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Maida Vartanian, Pilar de la Cruz, Subhayan Biswas, Ganesh D Sharma, Fernando Langa
In an effort to improve the short-circuit current and fill factor, organic solar cells have been developed with ternary blending in a single bulk heterojunction active layer. We report here several all small molecule organic solar cells based on ternary bulk heterojunction active layers. These layers consist of two small molecule porphyrin donors (MV71 and MV72), which have the same backbone but different end-capping acceptor units, and PC71BM as the acceptor. The organic solar cells showed overall power conversion efficiencies of 3...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Edoardo Mantovani, Enrico Castroflorio, Gabriele Rossini, Francesco Garino, Giovanni Cugliari, Andrea Deregibus, Tommaso Castroflorio
OBJECTIVES: The fitting of aligners on anchorage teeth is a crucial factor in clear aligner orthodontics. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the fitting of two aligner systems, Invisalign and CA-Clear Aligner, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Passive aligners (Invisalign and CA-Clear Aligner) were adapted on resin casts obtained by stereolithography (STL) files of a patient, and then sectioned buccolingually. Upper and lower central incisors, upper and lower first premolars, and upper and lower first molars were the regions analyzed...
June 18, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Mohamed A Imam, Ahmed S Negida, Ahmed Elgebaly, Amr Samy Hussain, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Saqib Javed, Joshua Jacob, Mark Churchill, Paul Trikha, Kevin Newman, David Elliott, Arshad Khaleel
Background: There is a general consensus on the management of femoral fractures in children younger than two years and adolescents older than sixteen years. The best treatment for patients younger than sixteen years of age is still debatable. Titanium Elastic Nails (TEN), is widely used with some evidence, nonetheless, we undertook a systematic meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of TEN compared to Spica cast for the management of femoral shaft fracture in children aged between 2 to 16 years old...
May 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Jyothi Shashidhar, Shashidhar Chandrashekhar
Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the orthodontic treatment need in 11-14-year-old schoolchildren of Central Bengaluru, India, using the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic to aesthetic (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 500 schoolchildren (187 females and 313 males) who had not undergone orthodontic treatment...
May 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Sander A J Verbrugge, Martin Schönfelder, Lore Becker, Fakhreddin Yaghoob Nezhad, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Henning Wackerhage
Skeletal muscle mass differs greatly in mice and humans and this is partially inherited. To identify muscle hypertrophy candidate genes we conducted a systematic review to identify genes whose experimental loss or gain-of-function results in significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. We found 47 genes that meet our search criteria and cause muscle hypertrophy after gene manipulation. They are from high to small effect size: Ski, Fst, Acvr2b, Akt1, Mstn, Klf10, Rheb, Igf1, Pappa, Ppard, Ikbkb, Fstl3, Atgr1a, Ucn3, Mcu, Junb, Ncor1, Gprasp1, Grb10, Mmp9, Dgkz, Ppargc1a (specifically the Ppargc1a4 isoform), Smad4, Ltbp4, Bmpr1a, Crtc2, Xiap, Dgat1, Thra, Adrb2, Asb15, Cast, Eif2b5, Bdkrb2, Tpt1, Nr3c1, Nr4a1, Gnas, Pld1, Crym, Camkk1, Yap1, Inhba, Tp53inp2, Inhbb, Nol3, Esr1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Joseph W Lozier, Andrew J Niehaus, Andrew Muir, Jeffrey Lakritz
Transfixation pin casts (TPC) may be useful in management of fractures in ruminants. A retrospective study was conducted to report the uses, complications, and outcomes of TPC in ruminant fracture stabilization. Twenty-five cattle, 7 goats, and 7 sheep with long bone fractures managed with TPC met the inclusion criteria. Long-term outcome was assessed from telephone interviews with owners. Thirty-one animals (79%) survived to removal of external coaptation and return to the farm. Common complications included pin-hole osteitis and disuse osteopenia...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Fuyuki Ito, Kazuki Yamamoto, Yoshiko Kogasaka, Ryuzi Katoh
This work examines the drop-casting process of a perylene-doped polymer film by monitoring changes in fluorescence and droplet mass. The mass is then used to estimate the mean intermolecular distance r(t) changes during the casting process. At low perylene concentration (0.01 mol%), the fluorescence band was maintained during and after the casting process of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), while the r(t) values suggested that the perylene dimer does not form. With an increase in perylene concentration in the casting droplet, significant fluorescence changes were observed at an r(t) value of ~3...
