibrillator-installation-in-urban-areas-with-similar-incidence-of-public-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-retrospective-registry-based-study
#4
David Fredman, Jan Haas, Yifang Ban, Martin Jonsson, Leif Svensson, Therese Djarv, Jacob Hollenberg, Per Nordberg, Mattias Ringh, Andreas Claesson
OBJECTIVES: Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559465/reducing-unplanned-extubations-in-the-nicu-following-implementation-of-a-standardized-approach
#5
Kevin L Crezeé, Robert J DiGeronimo, Marilyn J Rigby, Rick C Carter, Shrena Patel
BACKGROUND: Unplanned extubations (UEs) have been associated with increased ventilator days, risk of infection, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and resuscitation medication usage. The UE rate in our level 4 NICU is lower than the national average. Efforts to further reduce UE events at our institution led an interdisciplinary group to define steps to eliminate UEs. Steps included: (1) requiring at least 2 care providers at the bedside for movement of an intubated subject; (2) standardizing head and endotracheal tube (ETT) position; (3) defining a set methodology for ETT securing; (4) introducing a postoperative handoff to improve communication; and (5) implementing a post-UE assessment tool...
May 30, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555810/reduced-right-ventricular-diameter-during-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-tension-pneumothorax-a-porcine-ultrasound-study
#6
P Caap, R Aagaard, E Sloth, B Løfgren, A Granfeldt
INTRODUCTION: Advanced life support (ALS) guidelines recommend ultrasound to identify reversible causes of cardiac arrest. Right ventricular (RV) dilatation during cardiac arrest is commonly interpreted as a sign of pulmonary embolism. The RV is thus a focus of clinical ultrasound examination. Importantly, in animal studies ventricular fibrillation and hypoxia results in RV dilatation. Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) is another reversible cause of cardiac arrest, however, the impact on RV diameter remains unknown...
May 28, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554878/adherence-to-aha-guidelines-when-adapted-for-augmented-reality-glasses-for-assisted-pediatric-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Johan N Siebert, Frederic Ehrler, Alain Gervaix, Kevin Haddad, Laurence Lacroix, Philippe Schrurs, Ayhan Sahin, Christian Lovis, Sergio Manzano
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are nowadays recognized as the world's most authoritative resuscitation guidelines. Adherence to these guidelines optimizes the management of critically ill patients and increases their chances of survival after cardiac arrest. Despite their availability, suboptimal quality of CPR is still common. Currently, the median hospital survival rate after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is 36%, whereas it falls below 10% for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553041/a-single-center-experience-of-kidney-transplantation-from-donation-after-circulatory-death-challenges-and-scope-in-india
#8
S Singh, S Kumar, S Dasgupta, D B Kenwar, M Rathi, A Sharma, H S Kohli, V Jha, K L Gupta, M Minz
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) has never been attempted in India because of legal constraints and lack of guidelines for the withdrawal of life support in end-of-life situations. The present report describes the initial experience of transplantation of organs from DCD donors in a tertiary care center in India. Between 2011 and 2015, five donors had kidneys retrieved after cardiac arrest. These patients were declared dead after waiting for 5 min with no electrocardiographic signal on monitor following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which was restarted in three patients till organ retrieval...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552658/epinephrine-dosing-interval-and-survival-outcomes-during-pediatric-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#9
Derek B Hoyme, Sonali S Patel, Ricardo A Samson, Tia T Raymond, Vinay M Nadkarni, Michael G Gaies, Dianne L Atkins
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend epinephrine every 3-5min during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), longer dosing intervals are associated with improved survival to discharge. This study investigates whether longer epinephrine dosing intervals were associated with improved survival to discharge during pediatric IHCA. METHODS: Retrospective review of AHA Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry identified 1630 pediatric IHCAs that met inclusion criteria...
May 25, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550930/real-time-mobile-device-assisted-chest-compression-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#10
Satyam Sarma, Hakiza Bucuti, Anurag Chitnis, Alex Klacman, Ram Dantu
Prompt administration of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key determinant of survival from cardiac arrest. Strategies to improve CPR quality at point of care could improve resuscitation outcomes. We tested whether a low cost and scalable mobile phone- or smart watch-based solution could provide accurate measures of compression depth and rate during simulated CPR. Fifty health care providers (58% intensive care unit nurses) performed simulated CPR on a calibrated training manikin (Resusci Anne, Laerdal) while wearing both devices...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521022/management-of-untreatable-ventricular-arrhythmias-during-pharmacologic-challenges-with-sodium-channel-blockers-for-suspected-brugada-syndrome
#11
Stefano Poli, Mauro Toniolo, Massimo Maiani, Davide Zanuttini, Luca Rebellato, Igor Vendramin, Ermanno Dametto, Guglielmo Bernardi, Flavio Bassi, Carlo Napolitano, Ugolino Livi, Alessandro Proclemer
Pharmacologic challenge with sodium channel blockers is part of the diagnostic workout in patients with suspected Brugada syndrome. The test is overall considered safe but both ajmaline and flecainide detain well known pro-arrhythmic properties. Moreover, the treatment of patients with life-threatening arrhythmias during these diagnostic procedures is not well defined. Current consensus guidelines suggest to adopt cautious protocols interrupting the sodium channel blockers as soon as any ECG alteration appears...
May 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508956/doctors-attitudes-towards-the-introduction-and-clinical-operation-of-do-not-resuscitate-orders-dnrs-in-ireland
#12
M O'Reilly, C M P O'Tuathaigh, K Doran
BACKGROUND: Do not resuscitate orders (DNRs) are documents which state that should a patient suffer from cardiopulmonary failure, resuscitation should not be attempted. Internationally, DNRs are often misunderstood and used inappropriately in a clinical setting. AIMS: The aim of this paper was to determine the current understanding of DNRs and their clinical operation among hospital doctors in Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted involving doctors from the Cork teaching hospitals...
May 16, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490655/practice-guideline-summary-reducing-brain-injury-following-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#13
Romergryko G Geocadin, Eelco Wijdicks, Melissa J Armstrong, Maxwell Damian, Stephan A Mayer, Joseph P Ornato, Alejandro Rabinstein, José I Suarez, Michel T Torbey, Richard M Dubinsky, Jason Lazarou
OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence and make evidence-based recommendations for acute interventions to reduce brain injury in adult patients who are comatose after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Published literature from 1966 to August 29, 2016, was reviewed with evidence-based classification of relevant articles. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: For patients who are comatose in whom the initial cardiac rhythm is either pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), therapeutic hypothermia (TH; 32-34°C for 24 hours) is highly likely to be effective in improving functional neurologic outcome and survival compared with non-TH and should be offered (Level A)...
May 30, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476474/the-association-between-aha-cpr-quality-guideline-compliance-and-clinical-outcomes-from-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#14
Sheldon Cheskes, Robert H Schmicker, Tom Rea, Laurie J Morrison, Brian Grunau, Ian R Drennan, Brian Leroux, Christian Vaillancourt, Terri A Schmidt, Allison C Koller, Peter Kudenchuk, Tom P Aufderheide, Heather Herren, Katharyn H Flickinger, Mark Charleston, Ron Straight, Jim Christenson
BACKGROUND: Measures of chest compression fraction (CCF), compression rate, compression depth and pre-shock pause have all been independently associated with improved outcomes from out-of-hospital (OHCA) cardiac arrest. However, it is unknown whether compliance with American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines incorporating all the aforementioned metrics, is associated with improved survival from OHCA. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest database...
July 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466294/-cardiac-support-and-replacement-systems
#15
REVIEW
T Graf, H Thiele
In recent years, the widespread use of partial mechanical cardiac support and even temporary complete replacement of cardiac function has been established in many intensive care units in the treatment of refractory cardiogenic shock. There is a difference between partial left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and the possibility of complete heart (and lung) replacement by extra corporeal life support (ECLS). Despite the use of mechanical support devices, the mortality of cardiogenic shock remains high. The consideration of using percutaneous LVAD and ECLS in cardiogenic shock should be considered in refractory cardiogenic shock patients in addition to support by catecholamines and after early revascularization in acute coronary syndromes...
June 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452098/impact-of-bradycardia-or-asystole-on-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-at-birth
#16
Vasantha H S Kumar, Annie Skrobacz, Changxing Ma
BACKGROUND: Fetal hypoxia from intrapartum events can lead to absent heart rate (HR) or bradycardia (BC) at birth requiring aggressive neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines do not differentiate infants with bradycardia (HR<100/min) from absent HR at birth. As HR is the primary determinant of resuscitation, we hypothesize that infants with no HR at 1 minute would require more extensive resuscitation with worse clinical outcomes compared to infants with bradycardia at 1minute...
April 28, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444125/sudden-cardiac-death
#17
Jagdesh Kandala, Clint Oommen, Karl B Kern
Introduction: Sudden cardiac arrest continues to be the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Sources of data: Original papers, reviews and guidelines. Areas of agreement: Community programs for lay bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automatic external defibrillation improve outcomes. Post-arrest care, including targeted temperature management (TTM) combined with early coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, is helpful for those suffering cardiac arrest during an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction...
June 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435854/a-clinical-trial-simulation-evaluating-epinephrine-pharmacokinetics-at-various-dosing-frequencies-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#18
Andy R Eugene
OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to test the hypothesis that repeated 1mg intravenous epinephrine dosing intervals of 3-minutes and 5-minutes results in differences in the total drug exposure and the maximum epinephrine concentration using simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) dosing. METHODS: Published population pharmacokinetic parameters were identified in the literature and pharmacokinetic dosing simulations were conducted according to the 2015 American Heart Association guidelines for CPR in adults...
June 2016: MEDtube Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435494/the-efficacy-of-lucas-in-prehospital-cardiac-arrest-scenarios-a-crossover-mannequin-study
#19
Robert A Gyory, Scott E Buchle, David Rodgers, Jeffrey S Lubin
INTRODUCTION: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical for successful cardiac arrest outcomes. Mechanical devices may improve CPR quality. We simulated a prehospital cardiac arrest, including patient transport, and compared the performance of the LUCAS™ device, a mechanical chest compression-decompression system, to manual CPR. We hypothesized that because of the movement involved in transporting the patient, LUCAS would provide chest compressions more consistent with high-quality CPR guidelines...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408236/unintentional-pediatric-cocaine-exposures-result-in-worse-outcomes-than-other-unintentional-pediatric-poisonings
#20
Patil Armenian, Michelle Fleurat, George Mittendorf, Kent R Olson
BACKGROUND: Unintentional pediatric cocaine exposures are rare but concerning due to potentially serious complications such as seizures, dysrhythmias, and death. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess the demographic and clinical characteristics of pediatric cocaine exposures reported to the California Poison Control System. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all confirmed pediatric (< 6 years of age) cocaine exposures reported to the California Poison Control System from January 1, 1997-September 30, 2010...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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