June 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Oili Pekkola, Christoph Lungenschmied, Peter Fejes, Anke Handreck, Wilfried Hermes, Stephan Irle, Christian Lennartz, Christian Schildknecht, Peter Schillen, Patrick Schindler, Robert Send, Sebastian Valouch, Erwin Thiel, Ingmar Bruder
We present the Focus-Induced Photoresponse (FIP) technique, a novel approach to optical distance measurement. It takes advantage of a universally-observed phenomenon in photodetector devices, an irradiance-dependent responsivity. This means that the output from a sensor is not only dependent on the total flux of incident photons, but also on the size of the area in which they fall. If probe light from an object is cast on the detector through a lens, the sensor response depends on how far in or out of focus the object is...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leandra S Boucheron, Jacob T Stanley, Yeling Dai, Siheng Sean You, Christopher T Parzyck, Suresh Narayanan, Alec R Sandy, Zhang Jiang, Mati Meron, Binhua Lin, Oleg G Shpyrko
We experimentally probed the stress relaxation of a monolayer of iron oxide nanoparticles at the water-air interface. Upon drop-casting onto a water surface, the nanoparticles self-assembled into islands of two-dimensional hexagonally close packed crystalline domains surrounded by large voids. When compressed laterally, the voids gradually disappeared as the surface pressure increased. After the compression was stopped, the surface pressure (as measured by a Wilhelmy plate) evolved as a function of the film aging time with three distinct timescales...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Zdenka Jarolimova, Tingting Han, Ulriika Mattinen, Johan Bobacka, Eric Bakker
We present here a capacitive model for the coulometric signal transduction readout of solid-contact ion-selective membrane electrodes (SC-ISE) with a conducting polymer (CP) as an intermediate layer for the detection of anions. The capacitive model correlates well with experimental data obtained for chloride-selective SC-ISE utilizing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with chloride as the ion-to-electron transducer. Additionally, Prussian blue is used as a simple sodium capacitor to further demonstrate the role of the transduction layer...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Andrew E Federer, Joshua S Murphy, James H Calandruccio, Dennis P Devito, Scott H Kozin, Greg S Slappey, Gary M Lourie
OBJECTIVES: To describe a midshaft forearm fracture pattern that places the ulnar nerve at risk in the pediatric population and provide seven clinical case examples describing the injury pattern and treatment methods. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series, review of literature, cadaver dissection, and treatment recommendations. SETTING: Multi-institutional, Southeast United States PATIENTS:: Seven pediatric patients (5 male, 2 female) with mean age of 8...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Bryon M Smith, Xinyue Yao, Kelly S Chen, Elizabeth D Kirby
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
C van den Berg, T Haak, N L Weil, J M Hoogendoorn
BACKGROUND: In general, stable type B ankle fractures are treated conservatively with cast immobilization or a walking boot during six weeks. Some disadvantages of casting are joint stiffness, muscle wasting and lack of comfort. This study was designed to evaluate whether functional treatment with a removable brace is a safe and more comfortable alternative. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. In the period March 2013 - May 2015, 44 patients visiting the emergency department due to a stable type B ankle fracture were included...
June 4, 2018: Injury
Laurent Salade, Nathalie Wauthoz, Marjorie Vermeersch, Karim Amighi, Jonathan Goole
The nose-to-brain delivery of ghrelin loaded in liposomes is a promising approach for the management of cachexia. It could limit the plasmatic degradation of ghrelin and provide direct access to the brain, where ghrelin's specific receptors are located. Anionic liposomes coated with chitosan in either a liquid or a dry-powder formulation were compared. The powder formulation showed stronger adhesion to mucins (89 ± 4% vs 61 ± 4%), higher ghrelin entrapment efficiency (64 ± 2% vs 55 ± 4%), higher enzymatic protection against trypsin (26 ± 2% vs 20 ± 3%) and lower ghrelin storage degradation at 25°C (2...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Kai Li, Paula Berton, Steven P Kelley, Robin D Rogers
The increasing need for biocompatible materials as supports to immobilize photosensitizer molecules for photodynamic therapy (PDT), led us to investigate the use of chitin as a support for 4,4',4'',4'''-(porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzoic acid) (mTCPP) for singlet oxygen production. Chitin was first extracted from shrimp shells using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([C2 mim][OAc]), coagulated as a floc into water, and then deacetylated to varying degrees of deacetylation using 4 M NaOH...
June 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Cheyann Lee Wetteland, Huinan Liu
This article reports a new process for creating polymer-based nanocomposites with enhanced dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles without using any surfactants, and the resulted changes in their optical and biological properties. Specifically, dispersion of two different ceramic nanoparticles, i.e, hydroxyapatite (nHA) and magnesium oxide (nMgO) nanoparticles, in a model biodegradable polymer, namely poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), was studied. High-power sonication was integrated with dual asymmetric centrifugal (DAC) mixing to improve dispersion of nanoparticles during solvent casting...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yanni Liu, Zhi Wang, Mengqi Shi, Nan Li, Song Zhao, Jixiao Wang
A carbonic anhydrase inspired material was developed by incorporating Zn(ii) ion exchanged zeolite β into poly(N-vinylimidazole) solution. The hydrophobic zeolite channels were designed to imitate the function of the hydrophobic pocket in carbonic anhydrase. The composite membrane prepared by casting the material on a polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane showed a high CO2 permeance of 4620 GPU with a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 224.
June 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tamara Cibic, Cinzia Comici, Claus Falconi, Daniela Fornasaro, Ana Karuza, Marina Lipizer
Biological, hydrological and chemical data were acquired at monthly intervals from March 2006 to February 2007, at the Long-Term Ecological Research site C1 in the Gulf of Trieste, in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea. The biological dataset comprises total chl a and phaeopigment concentrations, and the distinction of the total phytoplankton biomass into three photoautotrophic community fractions, i.e. cyanobacteria, nano- and microphytoplankton, collected at discrete depths. Hydrological data encompass the thermohaline properties of the water column (temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Arvind Kumar, A Sheerin Sarthaj, Dipak S Majumder
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the wear resistance of cast gold with condensable bulk fill and a fiber reinforced bulk-fill composite. Materials and Methods: The 5 mm × 4 mm stainless steel molds were prepared for wear resistance. Forty-five samples were divided into three groups (n = 15). The samples were restored as follows: Group I: cast gold alloy (d. SIGN 98; Ivoclar Vivadent), Group II: fiber reinforced composite (Ever X Posterio; r GC Corp.), and Group III: condensable bulk-fill composite (Tetric N Ceram; Ivoclar Vivadent)...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Ruchi Arun, Jai Prakash Singh, Shyam Bihari Gupta
Background: It is possible to prevent deaths due to cervical cancer through screening and treatment. Cervical cytology which is a standard screening tool in developed countries fails as a screening method in low-resource countries due to financial and technical constraints. Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by VIA and Pap smear test among rural married women and to find out association of socio demographic factors with positive screening test results...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
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